World History Ch. 8 Section 2 Notes


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World History Ch. 8 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Empires of China and India Section 2 Chinese Society and Culture Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Han Society • Trade and Buddhism • Map: The Silk Roads • Han Achievements
  2. 2. Empires of China and India Section 2 Chinese Society and Culture Main Idea 1. The Han dynasty was a time of social change, the growth of trade, and great achievements in the arts and sciences. Reading Focus • What features characterized Chinese society in the Han period? • How did trade and the spread of Buddhism affect Han society? • What were some achievements in art, science, and technology during the Han period?
  3. 3. Section 2 Empires of China and India Han Society China’s Han period was a time of great prosperity, growth and achievement, defining imperial Chinese civilization for years. Family Life • Confucianism shaped Chinese society • Confucius taught that family was central to well-being of the state • Officials promoted strong family ties – Fathers head of family – Filial piety stressed – Obedience, devotion to parents, grandparents Dutiful Children • Children served parents as they aged, honored dead at household shrines • Han officials believed dutiful children made respectful subjects • Some men even received government jobs because of respect shown parents
  4. 4. Empires of China and India Section 2 Family Life Women in China • Had fewer privileges, less status than men • Rarely received education, owned property • Sons valued more than daughters Marriage • Sons carried on family line • Remained part of parents’ household after marriage • Daughters married and joined husband’s household Power and Status • Older women achieved power because of Confucian respect for elders • Ban Zhao, female scholar, writer; helped write history of Han dynasty • Called for mutual respect between husbands, wives, education for women
  5. 5. Empires of China and India Section 2 Social Structure • Han society highly structured, clearly defined social classes • Emperor at top, ruled with mandate from heaven • Upper class of palace court, nobles, government officials, scholars • Second, largest class consisted of peasants, who grew empire’s food Other Classes • Third class composed of artisans, made useful items, luxury goods • Merchants occupied fourth class, trade not valued by Confucianism • Slaves at bottom of society • Military not an official class, but part of government and offered way to rise in status
  6. 6. Section 2 Empires of China and India Han Society Rich and Poor Peasant Class • Social class determined status, but not wealth or power • 90 percent of nearly 60 million in China at time were peasants • Merchants usually wealthier than peasants, but were lower in status • Lived in small villages in simple houses, labored long hours in fields, worked on government projects in winter • Wealthy in Han China lived well • Spacious homes, large estates • Hired numerous laborers • High taxes, bad weather could force them into debt • Many had to sell lands, become laborers for wealthy
  7. 7. Empires of China and India Section 2 Summarize What was life like for Chinese peasants during the Han dynasty? Answer(s): worked hard in fields, farmed, raised animals, often sold land to feed families, forced to work on building projects, easily forced into debt, worked for wealthy landowners
  8. 8. Section 2 Empires of China and India Trade and Buddhism Trade grew in Han period • Agriculture basis of economy • Growth of trade increased prosperity • Led to contact between China, other civilizations Production of silk • Most prized Chinese product • Secret method for making silk • Revealing secret punishable by death Han products • Ironworkers made iron armor, swords • Artisans made pottery, jade and bronze objects, lacquerware Major industry • Raised silkworms, unwound threads of cocoons • Dyed threads, wove into fabric • Fabric beautiful, soft, strong • Clothing costly, in high demand
  9. 9. Empires of China and India Section 2 Growth of Trade As they conquered areas of Central Asia, the Han learned people farther west wanted Chinese goods • Zhang Qian returned from Central Asia mission, 126 BC – Told of region’s riches, demand for Chinese goods – Events led to increased trade with west • Blood-sweating horses seen by Qian – Parasites caused boils that bled – The Han thought they were blessed by heaven – To obtain them, Emperor Wudi conquered more land – Trade with Central Asia increased even more
  10. 10. Section 2 Empires of China and India The Silk Roads 2. Merchants traveling between China, Central Asia used overland routes. The most famous were called the Silk Roads. This network of routes eventually stretched from China over 4,000 miles to Mediterranean Sea, and linked China to India, the Middle East, and the Roman Empire. Travel Trade • Travelers on Silk Roads crossed rugged, barren terrain • Most merchants traveled only part of way • Faced attacks by bandits • Traded goods with merchants from distant lands • For protection, traveled in huge camel caravans • Stopped at stations along way • Most goods traded were luxury items • Small, valuable, highly profitable
  11. 11. Empires of China and India Section 2
  12. 12. Empires of China and India Section 2 Trade and Buddhism Traders carried ideas as well as goods over the Silk Roads • Buddhism spread from to China from India – Reached China in first century AD – Han government became less stable, violence increased – Buddhism’s message of rebirth offered hope • Buddhism gained popularity by AD 200 – Example of cultural diffusion – Spread of ideas from one culture to another
  13. 13. Empires of China and India Section 2 Draw Conclusions How did trade over the Silk Roads affect China’s culture? Answer(s): profitable trade in luxury items, connections to Central Asia, introduction of Buddhism
  14. 14. Empires of China and India Section 2 Han Achievements Classical Age • During Han period, arts flourished, sciences and technology improved life • Han China boasted magnificent palaces, multistoried towers • None survived, but ceramic models from tombs show architecture of period Artisans and Artists • Artisans produced ceramic, bronze figurines, jade carvings, silk cloth • Artists painted portraits and nature scenes on walls, scrolls, room screens • During Later Han, Buddhist art flourished, including temple wall paintings Literature • Han literature known for poetry, new styles of verse • Fu style, combined prose and poetry to create long works of literature • Shi featured short lines of verse, could be sung
  15. 15. Empires of China and India Section 2 Han Achievements Han writers produced important works of history Sima Qian – Wrote Records of the Grand Historian or Shiji – This early history became model for Chinese historical writing
  16. 16. Empires of China and India Section 2 Han Achievements 3. Technology • One of most important Han inventions - paper • Made by grinding plant fibers into paste, paste dried in sheets • Created “books” by connecting several sheets of paper into long scroll Farming • Inventions included iron plow, wheelbarrow • With iron plow, farmer could till more land • With wheelbarrow, farmer could haul more Science • Created seismograph to measure earthquake tremors • Made advances in acupuncture, use of needles to cure disease, relieve pain • Invented compass, sundial, water mill, ship’s rudder
  17. 17. Empires of China and India Section 2 Summarize What were some technological advances of the Han dynasty? Answer(s): paper, iron plow, wheelbarrow, acupuncture, compass, sundial, water mill, rudder