World History Ch. 15 Section 2 Notes

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World History Ch. 15 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 The Northern Renaissance Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Renaissance Spreads North • Philosophers and Writers • Artists
  2. 2. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 The Northern Renaissance Main Idea 1. Renaissance ideas soon spread beyond Italy to northern Europe by means of trade, travel, and printed material, influencing the art and ideas of the north. Reading Focus • How did the Renaissance spread to northern Europe? • What contributions did writers and philosophers make to the northern Renaissance? • How did the works of northern artists differ from those of the Italian Renaissance?
  3. 3. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 The Renaissance Spreads North Trade, the movement of artists and scholars, and the development of printing helped spread Renaissance ideas north from Italy. Trading Goods Trading Ideas • As cities grew, vast trading network spread across northern Europe • Northern Europeans traded ideas, goods; spread Italian Renaissance north • Network dominated by Hanseatic League, merchant organization, 1200s to 1400s • Fleeing violence, Italian artists brought humanist ideas, painting techniques north – Protected members from pirates, other hazards • Northern scholars traveled to Italy, brought ideas home – Built lighthouses, trained ship captains • Universities started in France, Netherlands, Germany
  4. 4. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 A Book Revolution 2. Printing Press • Mid-1400s, Johannes Gutenberg cast letters of alphabet on metal plates, locked metal plates on wooden press; perfected movable type printing • Result, one of most dramatic upheavals world has ever known Printed Word Available to More • Before only way to reproduce writing was by hand; long, painstaking process • With movable type, text quickly printed; producing books faster, cheaper • Easier access to books prompted more people to learn to read Italics • Gutenberg’s first publication, 1,282-page Bible • Printers soon appeared in other cities, made books quickly, inexpensively • Explosion of printed material quickly spread Renaissance ideas
  5. 5. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 Find the Main Idea How did Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe? Answer(s): Ideas were exchanged through trade; artists and scholars traveled between Italy and the north; printing press allowed easier bookmaking; ideas spread with printed material.
  6. 6. Section 2 Renaissance and Reformation Philosophers and Writers 3. Northern humanists expressed their own ideas Combined interests of theology, fiction and history Created philosophical works, novels, dramas, and poems Desiderius Erasmus Sir Thomas More • Combined Christian ideas, humanism • Wrote of pure, simple Christian life, educating children • Fanned flames of discontent • Roman Catholic Church censored, condemned works • More’s best-known work, Utopia, contains criticisms of English government, society • Presents vision of perfect, non-existent society based on reason Christine de Pisan • Italian-born writer focused on role of women in society • Grew up in French court of Charles V; turned to writing when widowed • Championed equality, education for women
  7. 7. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 Shakespeare and His Characters William Shakespeare Spread Renaissance Ideas • Many believe English playwright William Shakespeare greatest writer • Use of language, choice of themes made plays appealing even to uneducated • Plots not original, but treatments of them masterful • Plays helped spread ideas of Renaissance to mass audience • Drew inspiration from ancient, contemporary literature • Focused on lives of realistic characters, unlike morality plays • Knowledge of natural science, humanist topics expressed in plays • By Shakespeare’s death, 1616, London scene of thriving theatre district
  8. 8. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 Summarize What are some characteristics of Renaissance writers’ work? Answer(s): expressed humanist ideas, scientific knowledge, realistic experiences, and social conditions
  9. 9. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 Artists Like literary counterparts, northern European artists influenced by Italian Renaissance • Adopted Italian techniques • Works reflected more realistic view of humanity – Italian artists tried to capture beauty of Greek, Roman gods in paintings – Northern artists tried to depict people as they really were
  10. 10. Section 2 Renaissance and Reformation Dürer and Others • • • • 1400s, German artist Albrecht Dürer visited Italy On return, used Italian techniques of realism, perspective Oil paintings exhibit features unique to northern Renaissance Oils reproduced textures; reflection of objects, scenes outside window Flemish School Everyday Life • Artists of Netherlands developed own style, Flemish School • 1500s, Pieter Brueghel the Elder used Italian techniques • Used technique perfected by Jan van Eyck, 1400s • Paintings showed scenes from everyday peasant life • Fused the everyday with religious; lit candle represents God’s presence • Different from mythological scenes of Italian paintings
  11. 11. Renaissance and Reformation Section 2 Contrast How did northern Renaissance artwork differ from that of Italian artists? Answer(s): depicted everyday objects, people as they actually were

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