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Slovakia, pdf


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Slovakia, pdf

  1. 1. S L O V A K I A Slovakia is one of the smallest countries in Europe and it is situated in the heart of Europe. The population of Slovakia is about five millions. The capital of Slovakia is Bratislava and it lies on the banks of the river Danube. Slovakia is divided into eight regions - Bratislava, Trnava, Trenčín, Nitra, Žilina, Banská Bystrica, Košice and Prešov. Our national language is Slovak. The Slovak flag is formed by three parallel stripes (white, blue, red), and by the Slovak state emblem – double cross. The national anthem is “Nad Tatrou sa blýska” written by Janko Matuška (1844) You can listen to the national anthem at this link: INTERESTING PLACES WHICH ARE WORTH VISITING Orava castle It is a treasure of the history of Orava and still attracts thousands of tourists every year. This castle is situated on 112m high cliff above the river Orava, in the village Oravský Podzámok. The first document about it comes from the year 1267. There are still impressive exhibitions, e.g. the Castle Chapel, the Knight´s Hall, the Picture Gallery, the Natural Science Exhibition and many others. Gothic Wooden Roman-Catholic Church of All Saints It is from the 15th century. It was awarded by the EUROPA NOSTRA PLAQUE in 1993 and this monument was included in the list of European Cultural Heritage. It has a beautiful wooden altar with patrons of the church. Today, the church is used only occasionally, e.g. for weddings but its main purpose is to serve tourists.
  2. 2. Dobšinská Ice Cave Dobšinská Ice Cave belongs to the most important ice caves in the world. Since 2000 it has been inscribed on the World Heritage List. This cave has the glaciated part at elevations from 1,100 to 1,120 metres above the sea level, the monumental glaciations of the Dobšinská Ice Cave persist for thousands of years at elevations only 920 to 950 metres. Vlkolínec Vlkolínec is a small village situated at the foot of a mountain in the north of Slovakia. This village is situated in the district of the town Ružomberok in Žilina region. It is a conservation area of folk architecture. You can find here classical wooden block houses typical for central Europe. This village has been included to UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. FAMOUS PEOPLE Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav was born in Vyšný Kubín. He was and still is a very famous Slovak poet, playwright, novelist, translator, lawyer, and honorary President of Slovak Matica. Hviezdoslav is one of the leading personalities of Slovak literature and culture in Slovakia, he belonged to among the most important leaders in Slovak literature. There are also many squares, streets, a village and even a waterfall which are named by him. In the art, we also have an artistic competition in poetry and prose called “Hviezdoslavov Kubin”. Among his best known masterpieces we include: - Letorosty I., II., III. - Krvavé sonety - Hájnikova žena - Ežo Vlkolínsky - Herodes a Herodias
  3. 3. Juraj Jánošík He is considered as a Slovak legend and national hero. He was a robber who took money the rich people and gave it to the poor ones. He grew up in Terchová in a solitude, in the family whose name was repeatedly on the serf lists. According to the Slovak folk legend Juraj Jánošík and his retinue lived in the forests between Žilina and Liptovský Mikuláš. According to the Polish legend he was also looting in Poland. He was so called “Slovak Robin Hood”. Jánošík became very famous not only in Slovakia. He was also known in the Czech Republic.The Poles use to call him “hero of the Tatras”. Ľudovít Štúr He was the Slovak national revivalist, politician, philosopher, historian, linguist, teacher, writer, poet, journalist and editor. In 1843 he codified the Slovak literary language based on the Central Slovak dialects. He was one of the leading participants in the Slovak National Uprising. Blessed Sister Zdenka Blessed Sister Zdenka Schellingová was a Slovak nun. She belonged to the Sisters of Mercy Order. It was the order of the Holy cross pursuit by the Catholic Church in the Czech-Slovakia. Zdenka Schellingová was born in Krivá in Orava, as the tenth of eleven children. Her original name was Cecilia. Cecilia decided for religious life very discreetly. In her fifteen, she joined to the Sisters of Saint Cross Order in the Podunajské Biskupice. She decided to dedicate whole her life to God.
  4. 4. E D U C A T I O N Education is very important for all. Learning and education can be called a kind of lifestyle. “We learn for life no for school” Seneca Tertiary education, universities How long do we have to study to get a certain degree? a) You can achieve the first degree after studying 3 or 4 years – after its graduation you get the degree baccalaureate (Bc.) b) The second degree lasts from 1 to 3 years – after its graduation you get the degree of Mgr., Ing., art. ... c) When you finish the third level – after the graduation you can get the degree of graduant (PhD.) Famous Slovak Universities Jessenius Faculty in Martin University of Matej Bel in Banská Bystrica Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra University of Žilina Which faculty can we find at Slovak universities? Faculty of Medicine, Natural Science, Economics, Art, Philosophy, Political Sciences, Education, Theology, Sport, Military, Agriculture.
  5. 5. COMENIUS UNIVERSITY “If a human would like to become a human must be educated” John Amos Comenius Comenius University in Bratislava is the oldest and biggest university in the Slovak Republic. It was founded in 1919 and it follows the university traditions of Academia Istropolitana. Studying at the oldest Slovak university enjoys popularity with international students – more than 2,300 students from 80 countries study at Comenius University. The university admits about 9,000 new students every year who can choose from a rich range of several hundreds of courses. Comenius University in Bratislava is an outstanding scientific institution. Comenius University is also involved on hundreds of national and international scientific projects. Faculties of Comenius University: - Faculty of Medicine – 1919 - Faculty of Law – 1921 - Faculty of Philosophy – 1921 - Faculty of Natural Sciences – 1940 - Faculty of Education – 1946 - Faculty of Pharmacy – 1952 - Faculty of Physical Education and Sports – 1965 - Jessenius Faculty of Medicine – 1969 - Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics – 1980 - Roman Catholic Faculty of Theology – 1990 (only in Slovak) - Evangelical Faculty of Theology – 1990 (only in Slovak) - Faculty of Management - 1991 - Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences – 2002 Other important facilities of Comenius University in Bratislava: - Academic library of Comenius University - Information technology centre of Comenius University - Botanic garden of CU - Comenius University press - In the area of university, there are two tennis courts with aluminic surface
  6. 6. D I S A B I L I T Y Disabled persons are persons with limitation at work caused by longstanding (at least half a year long period) health conditions or diseases, or/and difficulties in basic activities. Types of Disabilities: The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) identifies and defines the following categories of disabilities:  Physical - affects a person's mobility or dexterity  Intellectual - affects a person's abilities to learn  Psychiatric - affects a person's thinking processes  Sensory - affects a person's ability to hear or see  Neurological - results in the loss of some bodily or mental functions Associations for the disabled:  National Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing: The association which provides support and assistance for deaf and hard of hearing children, adults, and their families.  Down Foundation: The organisation which ensures that as many children with Down Syndrome as possible are brought up within their own families and live an independent life.  National Autism Association: An umbrella body for the various organisations representing the interests of autistic people and their families.
  7. 7.  National Deaf and Blind Association : The association which represents the people´s interests - deaf and blind disability. It offers training for sign language interpreters and special education teachers, as well as education and therapy for deaf and blind children. Daily life: In everyday life we can meet a lot of disabled people everywhere. While we go out, shopping or just climb stairs without any obstacle, people who live with disability have a lot of difficulties with things which are common for us for healthy people. That is why we must help them with several devices to make their lives easier. Public places: Our government is trying to help these disabled people to live their life in an easier way. A lot of places such as shopping malls, businesses, doctors' offices and other public places are adapted to the needs of the disabled people.  Furthermore every public building like schools, universities, business offices have to provide a safe incline for anyone with a handicap to enter the buildings. Besides the buildings it is very necessary special ramps to be placed everywhere for better entry.
  8. 8. Paralympics Games: The Paralympics Games is a major international multi-sport event involving all of the sportsmen and sportswomen all around the world with a range of physical and intellectual disabilities including mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. There are Winter and Summer Paralympics Games. They follow the Olympics Games since the year 1988. All the Paralympics Games are governed by the International Paralympics Committee. Henrieta Farkašová She was born in May 23, 1986, in Rožňava. She is a Slovak downhill skier and a five-fold winner of the Paralympics Games. She is the most successful Paralympics sportswoman in the Slovak history. At the Winter Paralympics Games in 2010 in Vancouver where she won three gold medals for the visually impaired disciplines: giant slalom, super combined and super giant slalom. Then she won a silver medal in downhill skiing. The fourth Paralympics gold medal was won by her at the Winter Paralympics Games in Sochi (Russia) in 2014 skiing for visually impaired. She also won the bronze medal here in the slalom and the fifth gold in the giant slalom. Ján Riapoš He was born in September 28, 1968, in Heľpa. He is a Slovak Paralympics athlete and a representative of the Slovak Republic for the Paralympics Games. Among his successes belong four gold and one silver medals. He is our most successful Paralympics sportsman. He is also the chairman of the Slovak Paralympics Committee and the President of the Slovak Union of disabled athletes. In 2005 he was declared for the Paralympics sportsman of the decade. He is considered for one of the best European champion in the individual table tennis in wheelchair for last twenty years. On the last Summer Paralympics Games in London 2012, he achieved the greatest success when he triumphed in the individual and team category .
  9. 9. Business Etiquette Etiquette is variously defined for example such as Politeness Consideration Thoughtfulness Good manners & behaviour It is treating others as you would like to be treated with consideration, thoughtfulness & courtesy. Introducing people You only have ONE opportunity to make a good first impression ! When you meet someone, shake his or her hand firmly, look directly into his or her eyes, and say his or her name in your mind three times.  Words present only 7% of an initial impression  Vocal quality is considered for another 38%.  The rest of 55% is any first impression based on non-verbal perceptions of appearance and behaviour.
  10. 10. Handshakes Those few seconds when you are shaking your hands is very important. It can empower or weaken a relationship. We can recognize various types of handshake. • Controller • Sandwich • Dead Fish • Limp Fingers The basic rules of a good handshake  Hold the person's hand firmly.  Shake web-to-web, three times maximum.  Keep eye contact.  Radiate positive aura.  Eye contact Basic rules of introducing • In business, introductions are based on power and hierarchy • Gender plays no role in business etiquette; it does not affect the order of introductions • Introduce someone from your firm to a client or customer • Introduce a junior executive to a senior executive • During the introducing of someone tell each of the individuals' names and look at him or her • The way you respond to someone else's introduction is just as important as making the introduction • Always stand during introducing and offer your hand
  11. 11. Conversation stoppers Conversation topic is very important for communication. Be very careful and ready what you are going to talk or are talking about. That is why do not ask about : • religious beliefs • financial situation • any illness • details about a divorce or an affair • someone's weight, height, shoe size, age or mental health. • harmful gossip and telling racial, ethnic, and sexually oriented jokes Small Talk Tips • First, observe your surrounding you are in. Your small talk will be more effective if you take the time to look for the best possible icebreaker. • Stay safe. • Ask open-ended questions. • Make strong eye-contact, the key is to make an interest and respect. • Be aware of your body language revealing how you really feel.
  12. 12. FIRST AID When an accident happens it is very important to act very fast and mainly right. Of course, it is very complicated and difficult when there is a lot of blood, noise, chaos and you are under the pressure. We should avoid mistakes like dragging out a person in unconsciousness when there is no fire or it is not necessary. We should not start saving life before we insure vehicle or we should not provide first aid before we check breathing and other vital functions. Assecuration of the place of the accident Stop in a safe distance in front of the place of the accident. Then place the warning triangle in assured clear distance ahead. Turn off the engine of the crashed car and assure the vehicle against to movement or back lift (do not turn back reversal car) Life saving acts At first we must check vital functions of the patient if he or she breaths and he or she does not growl stop intense bleeding. We cover the open wound of chest. We ensure patency of air passages. Check by sight: Breathing Bleeding  Body position  Look and colour of face
  13. 13. Check by ear: Breathing bruit Badges of the stricken (moan, answer on the questions) Check by touch: Breathing movements Pain of stricken area Deformations Temperature of skin, sweat etc. How to stop powerful bleeding: Pick up the wound above the level of the heart, push it by fingers or put a tampon there. Then do a treatment with a bandage and if the bandage leaks add another layer. Dragging out: Drag out the wounded person only if There is another danger like fire, falling down the hillside etc If the person blocks helping the other wounded person It is not able to provide first aid at that position of person
  14. 14. Rauket´s maneuver: Keep in mind potential damage of spine- beware of spine rotation. If you cannot drag out wounded person on your own. Taking helmet off: Carry out in pair First the rescuer must keep head position in the ax of the body Second one turns off the helmet also in the ax of the body Unconsciousness: The wounded person does not react on the accosting or shaking. Take out freely laying objects in mouth Slump over his head Push forward his jaw Put him into stabilized position If he or she does not breath, begin to resuscitate Keep watching the wounded person all the time
  15. 15. Stabilized position: If the wounded person breaths and we feel the heart actions (we must check it every minute) we kneel down to the wounded person and: Bend the leg (that one which is further from you) We put the hand on the abdomen (again the further one) We catch patient´s bended knee and shoulder on the other side from us and roll him over a side We push on the forehead and bend his head back for better breathing  We also bend his arm in the elbow and put in under the face Resuscitation: Do it if you cannot hear breathing after slumping over his head and if you cannot see breathing movements after slumping over his head 30 times push the chest right in the middle (after 30 times there comes two in breath but it is not necessary but in that case do not stop pushing) Anti shock steps: Anti shock position Make sure that he or she is in warmth