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Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
ID KAIST postgraduate seminar (07/04/2020)
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Understanding and scaling up upcycling for
transition towards a circular economy
Kyungeun Sung, Product Design, School of Design, De Montfort University, UK
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Personal introduction
 2001-2004 BSc in Industrial Design
 2005-2007 Product Designer in Samsung Electronics
 2007-2010 MSc in Strategic Product Design
 2011-2012 Design Researcher and UX Designer in LG Electronics
 2012-2013 Lecturer in Industrial Design and Technology
 2013-2017 PhD in Sustainable Design
 2017 Research Associate/Fellow
 2017-current VC2020 Lecturer in Product Design
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling
http://www.sarahturner.co.uk/Cola%2010/cola30.html
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling
Creation or modification of a product from used materials, components or
products which is of equal or higher quality or value than the compositional
elements
Cradle to cradle: Remaking the way we make things by
William McDonough and Michael Braungart (2002)
“[…] a technical nutrient is a material or product that is
designed to go back into the technical cycle, into the
industrial metabolism from which it came. […] Isolating them
from biological nutrients allows them to be upcycled rather
than recycled – to retain their high quality in a closed-loop
industrial cycle.” (pp.109-110)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
 An umbrella concept which
incorporates ‘creative’ repair, reuse,
refurbishment, upgrade, recreation,
remanufacture, recycling and more
 Alternative consumption (cf.
replacement purchase)
 Alternative production (cf. based on
virgin materials)
 Main practices in circular economy
Upcycling as a concept
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/concept/infographic
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling – creative repair
http://www.angharadmclaren.co.uk/#/weaving-darns/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling – creative reuse and/or repurpose
https://static.boredpanda.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/creative-diy-repurposing-reusing-upcycling-2-coverimage.jpg
https://sbly-web-prod-shareably.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/13143654/40_ways_reuse_glass_bottles_featured.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling – creative refurbishment
http://www.upcycledfurniture.co.uk/product/the-american-fluted-chair/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling – creative upgrade
https://www.housebeautiful.com/home-remodeling/diy-projects/g2826/best-ikea-hacks/?slide=24
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling – creative recreation
https://www.sarahturner.co.uk/
https://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/product/2295-tweed-man-bag
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Benefits of upcycling
Environmental:
 extending lifetimes of used products, components and materials 
increasing material efficiency + reducing industrial energy consumption
 lowering GHGs
 Reducing solid waste (Bramston & Maycroft, 2013)
Economic: creating jobs (businesses) + saving money (consumers)
Social: offering jobs for disadvantaged people (businesses) +
emotional/psychological well-being (consumers)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Trends in upcycling
Promoted and practiced by individuals as a lifestyle of
reduction and towards sustainable consumption
Living simple, free & happy by Cristin Frank (2013)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Trends in upcycling
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Trends in upcycling
Promoted and practiced by entrepreneurs as part of waste
management strategy and sustainable production
Outsmart waste: The modern idea of
garbage and how to think our way out of it
by Tom Szaky (2014)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular
Economy
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/concept/infographic
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Linear economy
https://ec.europa.eu/environment/legal/law/6/pdf/01_aile_waste_law_circular_economy_speakers_notes.pdf
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy
The Circular Economy in
Nature by Walter R. Stahel
“[…] A circular economy
would turn goods that are at
the end of their service life
into resources for others,
closing loops in industrial
ecosystems and minimizing
waste.”
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy
Source: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy
 UN SDG 12: Responsible consumption and production
 European Commission: new Circular Economy Package
 WRAP: visions and support for the UK CE
 Ellen McArthur Foundation
 China: national strategies
 …
https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg12
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm
http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612006117
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.ifixit.com/; https://repaircafe.org/en/ https://therestartproject.org/groups/restarters-leicester/
Circular economy in practice: repair
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
http://www.roathcardiff.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/450-
Oxfam-shop-Albany-Road-300x224.jpg
https://www.letsrecycle.com/wp-
content/uploads/2016/07/charity-shop-crop.gif
http://www.mswandas.co.uk/wp-
content/uploads/2012/05/cancer_researchfront.jpg
https://www.ilovefreegle.org/https://www.ebay.co.uk/ https://www.gumtree.com/
Circular economy in practice: reuse/redistribute
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.uber.com/en-GB/; http://www.Airbnb.co.uk
Circular economy in practice: share
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
http://www.lighting.philips.co.uk/services/lighting-capital https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get2/I0000HVv1ygOo1nA/fit=1000x750/UK-Laundrette-0161.jpg
Circular economy in practice: PSS (Product Service System)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy in practice: upcycling
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://shop.fairphone.com/en/
Circular economy in practice: product design for
repair, reuse, upcycling, etc.
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Scaling up
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Transition
 Specific types of socio-technical changes involving changes in
perceptions, behaviours, technologies, environments, rules and
regulations, etc.
 Characterised by a non-linear, long-term, structural transformation
 Fundamental changes in dominant way of fulfilling a societal needs
 Multi-level perspective: one of the sub-fields in transition theory to
explain the dynamics of transitions
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Multi-level perspective
 Niches: new or alternative practices
and their related culture and
structure
 Regimes: mainstream
activities/practices to fulfil the
societal needs
 Landscape: environment of the
societal system encompassing large-
scale and long-term development
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Scaling up
 Dynamic process of transitioning from
niche to mainstream in niche-regime or
regime
 The consequences: fundamental
changes in the prevailing way through
which societal needs are met
 Not limited in the size of operations –
also concerning quantity, frequency,
efficiency, effectiveness and quality
related to practices
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Evolution of design for sustainability
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142694X16300631
 Product innovation level
 Product-service system innovation level
 Spatio-social innovation level
 Socio-technical system innovation level
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable production and consumption by upcycling:
Understanding and scaling up niche environmentally
significant behaviour
http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
How my upcycling research started in 2013
UK target: Reductions
in GHGs by 80% from
1990 levels by 2050.
Government’s
commitment: RCUK
Energy Programme.
CIE-MAP goal: Identify opportunities that may
ultimately deliver a reduction in GHGs.
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
How my upcycling research was shaped in 2013-14
 DoS: Prof. Tim Cooper in Sustainable
Consumption (Nottingham Trent University)
 2nd supervisor: Prof. Sarah Kettley in Material
and Design Innovation (University of
Edinburgh)
 Multidisciplinary research between design,
psychology, sociology and policy studies
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
How my upcycling research was shaped in 2013-14
 Sustainable consumption by product lifetime extension (cf. optimisation in some cases, e.g.
energy-efficient products)
 Strategies for product lifetime extension: (1) increased intrinsic durability; (2) repair; (3)
reuse; (4) upgrading; (5) increased product attachment; …
 Challenges for product lifetime extension: (1) negative perception on longer life products;
(2) planned obsolescence by manufacturers; (3) more frequent relative obsolescence than
absolute obsolescence; (4) high cost of labour; …
 Combination of strategies: repair + reuse + upgrade + increase product attachment +
do/make it yourself
 Consumer upcycling as an alternative to durable design and repair service, and product
attachment through upcycling
 Research needs in upcycling by consumers
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
ICECESS 2015
https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14640
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Consumer trends
 An increase in the overall number of
practitioners aided by physical and
digital resources
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Research question
Upcycling
 Upcycling  extended lifetimes  increased
material efficiency  reduced embodied energy
 GHGs reduction
 Despite potential benefits and seemingly
increased practices, a marginal activity
 Scaled up  transition to circular economy
 How can this emerging, yet still marginal activity,
be scaled up into a mainstream everyday activity
in households and beyond to have a significant
impact on environment and society?
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
 Aim: develop actionable strategies for scaling-up upcycling in
households and beyond with the ultimate goal of reducing carbon
emissions in the UK
 Objectives:
a) Gain insights into upcycling in the UK
b) Identify UK-specific key behavioural factors for upcycling
c) Develop appropriate interventions for scaling up upcycling
Aims and objectives
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Interviews
Survey
Semi-Delphi
Overarching framework
Kyungeun Sung / School of Designhttps://www.drs2016.org/391
Overarching
framework
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
 Semi-structured interview with 23 British residents with practical
upcycling experiences
 Sampling: Hackspaces/makerspaces in England through Google fora
 Interview schedule: context of and approaches to upcycling + factors
influencing upcycling
 Interviewees: from 9 cities; 24-66 years old; 74% British; 65% males;
52% in science and engineering and 30% in art and design
 Thematic analysis with QSR NVivo
Interviews: Methods
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
 Current upcycling behaviour:
– Primarily utilising wood, metal and fabric mainly from online platforms
selected mostly for value, cost and quality to create something for
themselves at any suitable time at home
 Factors influencing upcycling:
– Practical, socio-cultural, psychological, environmental benefits
– Environmentally conscious norm + occupational and relationship roles
– Competence, materials, space, social situation, cultural perception, tools,
spare time and interest
Interviews:
Results
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-47883-8_12
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
 Links between upcycling, product
attachment and longevity:
– Upcycling’s high chance to develop
strong attachment, leading to
longevity
Interviews:
Results
including short
questionnaire
https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14641
https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14727
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Survey: Methods
 Online survey with 122 British residents
 Sampling: websites identified through interviews
 Questions: Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour + Ajzen’s Theory
of Planned Behaviour
 Respondents: 52% females; 52% between 30 and 49 + 30% of 50 years
old and over; 90% British; 84% White-British; 71% completed higher
education; 30% of £20-40K + 22% of under £20K + 16% of £40-60K;
29% in creative arts and design + 26% in science and engineering
 Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, logistic regression and non-
parametric statistics for comparing groups with SPSS
Kyungeun Sung / School of Designhttp://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2559/
Survey:
Methods
Kyungeun Sung / School of Designhttps://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/870
Survey: Methods
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Survey: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/870
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Survey: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/870
 Females
 Aged 30+
 Working in art and design
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Developing
interventions
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Developing
interventions
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Developing
interventions
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Semi-Delphi: Methods
 Initial promising interventions based on interview + survey
 Questionnaire + workshop with 25 British experts
 Sampling: expertise-base + CIEMAP
 Questions: importance + feasibility + suitable actors
 Participants: 60% males; Green Alliance + Greengage + 8 Universities; in policy,
engineering, psychology, sociology, art and design, business management and
economics
 Simple statistical analysis + reporting of the workshop results without
interpretation
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Semi-Delphi: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Semi-Delphi: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
 High priority interventions for the short term
– Community workshops
– TV shows and other inspirational media
 Medium priority interventions for the short term
– Upcycle centre aligned with existing waste management system
– Service model for improved materials provision
– Changing government procurement
– Community-based events
 Priority interventions for the long term
Semi-Delphi: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Semi-Delphi: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Semi-Delphi: Results
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Challenges and support for scaling up upcycling
businesses in the UK
https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14805
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Little side projects during PhD
 Stakeholder
workshop
 N=12
 Small group
 Discussion
 Mapping
https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14805
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Challenges and opportunities for scaling up
upcycling businesses – The case of textile and
wood upcycling businesses in the UK
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Background and scope
 Materials Research Seed-Corn fund at NTU
 Interdisciplinary research between design and business
 Micro, small and medium sized enterprises
 Upcycling as design and manufacturing/fabrication practice
 Focusing on used timber and textiles
 Stakeholder perspectives
 Short-term project
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Aim and objectives
 Aim: identify challenges and opportunities for scaling up upcycling
businesses in the context of UK SMEs in the manufacturing (both
industrial and craft) sector focusing on textiles and wood waste streams
 Objectives:
a) Identify perceived challenges and opportunities for scaling up
upcycling-based SMEs in the UK, mainly utilising wood and textiles
b) Create a theoretical model to explain the interrelationships between
the factors
c) Critically discuss the findings and suggest promising interventions
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Methods
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
22 practitioners + 7 consumers
5 stakeholders + 7 experts
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Results
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Results
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Results
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Results
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
 Increasing consumer demand for the
upcycled products
 Effective marketing of the upcycled
products
 Provision of critical resources to the
makers/designers
 Improving the availability of materials
for the suppliers
 Need for collaboration across the
upcycling value chain
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Interventions for scaling up upcycling
and continuous research
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Interventions for scaling up upcycling
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Community event
 Being Human 2018 Festival: Art with Upcycling
 One man’s trash is another man’s resource for
upcycling-based art.
 One-day co-creation event with Michelle Reader
 Making remarkable art pieces by upcycling
 Learning history of recycled art
 New Walk Museum & Art Gallery
http://www.michelle-reader.co.uk/
https://www.slideshare.net/skesung/art-with-upcycling-origins-and-endings
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Art with
Upcycling
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Action research
 Questionnaire (n=47)
Source: forthcoming conference paper from International Conference on Resource Sustainability 2020
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Case study on Seoul Upcycling Plaza
http://www.seoulup.or.kr/
Source: forthcoming conference paper from ICRS2020
 Observation
 Email interview (n=5)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling for teaching and learning in HE
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-15604-6_23
https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/18901
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
International Upcycling Symposium
https://www.dmu.ac.uk/about-dmu/events/events-
calendar/2020/september/international-upcycling-symposium-2020-research-
and-practice.aspx
1000 words extended abstract submission by 15 June 2020
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Special Issue of Sustainability
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability/special_issues/Sustainable_Consumption_Production_Upcycling
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Any questions?
Further questions
kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
0116 207 8498https://i.pinimg.com/originals/71/93/b0/7193b0002d52dcd6ecb0a78394d85543.png

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Understanding and scaling up upcycling for transition towards a circular economy

  • 1. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design ID KAIST postgraduate seminar (07/04/2020) Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Understanding and scaling up upcycling for transition towards a circular economy Kyungeun Sung, Product Design, School of Design, De Montfort University, UK
  • 2. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Personal introduction  2001-2004 BSc in Industrial Design  2005-2007 Product Designer in Samsung Electronics  2007-2010 MSc in Strategic Product Design  2011-2012 Design Researcher and UX Designer in LG Electronics  2012-2013 Lecturer in Industrial Design and Technology  2013-2017 PhD in Sustainable Design  2017 Research Associate/Fellow  2017-current VC2020 Lecturer in Product Design
  • 3. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling http://www.sarahturner.co.uk/Cola%2010/cola30.html
  • 4. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling Creation or modification of a product from used materials, components or products which is of equal or higher quality or value than the compositional elements Cradle to cradle: Remaking the way we make things by William McDonough and Michael Braungart (2002) “[…] a technical nutrient is a material or product that is designed to go back into the technical cycle, into the industrial metabolism from which it came. […] Isolating them from biological nutrients allows them to be upcycled rather than recycled – to retain their high quality in a closed-loop industrial cycle.” (pp.109-110)
  • 5. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design  An umbrella concept which incorporates ‘creative’ repair, reuse, refurbishment, upgrade, recreation, remanufacture, recycling and more  Alternative consumption (cf. replacement purchase)  Alternative production (cf. based on virgin materials)  Main practices in circular economy Upcycling as a concept https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/concept/infographic
  • 6. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling – creative repair http://www.angharadmclaren.co.uk/#/weaving-darns/
  • 7. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling – creative reuse and/or repurpose https://static.boredpanda.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/creative-diy-repurposing-reusing-upcycling-2-coverimage.jpg https://sbly-web-prod-shareably.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/13143654/40_ways_reuse_glass_bottles_featured.jpg
  • 8. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling – creative refurbishment http://www.upcycledfurniture.co.uk/product/the-american-fluted-chair/
  • 9. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling – creative upgrade https://www.housebeautiful.com/home-remodeling/diy-projects/g2826/best-ikea-hacks/?slide=24
  • 10. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling – creative recreation https://www.sarahturner.co.uk/ https://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/product/2295-tweed-man-bag
  • 11. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Benefits of upcycling Environmental:  extending lifetimes of used products, components and materials  increasing material efficiency + reducing industrial energy consumption  lowering GHGs  Reducing solid waste (Bramston & Maycroft, 2013) Economic: creating jobs (businesses) + saving money (consumers) Social: offering jobs for disadvantaged people (businesses) + emotional/psychological well-being (consumers)
  • 12. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Trends in upcycling Promoted and practiced by individuals as a lifestyle of reduction and towards sustainable consumption Living simple, free & happy by Cristin Frank (2013)
  • 13. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Trends in upcycling
  • 14. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Trends in upcycling Promoted and practiced by entrepreneurs as part of waste management strategy and sustainable production Outsmart waste: The modern idea of garbage and how to think our way out of it by Tom Szaky (2014)
  • 15. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular Economy https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/concept/infographic
  • 16. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Linear economy https://ec.europa.eu/environment/legal/law/6/pdf/01_aile_waste_law_circular_economy_speakers_notes.pdf
  • 17. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy The Circular Economy in Nature by Walter R. Stahel “[…] A circular economy would turn goods that are at the end of their service life into resources for others, closing loops in industrial ecosystems and minimizing waste.”
  • 18. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy Source: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram
  • 19. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy  UN SDG 12: Responsible consumption and production  European Commission: new Circular Economy Package  WRAP: visions and support for the UK CE  Ellen McArthur Foundation  China: national strategies  … https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg12 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612006117
  • 20. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.ifixit.com/; https://repaircafe.org/en/ https://therestartproject.org/groups/restarters-leicester/ Circular economy in practice: repair
  • 21. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design http://www.roathcardiff.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/450- Oxfam-shop-Albany-Road-300x224.jpg https://www.letsrecycle.com/wp- content/uploads/2016/07/charity-shop-crop.gif http://www.mswandas.co.uk/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/cancer_researchfront.jpg https://www.ilovefreegle.org/https://www.ebay.co.uk/ https://www.gumtree.com/ Circular economy in practice: reuse/redistribute
  • 22. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.uber.com/en-GB/; http://www.Airbnb.co.uk Circular economy in practice: share
  • 23. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design http://www.lighting.philips.co.uk/services/lighting-capital https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get2/I0000HVv1ygOo1nA/fit=1000x750/UK-Laundrette-0161.jpg Circular economy in practice: PSS (Product Service System)
  • 24. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy in practice: upcycling
  • 25. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://shop.fairphone.com/en/ Circular economy in practice: product design for repair, reuse, upcycling, etc.
  • 26. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Scaling up https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 27. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Transition  Specific types of socio-technical changes involving changes in perceptions, behaviours, technologies, environments, rules and regulations, etc.  Characterised by a non-linear, long-term, structural transformation  Fundamental changes in dominant way of fulfilling a societal needs  Multi-level perspective: one of the sub-fields in transition theory to explain the dynamics of transitions
  • 28. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Multi-level perspective  Niches: new or alternative practices and their related culture and structure  Regimes: mainstream activities/practices to fulfil the societal needs  Landscape: environment of the societal system encompassing large- scale and long-term development
  • 29. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Scaling up  Dynamic process of transitioning from niche to mainstream in niche-regime or regime  The consequences: fundamental changes in the prevailing way through which societal needs are met  Not limited in the size of operations – also concerning quantity, frequency, efficiency, effectiveness and quality related to practices
  • 30. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Evolution of design for sustainability Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142694X16300631  Product innovation level  Product-service system innovation level  Spatio-social innovation level  Socio-technical system innovation level
  • 31. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable production and consumption by upcycling: Understanding and scaling up niche environmentally significant behaviour http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/
  • 32. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design How my upcycling research started in 2013 UK target: Reductions in GHGs by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. Government’s commitment: RCUK Energy Programme. CIE-MAP goal: Identify opportunities that may ultimately deliver a reduction in GHGs.
  • 33. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design How my upcycling research was shaped in 2013-14  DoS: Prof. Tim Cooper in Sustainable Consumption (Nottingham Trent University)  2nd supervisor: Prof. Sarah Kettley in Material and Design Innovation (University of Edinburgh)  Multidisciplinary research between design, psychology, sociology and policy studies
  • 34. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design How my upcycling research was shaped in 2013-14  Sustainable consumption by product lifetime extension (cf. optimisation in some cases, e.g. energy-efficient products)  Strategies for product lifetime extension: (1) increased intrinsic durability; (2) repair; (3) reuse; (4) upgrading; (5) increased product attachment; …  Challenges for product lifetime extension: (1) negative perception on longer life products; (2) planned obsolescence by manufacturers; (3) more frequent relative obsolescence than absolute obsolescence; (4) high cost of labour; …  Combination of strategies: repair + reuse + upgrade + increase product attachment + do/make it yourself  Consumer upcycling as an alternative to durable design and repair service, and product attachment through upcycling  Research needs in upcycling by consumers
  • 35. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design ICECESS 2015 https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14640
  • 36. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Consumer trends  An increase in the overall number of practitioners aided by physical and digital resources
  • 37. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Research question Upcycling  Upcycling  extended lifetimes  increased material efficiency  reduced embodied energy  GHGs reduction  Despite potential benefits and seemingly increased practices, a marginal activity  Scaled up  transition to circular economy  How can this emerging, yet still marginal activity, be scaled up into a mainstream everyday activity in households and beyond to have a significant impact on environment and society?
  • 38. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design  Aim: develop actionable strategies for scaling-up upcycling in households and beyond with the ultimate goal of reducing carbon emissions in the UK  Objectives: a) Gain insights into upcycling in the UK b) Identify UK-specific key behavioural factors for upcycling c) Develop appropriate interventions for scaling up upcycling Aims and objectives
  • 39. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Interviews Survey Semi-Delphi Overarching framework
  • 40. Kyungeun Sung / School of Designhttps://www.drs2016.org/391 Overarching framework
  • 41. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design  Semi-structured interview with 23 British residents with practical upcycling experiences  Sampling: Hackspaces/makerspaces in England through Google fora  Interview schedule: context of and approaches to upcycling + factors influencing upcycling  Interviewees: from 9 cities; 24-66 years old; 74% British; 65% males; 52% in science and engineering and 30% in art and design  Thematic analysis with QSR NVivo Interviews: Methods
  • 42. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design  Current upcycling behaviour: – Primarily utilising wood, metal and fabric mainly from online platforms selected mostly for value, cost and quality to create something for themselves at any suitable time at home  Factors influencing upcycling: – Practical, socio-cultural, psychological, environmental benefits – Environmentally conscious norm + occupational and relationship roles – Competence, materials, space, social situation, cultural perception, tools, spare time and interest Interviews: Results https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-47883-8_12
  • 43. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design  Links between upcycling, product attachment and longevity: – Upcycling’s high chance to develop strong attachment, leading to longevity Interviews: Results including short questionnaire https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14641 https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14727
  • 44. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Survey: Methods  Online survey with 122 British residents  Sampling: websites identified through interviews  Questions: Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour + Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour  Respondents: 52% females; 52% between 30 and 49 + 30% of 50 years old and over; 90% British; 84% White-British; 71% completed higher education; 30% of £20-40K + 22% of under £20K + 16% of £40-60K; 29% in creative arts and design + 26% in science and engineering  Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, logistic regression and non- parametric statistics for comparing groups with SPSS
  • 45. Kyungeun Sung / School of Designhttp://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2559/ Survey: Methods
  • 46. Kyungeun Sung / School of Designhttps://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/870 Survey: Methods
  • 47. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Survey: Results https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/870
  • 48. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Survey: Results https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/870  Females  Aged 30+  Working in art and design
  • 49. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Developing interventions https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 50. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Developing interventions https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 51. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Developing interventions https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 52. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Semi-Delphi: Methods  Initial promising interventions based on interview + survey  Questionnaire + workshop with 25 British experts  Sampling: expertise-base + CIEMAP  Questions: importance + feasibility + suitable actors  Participants: 60% males; Green Alliance + Greengage + 8 Universities; in policy, engineering, psychology, sociology, art and design, business management and economics  Simple statistical analysis + reporting of the workshop results without interpretation
  • 53. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Semi-Delphi: Results https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 54. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Semi-Delphi: Results https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 55. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design  High priority interventions for the short term – Community workshops – TV shows and other inspirational media  Medium priority interventions for the short term – Upcycle centre aligned with existing waste management system – Service model for improved materials provision – Changing government procurement – Community-based events  Priority interventions for the long term Semi-Delphi: Results https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 56. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Semi-Delphi: Results https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 57. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Semi-Delphi: Results https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 58. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Challenges and support for scaling up upcycling businesses in the UK https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14805
  • 59. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Little side projects during PhD  Stakeholder workshop  N=12  Small group  Discussion  Mapping https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14805
  • 60. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Challenges and opportunities for scaling up upcycling businesses – The case of textile and wood upcycling businesses in the UK https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
  • 61. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Background and scope  Materials Research Seed-Corn fund at NTU  Interdisciplinary research between design and business  Micro, small and medium sized enterprises  Upcycling as design and manufacturing/fabrication practice  Focusing on used timber and textiles  Stakeholder perspectives  Short-term project
  • 62. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Aim and objectives  Aim: identify challenges and opportunities for scaling up upcycling businesses in the context of UK SMEs in the manufacturing (both industrial and craft) sector focusing on textiles and wood waste streams  Objectives: a) Identify perceived challenges and opportunities for scaling up upcycling-based SMEs in the UK, mainly utilising wood and textiles b) Create a theoretical model to explain the interrelationships between the factors c) Critically discuss the findings and suggest promising interventions
  • 63. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Methods https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349 22 practitioners + 7 consumers 5 stakeholders + 7 experts
  • 64. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Results https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
  • 65. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Results https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
  • 66. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Results https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349
  • 67. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Results https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303349  Increasing consumer demand for the upcycled products  Effective marketing of the upcycled products  Provision of critical resources to the makers/designers  Improving the availability of materials for the suppliers  Need for collaboration across the upcycling value chain
  • 68. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Interventions for scaling up upcycling and continuous research
  • 69. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Interventions for scaling up upcycling https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/14/2778
  • 70. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Community event  Being Human 2018 Festival: Art with Upcycling  One man’s trash is another man’s resource for upcycling-based art.  One-day co-creation event with Michelle Reader  Making remarkable art pieces by upcycling  Learning history of recycled art  New Walk Museum & Art Gallery http://www.michelle-reader.co.uk/ https://www.slideshare.net/skesung/art-with-upcycling-origins-and-endings
  • 71. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Art with Upcycling
  • 72. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Action research  Questionnaire (n=47) Source: forthcoming conference paper from International Conference on Resource Sustainability 2020
  • 73. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Case study on Seoul Upcycling Plaza http://www.seoulup.or.kr/ Source: forthcoming conference paper from ICRS2020  Observation  Email interview (n=5)
  • 74. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling for teaching and learning in HE https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-15604-6_23 https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/18901
  • 75. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design International Upcycling Symposium https://www.dmu.ac.uk/about-dmu/events/events- calendar/2020/september/international-upcycling-symposium-2020-research- and-practice.aspx 1000 words extended abstract submission by 15 June 2020
  • 76. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Special Issue of Sustainability https://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability/special_issues/Sustainable_Consumption_Production_Upcycling Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020
  • 77. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Any questions? Further questions kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk 0116 207 8498https://i.pinimg.com/originals/71/93/b0/7193b0002d52dcd6ecb0a78394d85543.png