World History Ch. 8 Section 4 Notes


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World History Ch. 8 Section 4 Notes

  1. 1. Empires of China and India Section 4 Indian Society and Culture Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Life in Gupta India • A Gupta Golden Age • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of Buddhism as a World Religion
  2. 2. Empires of China and India Section 4 Indian Society and Culture Main Idea 1. The strength, prosperity, and stability of the Gupta Empire helped lead to a golden age in Indian society, trade, and culture. Reading Focus • What features defined Indian society and trade during the Gupta period? • What were major cultural and scientific achievements of the Gupta golden age?
  3. 3. Section 4 Empires of China and India Life in Gupta India Growth of Trade • Indian civilization flourished during Gupta empire • Trade increased, economy strengthened, cities prospered • Overland routes like the Silk Roads linked India to other markets • Indian merchants traded ivory, cashmere, cotton, spices for Chinese silk, Roman ceramics Sea Trade • Gupta, Tamil kingdoms in southern India traded actively by sea • Indian sailors used seasonal winds to reach foreign markets across Arabian Sea • Sea trade also between India and Southeast Asia • Played key role in cultural diffusion of Indian culture
  4. 4. Empires of China and India Section 4 Daily Life • Growth of trade strengthened economy; Gupta Empire’s cities reflected prosperity • Use of money became more common; new group of bankers, moneylenders emerged • Luxury, pleasure for urban rich; enjoyed music, poetry, art Simple Lives • Most Gupta people led simple lives in small villages • Majority of village dwellers, farmers • Most villages self-sufficient, but trade between villages occurred • People from different villages got together for religious festivals, other events
  5. 5. Section 4 Empires of China and India Life in Gupta India Social structure Legal codes • Most people in ancient India belonged to specific caste • Legal codes also defined people’s roles • Castes determined jobs, interaction with others • Laws of Manu, compiled between 200 BC, AD 200 • Number grew, developed rules • Defined proper behavior Gender • Also shaped Indian society • Men had more rights than women • Patriarchal society, similar to China Laws of Manu • Female child subject to father, female youth to husband • Men expected to treat women with respect • Abused women could leave
  6. 6. Empires of China and India Section 4 Identify Cause and Effect How did trade affect city life in Gupta India? Answer(s): cities prospered, shops and markets bustled, money became common, culture stressed luxury and pleasure for urban wealth
  7. 7. Section 4 Empires of China and India A Gupta Golden Age 2. Like the Han period in China, the Gupta period was a golden age of cultural and scientific achievements. Sanskrit Literature Panchatantra • Many great works created during Gupta period • Another popular work of period • One of greatest writers, Kalidasa • Five Books, collection of stories meant to teach lessons – Poet, playwright – Wrote plays for royal court – Sakuntala, most famous – Play combines myth, humor, court life, lyric poetry • “The good and bad of given schemes Wise thought must first reveal The stupid heron saw his chicks Provide a mongoose meal.” • Warning to think before acting
  8. 8. Empires of China and India Art and Architecture Religious • Much of art, architecture of Gupta period religious • Magnificent Hindu, Buddhist temples built across India • Hindu temples: huge towers, covered with carvings Buddhist temples • Included stupas, temples with domed roofs • Built to house sacred items from life of Buddha • Like Hindu temples, covered with detailed carvings Most spectacular architecture • Temples, monuments carved out of rock and cliff faces • Most famous, cave temples at Ajanta and Ellora • Intricately carved columns; include halls, rooms, windows Section 4
  9. 9. Empires of China and India Section 4 Art and Architecture Great works of art • Paintings of the time often portray beautiful, graceful Indians wearing fine jewelry, stylish clothing • Many of finest paintings found in Buddhist and Hindu temples Temple paintings • Hindu artists decorated walls, entrances with devas, aspects of Brahman • Buddhists covered plaster walls, ceilings with scenes from life of Buddha • Some of finest examples of Buddhist art found in Ajanta cave temples Statues • Made for temples • Buddhist temples, statues of Buddha, kings • Hindu temples, statues of Siva, Vishnu, other devas
  10. 10. Section 4 Empires of China and India Science and Technology Metallurgy • • • • • Ancient Indians pioneers of science of working with metals Indian iron valued for hardness, purity Gupta metalworkers built famous Iron Pillar, near Delhi Iron Pillar is resistant to rust Still being studied by scholars today 3. Mathematics • Gupta scholars most advanced mathematicians of their day • Developed modern math system • First to use concept, symbol of zero • Hindu-Arabic numerals; created by Indians, brought to Europe by Arabs Medical Science • Ancient Indians quite advanced • Made medicines from plants • Knew how to inject small amounts of viruses to protect against disease • Doctors could perform surgery, repair broken bones, treat wounds
  11. 11. Empires of China and India Section 4 Science and Technology Astronomy • Indians identified seven planets in solar system • Could predict eclipses of sun, moon • Aryabhata, one of most famous Indian astronomers – Correctly argued that Earth rotates on axis, revolves around sun – Knew Earth was sphere, calculated circumference with remarkable accuracy
  12. 12. Empires of China and India Section 4 Find the Main Idea Why do historians consider the Gupta period to have been a golden age in the history of ancient India? Answer(s): significant cultural contributions, Sanskrit, magnificent carvings, statues of Buddha, wall paintings; advancements in mathematics, medicine, and astronomy
  13. 13. Empires of China and India Section 4
  14. 14. Empires of China and India Section 4 Video The Impact of Buddhism as a World Religion Click above to play the video.