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The End of Travel, Part 2: The Technology Innovations Enabling The Rise of Smart Mobility

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Open data, standards and open source technologies were used to fueled innovation and to create a fast and growing ecosystem in transport.

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The End of Travel, Part 2: The Technology Innovations Enabling The Rise of Smart Mobility

  1. Research & Innovation API & Platform Business Strategy & Digital Transformation New Usages, Connected Business & Mobility Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Part 2: The Technology Innovations Enabling The Rise of Smart Mobility William El Kaim – March 2015 1
  2. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Plan • Smart City: Hungry For Open Data • Open Data Is The Fuel Of Smart Mobility • Transit Real Time Data: Standards And Protocols • Mapping The World • Journey Planner Algorithm And Engines • Transit Applications • From Transit Applications To Multimodal Journey Planner • Multimodal Door to Door Journey Planner • The Age Of Platforms 2
  3. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City: Hungry For Open Data 3
  4. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Singapore Live 4
  5. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City based on data … Source: Disit 5
  6. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 ² http://servicemap.disit.org/WebAppGrafo/mappa.jsp 6
  7. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City: Seoul • Seoul, South Korea has equipped its taxis and buses with GPS transmitters and used data from the movement of these vehicles to monitor traffic flows and optimize traffic lights, speed limits, and public transportation schedules, often in real-time. • The city further combines this vehicle data with smart transit-card data (more recently NFC-enabled smartphone wallet data) to observe the movement of people through the city’s subways, buses, and taxis and ensure both adequate capacity in the transportation system and adjacent infrastructure and services like housing, retail, and policing. Source: Pandodaily 7
  8. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City: Other Examples • Dublin, Ireland worked with IBM to install a network of sensors throughout the city to monitor traffic in real-time. • This data is combined with closed-circuit cameras and bus-mounted GPS transmitters to digitally map the city in real-time and to enable real-time, intelligent traffic management measures. • London hired Microsoft in 2011 to create a developer platform around its real- time raw transportation data with the goal of offering consumers more insight into the various transportation options available on any given route. • Usage of the platform quickly grew from thousands to millions of users per day. • The city also layered in Internet of Things devices to monitor temperature, vibration, and humidity, and to detect faults in the Underground train system. • Uber offer cities, beginning with Boston, access to its trip data for use in master-planning
 Source: Pandodaily 8
  9. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City: Data and API • The smart cities agenda is transforming how cities manage their infrastructure and how they communicate with citizens and local businesses. • Open data and the use of sensor technologies to provide real-time feedback on the use of urban infrastructure are two components at the center of what is considered a “smart city.” • Cities around the world are opening up their public transport data to enable third-party developers to create new commercial and social good products. • Public transport is often a good starting point for cities looking to open up useful data sources as part of a smart cities agenda. Source: ProgrammableWeb 9
  10. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City: Data and API • How public transport data is opened (and the role of APIs in this process) demonstrates the potential that comes from cities opening up their data: • It is an immediately useful data source that enhances participation in city life. • It can add value to contextual and personal data. • It has a real-time component. • There are commercial revenue opportunities across a range of industry uses, with innovative business models that can be applied. • It often involves multiple stakeholders and, therefore, requires aggregating of data from multiple sources. Source: ProgrammableWeb 10
  11. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Connected Smart Cities http://connectedsmartcities.eu/ 11
  12. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Open & Agile Smart Cities (OASC) initiative • The Open & Agile Smart Cities (OASC) initiative, signed by 31 cities from Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Spain and Brazil, aims to kickstart the use of a shared set of wide-spread, open standards and principles, enabling the development of smart city applications and solutions to reach many cities at once, by making systems interoperable between cities, and within a city. • Cities adopt an initial open-licensed standard API FIWARE NGSI, which provides lightweight and simple means to gather, publish, query and subscribe context-based, real-time information. • The cities will also use and improve standard data models based on experimentation and actual usage. • The initial data models were chosen by mature European smart cities in the CitySDK initiative, forming the basis for a joint City Service Development Kit. 12
  13. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Open API Platform FIWARE • The EU-funded open API platform FIWARE has reached an agreement with seven countries to embed its core infrastructure as open API standards for creating new civic tech solutions. • Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Portugal and Spain • Agreed to three technical mechanisms for the development of smart city infrastructure. • To support the deployment of FIWARE’s NGSI API open standard, which proposes a common data model for getting real-time, contextual data about cities • To share API data models, starting with the CitySDK APIs • To use the open source platform CKAN to publish open data. • The initiative hopes to foster the growth of a new wave of startups focused on smart city technologies. 13
  14. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 FIWARE https://forge.fiware.org/plugins/mediawiki/wiki/ fiware/index.php/FI- 14
  15. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 CitySDK • The CitySDK project is co- funded by the European Union, and is about creating a City Service Development Kit: a collection of tools and APIs to help cities become more smart • CitySDK Participation API • CitySDK Mobility API • CitySDK Tourism API http://www.citysdk.eu/ 15
  16. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Smart City & Connected City 16
  17. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Open Data Is The Fuel Of Smart Mobility 17
  18. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Three Steps … 1. Making Data Available • Government and cities providing “open data” through portal 2. Making Data Accessible • Government and cities providing API through partners • Government and cities using a marketplace to trade data 3. Making Data Valuable • How are developers using public transport APIs to empower a smart cities agenda and what is the progress of city authorities looking to make their transportation systems smart? Source: ProgrammableWeb 18
  19. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Making Data Available, Accessible and Valuable • Schedule and Transit Open data is common in North America, but not so common in EU • National Transit DB and US City Open Data Census • New approach in France taken recently with the creation of a new government Opendata web site • Data.gouv.fr • In Germany the concept of marketplace for data was put in place by the government • MDM: Mobility Marketplace • In UK, the London Datastore offers all sorts of data about the City. 19
  20. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Data: Data.gouv.fr (France) http://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/groups/territoires-et- 20
  21. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://data.london.gov.uk/ 21
  22. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Data: US City Open Data Census http://us-city.census.okfn.org/ 22
  23. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Data: Seattle https://data.seattle.gov/browse?category=Transportation 23
  24. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Public Dialogue in NYC http://www.nyc.gov/html/visionzero/pages/dialogue/ 24
  25. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Data: Mobility Marketplace in Germany • Project funded by German Government • Pilot started in 2012, and should be productive in 2014 • Marketplace for mobility related data where authorities (like public transport companies) and private companies can sell/buy data. http://www.mdm-portal.de/ 25
  26. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Quandl https://www.quandl.com/ 26
  27. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Quandl https://www.quandl.com/ 27
  28. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Open Data Tooling • Geographic Information System centric • ArcGIS OpenData, Spallian Carto • Data Centric • cKan, DataHub.io, Junar, OpenDataSoft, Socrata • CrowdSourcing Centric • Spallian TellMyCIty • Any tool enabling sharing your data … 28
  29. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 https://opendata.arcgis.com/about ArcGis OpenData 29
  30. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Spallian http://www.spallian.com/ 30
  31. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://ckan.org/ cKan 31
  32. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Datahub.io http://datahub.io/dataset?q=gtfs 32
  33. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.junar.com/ Junar 33
  34. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.opendatasoft.com/ OpenDataSoft 34
  35. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.socrata.com/ Socrata 35
  36. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Spallian: TellMyCity http://www.spallian.com/tellmycity/ Already 70 cities using it 36
  37. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Data Everywhere • Data Everywhere makes it simple for spreadsheet users to synchronize, share, and collect data. • Data Everywhere’s spreadsheet add-ins take data from your existing spreadsheets and automatically send it to other authorized people, spreadsheets, and applications. https://www.dataeverywhere.com/ 37
  38. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 SNCF http://opendata.transilien.com/apps/ https://data.sncf.com/apps SNCF is the French Rail Mobility provider 38
  39. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transit Real Time Data: Standards And Protocols 39
  40. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transit Open Format: Two Competing Formats • Transit open format as open protocol and API provided by 
 Google : GTFS platform and API • The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) defines a common format for public transportation schedules and associated geographic information. • GTFS "feeds" allow public transit agencies to publish their transit data and developers to write applications that consume that data in an interoperable way • GTFS-realtime is a feed specification that allows public transportation agencies to provide realtime updates about their fleet to application developers. It is an extension to GTFS • EU standard named Service Interface for Real Time Information (SIRI) • XML protocol to allow distributed computers to exchange real time information about public transport services and vehicles. 40
  41. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google GTFS • Provides schedule (static data) or Real-time Transit information everybody can use • GTFS feeds • General Transit Feed Specification Reference • Transit Data Feed: List of Public Feeds • GTFS Data exchange • Tools • Google Map Transit • Google transit for developers • Google Now and crowdsourcing from Waze. • List of tools not built by Google: https://code.google.com/p/googletransitdatafeed/wiki/ OtherGTFSTools 41
  42. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google GTFS 42
  43. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Data: National Transit Data (USA) http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm 43
  44. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 SIRI the European standard • Service Interface for Real Time Information (SIRI) • XML protocol to allow distributed computers to exchange real time information about public transport services and vehicles. • The protocol is a European Committee for Standardization technical specification, • developed with initial participation by France, Germany (Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen), Scandinavia, and the UK (RTIG) • Based on the Transmodel (EN TC278, Reference Data Model For Public Transport, EN12896) abstract model for public transport information, • The present version of TRANSMODEL (V5.0) uses an Entity-Relationship modeling approach • Comprises a general purpose model, and an XML schema for public transport information. • More Information: http://user47094.vs.easily.co.uk/siri/ 44
  45. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.google.com/intl/en/landing/transit/ Google Maps Transit 45
  46. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google Now! 46
  47. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Mapping the World 47
  48. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 OpenStreetMaps https://blog.openstreetmap.org/ http://www.openstreetmap.org/ 48
  49. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 OpenStreetMaps https://help.openstreetmap.org/, http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Main_Page 49
  50. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.azavea.com/http://www.skobbler.com/ 50
  51. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://umap.openstreetmap.fr/en/ UMAP 51
  52. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google Maps 52
  53. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google Maps 53
  54. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google myMaps https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.google.android.apps.m4b https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/ 54
  55. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google Map Maker http://www.google.com/mapmaker 55
  56. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Google Earth https://www.google.com/earth/ 56
  57. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Nokia Here Android Version Samsung Gear VR Glass Version https://www.here.com/ 57
  58. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Mapquest http://www.mapquest.com/ 58
  59. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Maps Creator http://www.zeemaps.com/https://www.mapbox.com/editor/#style 59
  60. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Collaborative Maps http://www.collaborativemap.org/ 60
  61. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Comparing Sources (Geocoding / Address) http://www.ideeslibres.org/GeoCheck/ 61
  62. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 DeCarta: Bought by UBER http://www.decarta.com/ 62
  63. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Places for Android and iOS The Places APIs for Android and iOS bridge the gap between simple geographic locations expressed as latitude and longitude, and how people associate location with a known place. https://developers.google.com/places/android/ 63
  64. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Mobility Lab Tools https://github.com/conveyal/modeifyMobility Lab 64
  65. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Subway Map http://kalyani.com/2010/10/subway-map-visualization-jquery- 65
  66. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 D3.js http://d3js.org/ 66
  67. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transitive.js https://github.com/conveyal/transitive.js 67
  68. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Leaflet: open-source JavaScript library for mobile-friendly interactive maps http://leafletjs.com/ 68
  69. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Journey Planner Algorithm And Engines 69
  70. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Searching The Fastest Algorithm • In 1959, Dijkstra published the first algorithm. • Tree of minimum total length between n nodes • In 1987, the algorithm was improved by Tarjan. • But still not efficient enough for computer available at that time • In 2005, a challenge organised by Dimacs lead to the modern version of the algorithm. • The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology did provide several very efficient ones • In 2008, Geisberger proposed the “ Contraction Hierarchies ” algorithm • Faster and simpler for route calculation, used by OSRM • In 2012, Daniel Delling from Microsoft Research proposed RAPTOR • The algorithm is the one used by Navitia • In 2013, the “connection scan algorithm” was released improving Raptor From Tristram Grabener blog and PHD thesis (in French) 70
  71. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Open Source Routing Engines • Most of open source routing engines are bundled with a web/mobile front-end and a cartography service. • EU funded Multi-modal Journey Planner • GraphServer, Navitia, Open Source Routing Machine (OSRM), R4 • Some offers only a Library or API • Mumoro is Library that aims to provide multimodal routing • Research projects • Path2Go, Synthese 71
  72. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 GRAPHSERVER • Graphserver is a multi-modal trip planner. Graphserver supports transit modes through GTFS, and street-based modes through OSM. • The core graphserver library has Python bindings which provide easy construction, storage, and analysis of graph objects. http://graphserver.github.com/graphserver/ 72
  73. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Navitia 2.0 (Open Source) https://github.com/CanalTP/navitia 1.multi-modal journeys computation 2.line schedules 3.next departures 4.explore public transport data 5.sexy things such as isochrones 73
  74. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Open Source Routing Machine (OSRM) • C++ implementation of a high-performance routing engine for shortest paths in road networks. • Combines sophisticated routing algorithms with the open and free road network data of the OpenStreetMap (OSM) project. http://project-osrm.org/ and http://map.project-osrm.org/ 74
  75. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Rapid Real-time Routing • RRRR (usually pronounced R4) is a C-language implementation of the RAPTOR public transit routing algorithm. • https://github.com/bliksemlabs/rrrr • Project from the developers of OpenTripPlanner • The goal of this project is to generate sets of Pareto-optimal itineraries over large geographic areas (e.g. BeNeLux or all of Europe), improving on the resource consumption and complexity of existing more flexible alternatives. • It is the core routing component of the Bliksem journey planner and passenger information system. • The system should eventually support real-time vehicle/trip updates reflected in trip plans and be capable of running directly on a mobile device with no Internet connection. 75
  76. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 MUltiModal MUltiObjective ROuting • Mumoro is a research project • Library aims to provide multimodal routing: combining subway, walking and bike. • It is also multiobjective: it finds the best route optimizing according to time taken, mode changes, CO2 emissions etc. • https://github.com/Tristramg/mumoro/ 76
  77. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Path2Go http://www.networkedtraveler.org/index.php?o=y 77
  78. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Synthese https://extranet.rcsmobility.com/projects/synthese/wiki 78
  79. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Routing Engines Through API https://www.rome2rio.com/documentationhttp:// www.programmableweb.com/ 79
  80. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transit Applications 80
  81. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 CityTransit Information • City Specific Web with live info • Transport for London • MTA in New York City and Augmented Reality to Animate NYC Subway Maps • Making transit information ubiquitous in buildings and other public spaces • Transiteditor and TransitScreen • Bus Specific • OneBusAway experiment 81
  82. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transport for London http://tfl.gov.uk/ 82
  83. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transport for London http://tfl.gov.uk/ 83
  84. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 MTA http://apps.mta.info/trainTime/ 84
  85. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Tunnel Vision NYC Augmented reality to show the traffic density 85
  86. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 TransitScreen (USA) http://transitscreen.com/ 86
  87. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 OneBusAway http://onebusaway.org/ 87
  88. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Ecosystem of apps http://www.citygoround.org/apps/ 88
  89. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.transiteditor.com/ 89
  90. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multi-City Transit Applications • Moovit and Ototo: mobile app leveraging crowd information and delivering door-to-door public transport information. • Scout, now using Open Street Map and offering both GPS, and traffic information. • RideScout is a startup looking to simplify transit options for people on the go. • OMG transit offers multimodal search and transportation options and booking • The Transit works in 76 metropolitan areas that believe in Open Data. • Cisco Personal Travel Assistant (PTA) • Research • Mobility Lab Transit Tech Initiative 90
  91. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Moovit: Where’s My Public Transport? • Wants to solve the “uncertainty” that public transit users face. • Where’s my bus right now? How do I find the right stop to board it? How do I pay when I get on? It’s enough to make you want to stick with a car. • One big challenge that Moovit faces is the sheer variety of different data sources it has to handle. • In some areas, there are real-time feeds of bus and train locations available, whereas in others it has to work with fixed timetable information. • What’s more, that data comes to Moovit in a variety of formats from 2,000 transport agencies around the world. • 30 employees (Dec. 2013) and already and already 100 metropolitan areas 91
  92. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://tripplan.moovitapp.com/ 92
  93. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Moovit: Where’s My Public Transport? 93
  94. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 94
  95. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Scout http://www.scoutgps.com/ 95
  96. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 RideScout: Transit Data Hub • uses Google App Engine, Google Datastore, and Python and Django. • As the company adds new data sources from across the country, it plans to eventually make it easy to plan a trip from California to D.C. with a single search 96
  97. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.ridescoutapp.com/ 97
  98. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.ridescoutapp.com/ 98
  99. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 OMG Transit (USA cities) https://omgtransit.com/#/mobileapps 99
  100. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 The Transit App http://thetransitapp.com/ 100
  101. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Cisco Personal Travel Assistant (PTA) • Improve the transit experience of commuters by giving them access to transportation information via a web enabled mobile device from any location. • Joint project between Cisco, City of Seoul and city of Amsterdam • The PTA consists of a number of solution elements including: • A personal travel planner which among other functions allows the user to select the optimal modes of transport for their journey, schedule travel activities and reduce their carbon emissions. • Carbon Calculator which informs users of their carbon footprint over time (daily, weekly, monthly and yearly) • Real Time Router which allows the user to optimize their trip as and when conditions change (e.g.: traffic accidents). • Transportation Information Service providing information about public transport options, routes, arrival times and schedules. 101
  102. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Cisco Personal Travel Assistant (PTA) • The project took 24 months to implement • The actual (or projected) savings from the project are: • Reduction of 12.7% in traffic volumes and 12.8% improvement in the speed of vehicles 102
  103. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Mobility Lab Transit Tech Initiative • Funded through a Demonstration grant by the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation. • This project will provide travelers with personalized information that reflects their transit needs, pulling in the most cutting-edge trends happening at the intersection of the transportation and technology industries: • Open transport data standards such as GTFS and openstreetmap • Multimodal trip planning engines like OpenTripPlanner, and • Web-based visualization tools such as the D3 library. • The goal is to answer more fundamental questions about: • How the important places in a person’s life are connected via various travel options • How robust those connections are, and • How they fit into a larger travel decision-making context. Source: Mobility Lab Tech Initiative 103
  104. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Mobility Lab Transit Tech Initiative • Much of the initial work has been focused on the design and development of a new transportation visualization package • Called Transitive.js, which visually articulates personalized transportation data, drawing inspiration from stylized transit maps. • Additionally, work has begun on customizing OpenTripPlanner to generate summaries of transit options. • Rather than emphasizing the details of a specific journey at a specific time of day, the project aims to build features that help people explore and contextualize transport options as a holistic system. • By showing how key places are connected, different transport options may become more easily identified as a logical part of daily routines. Source: Mobility Lab Tech Initiative 104
  105. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 From Transit Applications To Multimodal Journey Planner 105
  106. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 OpenTripPlanner • Manage walking, mass transit, bike sharing, and car sharing on an open source platform for iOS 6 that cities and individuals can help design. • The app was created by a non-profit technology organization, OpenPlans, and will be raising contributions on Kickstarter • OpenPlans Transportation: http:// transportation.openplans.org/ 106
  107. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 http://www.opentripplanner.org/ 107
  108. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 PlannerStack: Journey Planner as a Service http://www.plannerstack.com/ 108
  109. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 PlannerStack: “Vibrant” Community http://www.plannerstack.org/ 109
  110. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 EU funded Multi-modal Journey Planner • 28 submissions of journey planners, out of which 12 were shortlisted. Source 110
  111. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 EU-wide Multi-Modal Travel Information EU-wide Real-Time Traffic information Free safety-related minimum Traffic Info Interoperable EU-wide eCall EU ITS Directive 111
  112. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 EU funded Multi-modal Journey Planner
 112
  113. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 European Itinerary Search http://www.simplicim-lorraine.eu/simplicim_en/euspirit/search 113
  114. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal Door to Door Journey Planner 114
  115. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Traveler journey before Source: World Economic Forum/The Boston Consulting Group analysis 115
  116. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 MultiModal is the new Paradigm! 
 Door to Door, from A to B, … • Travel today is more than just station to station; it is about door-to-door connectivity, thus giving rise to new market players offering integrated various modes to travel. Source: Frost and Sullivan 116
  117. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 MultiModal is the new Paradigm! • Definition • From an origin and a destination and a set of optimization criteria to get one or more routes combining different transport modes. • This definition is now “extended” • And provide in-mobility real time information and advices for a seamless journey and reducing • Travel time • Traveler stress • City congestion and pollution • Etc. • Could be used to promote certain mode of transportation and to analyze the demand by transportation operators. 117
  118. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 MultiModal is the new Paradigm! • Majors steps for providers : • Geocoding (and positioning positions in a graph) • Route calculation (shortest path, or best path using different weights) • Presentation of the results (biasing, filtering) • Real-time Route directions (step by step) and alerts • Aggregation of data and analysis 118
  119. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 From Travel to Mobility: Multimodal & Door to Door Image from http://mobilitylab.org/tech/transit-tech-initiativehttps://citymapper.com/ 119
  120. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Mobility: Multimodal & Door to Door • Multimodal is a way to combine metro (subway), train, bus, bicycle, walk or car to go from one place to another. • The other terminology used is "door to door", in that case, you have to add taxi and black car (car with chauffeur). • Some important distinctions should be noted when speaking of multimodal search: • Planning vs.. Booking: some routing includes prices some not • Routing could be based on actual timetables or only on approximate ones • For example some do not use actual timetables (they use information like: 'one train every hour' and might then be wrong by up to an hour), most others do. • Multimodal is emerging mainly due to the high speed train network, but also to reduce CO2 emission. So they are generally also taken into account as search parameters. 120
  121. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Rome2Rio – MultiModal Search https://www.rome2rio.com/ 121
  122. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Rome2Rio: Also a Platform 122
  123. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 KDS Neo – Corporate Booking KDS Neo 123
  124. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 RouteRank http://www.routerank.com/fr/ 124
  125. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 125
  126. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Source: Sia Partners 126
  127. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal and door-to-door
 Major web sites and apps • TravelStoreMaker • Bulgaria-based TravelStoreMaker has developed software that supports the planning of complex itineraries across multiple modes of travel, with content coming from many sources • Wanderio • Door-to-door multimodal tool used for B2C (Air, Rail, Bus, and car) • Use Rome2Rio • FromAtoB • Door-to-door multimodal tool used for B2C (Air, Rail, Bus, and car) 127
  128. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal and door-to-door 
 Regional offer • Europe • GoEuro • Multimodal (Air, Rail, Bus), but not door-to-door (only at city, town and village level) • MyTripSet • From Voyages-sncf: Air, Car, Train • Waymate • Multi-modal search (Air, Rail, Bus, car), but not yet door-to-door. • USA • HopStop (bought by Apple) • US local door-to-door and transit transportation • Now offering some other countries and cities … 128
  129. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal ground transportation • Kelbillet • French multimodal search engine that indexes fares for trains, buses, airplanes, cars, and rideshares. It’s aimed at French travelers taking domestic and short-haul trips. • Loco2 • UK multimodal train only search engine in Europe within thousands of European destinations. • Wanderu • Ground transport metasearch website that helps travelers find and book inter-city bus and train travel in the USA. • Mozio • From and to Airport, mainly cab and shared bus. 129
  130. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal search - France Initiative • France is launching a project to create a nation-wide multimodal search engine by 2015 • Initiative from french gov. agency named: « Agence française pour l’information multimodale et la billettique (Afimb) » and with • Transportation Agency: Groupement des autorités responsables de transport (Gart) • French Regions : Association des régions de France (ARF). • Objective • Find an itinerary in France using: plane, train, car, metro, tramway, bus, bycicle, car sharing and Taxi • A technical report to be published in 2014 and realised by Moviken • Then a call for proposal for making it real for 2015 Source : Mobilicité 130
  131. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal search 
 By Geography • Country Based • India: MakeMyTrip RoutePlanner covers 1 billion multi-modal routes and provides service via Web, mobile apps and even SMS • France: GeoVelo, Wehicles, Mappy • Germany: Qixxit / AllRyder (mobile only from WayMate) / HAFAS from Hacon • Great Britain – TransportDirect • Netherlands: http://9292.nl/en • Map makr • Country Region Based • Simplicim (Lorraine France) for EU itinerary • StationMobile (Grenoble France) 131
  132. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal Search - By Geography • City based • City Mapper: London, NYC, Paris, Berlin • CitiWay • Sharette: mix public transportation and ride-sharing 132
  133. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 https://citymapper.com/ 133
  134. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 134
  135. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 CitiWay http://www.cityway.company/ 135
  136. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Sharette https://sharette.fr/ 136
  137. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Examples Tools Possible Classification B2B B2C What’s your need? Multimodal Door-to-door Integrated Booking Planning Only Redirect to suppliers KDS Neo
 RouteRank
 Rome2Rio Multimodal Door-to-door Integrated Booking Planning Only myTripSets
 MakeMyTrip Wanderio
 FromAtoB
 CityMapper
 Moovit 137
  138. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Platform and Ecosystems 138
  139. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Platform: What Are We Doing That’s Bigger Than Us? • Platform is one of the most misunderstood ideas in the world of the Digital world. • Platforms can be accidental or intentional. • A platform is a foundational product that moves beyond product status by encouraging others to build, play, and/or iterate on top of it. • The value and utility of the system is continually being discovered and expanded not just by the organization, but by its users and customers. • Platforms are shared innovation engines that outsource the costly and uncertain discovery process. • Many platforms today are 100% software, but they don’t have to be. • AirBnB and Uber turned the physical world (cars and housing) into a platform for millions. Source: Aaron Dignan Medium blog Post 139
  140. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Platform: What Are We Doing That’s Bigger Than Us? • Users are building businesses on the back of the platform, and in some cases changing how they operate in order to better serve the platform. • Establishing a platform in the center of a robust digital ecosystem requires a digital operating model, one that is appropriately permeable to third parties that can co-create new value from what a company and others have to offer. Source: Aaron Dignan Medium blog Post From a platform the company builds upon to a platform the world builds upon! 140
  141. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 PlannerStack http://www.plannerstack.com/ 141
  142. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 A-Mano – Geolocalised Platform in-situ http://www.a-mano.fr/ 142
  143. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 CitizenData http://www.cityzendata.com/ 143
  144. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 CitizenGate http://www.citizengate.com/ 144
  145. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 GE Predix: Platform for Industrial Age https://www.gesoftware.com/platform 145
  146. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Daimler Mobility Services Moovel https://www.moovel.com/ GottaPark 146
  147. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Simpli-City • Mobility Service Framework • A next-generation European-wide service platform allowing the creation of mobility-related services as well as the creation of corresponding Apps. • This will enable third party providers to produce a wide range of interoperable, value- added services, and Apps for road users. • Mobility-related Data as a Service • A framework for the integration of various different data sources like sensors, cooperative systems, telematics, open data repositories, people-centric sensing, and media data streams, so that these data can be accessed and utilised in a unified way. • Personal Mobility Assistant • An end user assistant that allows road users to make easily use of the information provided by Apps and to interact with them based on a speech recognition approach. http://www.simpli-city.eu 147
  148. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Simpli-City http://www.simpli-city.eu 148
  149. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 CitizenGate http://www.citizengate.com/ 149
  150. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 eBay Hotels In Germany http://www.ebay.de/rpp/reisen 150
  151. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Other Platforms http://www.covoiturage.fr/ http://www.kelbillet.fr/ 151
  152. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 HopOn: Smart Mobile Ticketting http://hopon.co/home/ 152
  153. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Platform Ecosystems are created Through APIs The new digital, networked, real-time society forces us to start thinking and acting as an ecosystem. Ecosystems are developed using platforms to glue services via API and funds to encourage startups and partners to hook in Source: PWC, Exploiting the growing value from information 153
  154. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Three types of public transport APIs 1. The first is created by volunteers who just scrape the data. As the API creators are also reusing them, the format and vocabulary for their responses and resources are often custom made for their specific use case. • Examples: Swiss Public Transport API, Belgium iRail 2. A second type of APIs are the ones created by data owners or the transport companies themselves. • They are set up in order to stimulate reuse for use cases they have in mind. The problem with these APIs is that often there are rate limits; it is hard to get through the user agreements; they have awkward SOAP/XML constructions; and they don't follow existing specifications such as SIRI or GTFS-realtime.” • Examples: Dutch Railways, French National Railways Source: ProgrammableWeb 154
  155. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Three types of public transport APIs 3. A third type of APIs are the ones created by a consortium of stakeholders reusing the API and the data owner. • The API comes to exist after different people with different use cases are putting forward some resources they need, when they also add how the response should look like, and maybe help build these APIs on top of Open Data. • Examples: Bliksem Labs, Navitia, OpenTripPlanner Source: ProgrammableWeb 155
  156. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Stichting OpenGeo (Netherlands) http://opengeo.nl/ 156
  157. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Transport API Britain • The Transport API has about 600 developers, and while initial growth focused on smartphone apps, it is seeing greater uptake among hyperlocal applications offered by larger enterprises. • Becoming a data aggregator is one approach to commercialization that may suit some developers. For Transport API, the opportunities to service new markets is continually growing. • Commercial API license model has drawn in hyperlocal customers like ScreachTV and Toothpick • It is also servicing large government authorities and global franchises operating in the U.K. • Heathrow airport populating their kiosk screens and websites. 157
  158. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Transport API Britain http://transportapi.com/ 158
  159. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Transport API Britain Target the developers! 159
  160. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Transport API Britain (Bus. Model) 160
  161. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Metropolitan Transit Authority of New York (MTA) • The Metropolitan Transit Authority of New York (MTA) provides the MTA API for access to New York’s subway and bus GTFS data feeds. • A new policy will require developers to register for an API key before being granted access to the API data. • Since the MTA began publishing its open data in 2008, over 200 mobile apps using MTA data have been launched by the developer community • MTA’s terms and conditions of use require developers “to download and host the data on the developer's or a third party's server and to make the data available to others who will access the server provided by the developer.” (Original emphasis in the terms and conditions.) Source: ProgrammableWeb 161
  162. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 MTA Developers Discussions Target the developers! 162
  163. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Queensland Australia • The state of Queensland, in Australia, has responsibility for managing public transport services for its cities, including Brisbane. • Its Department of Transport and Main Roads’ TransLink division has released the OPIA API, which strongly recommends that developers build their own server-side service that wraps the TransLink API and to use caching of all data except the data needed for immediate journey planning. Source: ProgrammableWeb 163
  164. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: TransitCast • Writing an API on top of existing APIs, perhaps by augmenting additional information, is definitely a viable business model. • This is the approach TransiCast has taken: • specialized in aggregating transit data across North America • working on curating public transportation data access on GoogleTransitDataFeed since 2006, with no association with Google • Out of the 300 feeds covered, about 20 require API keys, and they keep those as issued by the agency to developers, to place calls to the agency web services • Use Google App Engine (GAE) Source: ProgrammableWeb 164
  165. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: TransitCast http://transicast.com/ 165
  166. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: City Service Dev. Kit • Co-funded by the European Union, developer-facing API design-model that hopes to become a standard across European cities http://www.citysdk.eu/ 166
  167. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 API: Others • TriMet in Portland waqs one of the first having implemented GTFS and real- time feeds and have a host of experience • Use Microsoft Azure • Transport for London has pioneered the bulk delivery of real-time data as well as targeted real-time APIs at large scale. • Use Microsoft Azure • Navitia is an emerging open source API platform for public transport data. • Contributors are being invited to upload transport data to the platform for their cities, and six cities are already available. • The API provides a common transit glossary so that developers can scale applications for cities using the same resource calls. Source: ProgrammableWeb 167
  168. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal Door-To-Door is the future of mobility 168
  169. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Multimodal Door-To-Door is the future of mobility • Door-to-door app are starting on the lower-end of the market offering local mobile transit information and now booking. • Then, with time, they will grow and target the major cities, then some key regions and all transports mode. • These companies are looking for growth, targeting the major revenue niches • Multimodal Search and online booking, real time transportation data will merge to create new kind of virtual mobility assistant: The IPITA 169
  170. Copyright © William El Kaim 2015 Key Resources • Tristram Grabener blog and PHD thesis (in French) • Frost & Sullivan’s Future of Mobility • Mobility Lab Transit Tech Initiative Claudine O'Sullivan http://www.claudineosullivan.com/ Email : info@claudineosullivan.com William(at)el-kaim(point)com 
 +33 6 41 73 00 34 http://fr.linkedin.com/in/williamelkaim http://www.twitter.com/welkaim http://www.slideshare.net/welkaim 170

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