World History Ch. 8 Section 3 Notes


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World History Ch. 8 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. Empires of China and India Indian Dynasities Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Mauryan Empire • Regional Kingdoms • Map: Mauryan and Gupta Empires • The Gupta Empire Section 3
  2. 2. Empires of China and India Section 3 Early Indian Empires Main Idea 1. The Mauryas and Guptas created powerful empires that united much of India, while trading kingdoms thrived in southern India. Reading Focus • How did the Mauryan Empire unify much of India, and who were its key rulers? • What regional kingdoms ruled India after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire? • Which key rulers and events shaped the Gupta Empire?
  3. 3. Empires of China and India Section 3 The Mauryan Empire • Many small kingdoms existed across India in 300s BC • Each kingdom had own ruler; no central authority united them • Magadha a dominant kingdom near Ganges – Strong leader, Chandragupta Maurya gained control – Began conquering surrounding kingdoms – Conquests led to founding of Mauryan empire
  4. 4. Empires of China and India Section 3 Rise of the Mauryan Empire Alexander the Great Alexander’s legacy • Alexander conquered force in northwest India, 326 BC • Alexander’s conquest inspired Chandragupta Maurya • Did not remain in India long • Seized throne of kingdom of Magadha, 321 BC • Battle-weary soldiers wanted to return home, soon left India Mauryan army • Chandragupta built immense army, 60,000 soldiers • Began Mauryan empire Extended empire • Defeated Seleucus I, 305 BC • Chariots, war elephants • Mauryan empire controlled northern India, 303 BC • Began conquering northern India • Also controlled much of what is now Afghanistan
  5. 5. Empires of China and India Section 3 Mauryan Rule Strong government • Like Qin, Han rulers, Chandragupta Maurya established centralized government to control empire, crush resistance • Relied on brilliant adviser Kautilya, Brahmin, member of the priest caste Arthasastra • Manual for statecraft, thought to be written by Kautilya • Arthasastra called for strict state control • Also called for use of spies, even assassination Empire divided • Chandragupta divided empire into districts, appointed loyalists to rule them • Organized bureaucracy ran government, spies monitored officials, gathered information, rooted out threats to state
  6. 6. Section 3 Empires of China and India The Mauryan Empire Megasthenes Pataliputra • Greek ambassador visited Mauryan Empire during Chandragupta’s reign • Greatest city, Mauryan capital: magnificent palaces, temples, parks • Wrote about his observations • Government controlled economy • Described land of prosperity • Emperor owned land, rent money from farmers funded government
  7. 7. Empires of China and India Section 3 Rule under Ashoka • Chandragupta gave up throne, 301 BC, became Jainist monk • Son became emperor, followed by grandson Ashoka • Mauryan empire reached height under Ashoka • Through warfare empire expanded, included most of India Kalinga campaign • Violence of fighting at Kalinga appalled Ashoka • Abandoned policy of conquest and converted to Buddhism • Began to promote, spread policy of right conduct, Buddhism • Supported Buddhist missionaries, worked to improve lives of his people
  8. 8. Empires of China and India Section 3 The Mauryan Empire • Mauryan empire began to decline following death of Ashoka, 232 BC • Sons battled for power, central control weakened • Distant provinces began to slip away • Last Mauryan emperor killed by one of generals, 184 BC • Mauryan empire lasted 140 years, then collapsed
  9. 9. Empires of China and India Section 3 Contrast How did the reigns of Chandragupta and Ashoka differ? Answer(s): Chandragupta—strict state control, spies, conquest; Ashoka—nonviolence, public works, Buddhist teachings
  10. 10. Section 3 Empires of China and India Regional Kingdoms 2. As the Mauryan Empire collapsed, India again divided into many regional kingdoms. These kingdoms differed in the north and south. North India • Invaders from Central Asia established new dynasties • Many had been displaced by expansion of China The Greeks The Kushans • Greek invaders from what is now Afghanistan formed Greco-Indian dynasties • Conquered much of north during first century AD • Introduced Greek art forms to India, influenced local styles • Restored some of grandeur of Mauryan Empire to region • Kushan dynasty fell, AD 250
  11. 11. Empires of China and India Section 3 South India Powerful kingdoms • Developed in India south of Deccan Plateau • Andhra kingdom expanded across south, central India, 100s BC • Controlled region until about AD 300 Other kingdoms • In far south, small kingdoms had ruled for some time • Chera, Chola, Pandya, collectively called Tamil kingdoms • Carried on active sea trade with Southeast Asia, other regions Sea Trade • Brought kingdoms wealth, developed sophisticated culture • Madurai, capital of Pandya kingdom, became center of Tamil poetry • Poetry was filled with descriptions of vibrant society of southern India
  12. 12. Empires of China and India Section 3 Identify Cause and Effect Why did peoples from Central Asia invade northern India during the period after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire? Answer(s): They had been displaced from China by invasions of Qin and Han.
  13. 13. Section 3 Empires of China and India The Gupta Empire 3. India remained divided into small kingdoms for about 400 years. Then around AD 320, the Gupta dynasty took over northern India. Under the Gupta, northern India was reunited, Indian society prospered, and the religion of Hinduism grew in popularity. Rise of Gupta Empire • Like Mauryan, Gupta dynasty rose to power in region of Magadha • Founder was Chandra Gupta I • From base in Magadha, Chandra conquered neighboring lands, brought much of northern India under Gupta control India under Gupta Rule • Gupta rule less centralized • Divided main part of empire into units • Royal officials governed each unit • Governed through local rulers in distant conquered areas • Local rulers had to pay tribute Gupta power expanded under the heirs of Chandra Gupta I, and the empire reached its height under Chandra Gupta II.
  14. 14. Empires of China and India Section 3
  15. 15. Empires of China and India Section 3 The Gupta Empire • Chandra Gupta II, ruled from AD 375 to 415 • Further expanded empire, strengthened economy • Reign was period of prosperity, cultural achievement • Chinese Buddhist monk, Faxian, traveled to India • Described empire as rich, prosperous, and punishments fair
  16. 16. Section 3 Empires of China and India The Gupta Empire Support of Hinduism • • • • • Buddhism prospered, spread during period between Mauryan, Gupta empires Hinduism lost popularity during this period Under Guptas, Hinduism became main religion Rulers supported building Hindu temples, promoted revival of writings Buddhism began to lose influence during this period End of Gupta Rule Weakened Empire • Began to weaken, late 400s • Problems disrupted trade • Loose Gupta control allowed some parts of empire to break away • Gupta military efforts to defend empire drained treasury • Central Asian nomads, White Huns, began invading India • Gupta rule ended, 550 • Again India divided into small, regional kingdoms
  17. 17. Empires of China and India Section 3 Identify Supporting Details How did the Guptas rule their empire? Answer(s): ruled central part directly with royal officials; ruled outlying areas indirectly through local rulers