Physical Pain


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Physical Pain

  1. 1. PAIN<br />
  2. 2. Today’s Session<br /><ul><li>Develop an understanding of why we feel pain
  3. 3. Pain physiology
  4. 4. Acute pain and inflammation
  5. 5. Chronic pain
  6. 6. Why does pain persist?
  7. 7. What can I do about my pain?</li></li></ul><li>Why do we need pain?<br /><ul><li>Extremely important in protecting our tissues
  8. 8. Alarms us to take action
  9. 9. Learn not to repeat the same activity again!!
  10. 10. Vital to our survival – motivates us to take action and warns against threats</li></li></ul><li>Acute Injury and Inflammation<br /><ul><li>When a tissue is injured, blood and other cells infiltrate the area
  11. 11. This is what causes swelling, warmth and redness
  12. 12. Inflammation promotes healing, as the correct cells are transported to the area to do their jobs
  13. 13. A necessary part of inflammation is to release chemicals which sensitise nerves</li></li></ul><li>Physiology<br /><ul><li>Peripheral nerve endings - nociceptors
  14. 14. Detect the harmful stimulus, and transmit this information to neurones and to the spinal cord
  15. 15. 2nd order nociceptors (in the Spinal cord) aka danger messenger neurones – transmit danger messages to the brain
  16. 16. These signals are transmitted to the brain to be processed</li></li></ul><li>Physiology<br /><ul><li>The Brain decides whether this stimulus is harmful to us, and ultimately decides whether we are in pain
  17. 17. The Brain will come compute this information, and elicit the necessary action</li></li></ul><li>The wonderful brain<br /><ul><li>The brain activates several systems that work together to get you out of danger:
  18. 18. Sympathetic nervous system
  19. 19. Motor system
  20. 20. Endocrine system
  21. 21. Pain production system
  22. 22. Immune system
  23. 23. Parasympathetic nervous system</li></li></ul><li>The Alarm System<br /><ul><li>Everyone that has experienced an injury will incur changes in nerves and tissues
  24. 24. The brain will also adapt and become more sensitive
  25. 25. This process occurs to better equip ourselves for future injuries</li></li></ul><li>Persistent Pain<br /><ul><li> When pain has been around for a long time, the nerves, tissues, muscles, neurones and brain become highly sensitized
  26. 26. The danger alarm system becomes more sensitive
  27. 27. The danger messenger nerve becomes more excitable, and manufactures new danger messenger nerves
  28. 28. Response systems become more involved, and contribute to the problem
  29. 29. The brain gets better at remembering pain</li></li></ul><li>Persistent Pain<br /><ul><li>Pain can continue even though the tissue itself has healed</li></li></ul><li>Why does pain persist in some and not others?<br />Some thoughts are:<br /><ul><li> External factors – environment, support systems
  30. 30. Your views of pain
  31. 31. Poor medical management
  32. 32. Stress and anxiety
  33. 33. Money issues
  34. 34. Work cover issues
  35. 35. Family and relationship worries</li></li></ul><li><br />
  36. 36. Stress<br /><ul><li>When the body is distressed, a hormone called adrenaline rushes through our blood vessels
  37. 37. Our already sensitised nerves will react to adrenaline, and sense there is a threat
  38. 38. The pain pathways become activated and heightened</li></li></ul><li>Managing Pain<br /><ul><li>Get treatment if you haven’t already done so!
  39. 39. Having an understanding of your injury will help in recovery and coping with your pain
  40. 40. Therapist may show you some useful stretches/exercises to help
  41. 41. Get all your questions answered
  42. 42. Fear avoidance – therapist will teach you movements that are OK to start doing again</li></li></ul><li>Managing Pain<br /><ul><li> Get Active!
  43. 43. Many studies have shown that exercise may help with pain tolerance
  44. 44. Also reduces endorphins, which make you feel better
  45. 45. Helps to combat depression!!</li></ul>Exercising 30 minutes a day is enough<br />If you are unsure what you are safe to do, see a physiotherapist <br />
  46. 46. Managing Pain<br /><ul><li>Consider your Mental Health
  47. 47. If you suffer from a mental illness, then seek treatment if you have not already done so
  48. 48. Relaxation techniques may help</li></li></ul><li>Managing Pain<br /><ul><li> Avoid the ‘Boom and Bust’ Behaviour!
  49. 49. Pacing techniques can help to avoid flare ups
  50. 50. Record your current activity level, and gradually increase from there
  51. 51. Don’t go all out on a good day – this will sensitize the nervous system even more</li></li></ul><li>Living with Pain<br /><ul><li> You may not get rid of your pain
  52. 52. Unfortunately, many people will experience ongoing pain
  53. 53. If you understand pain, then it may make living with it less scary and a little easier to cope with
  54. 54. Implementing the appropriate strategies when you have a “flare up”
  55. 55. Setting new goals</li></li></ul><li>Catalyst Injury Management<br /><ul><li>Supervised Gym programmes
  56. 56. Hydrotherapy
  57. 57. Physiotherapy treatment
  58. 58. Clinical Pilates </li></li></ul><li>That’s all!<br />Thank you for coming <br />today<br />Look forward to seeing <br />you next session<br />