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Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Product Development 2 Design Workshop Series
School of Engineering, University of Liverpool (24/04/2018)
Sustainable design & product development
with circular economy and upcycling
Dr. Kyungeun Sung
Product Design
School of Design
Faculty of Arts, Design and Humanities
Kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Personal introduction
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
2001-2004: BSc in Industrial Design
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
2005-2007: Product Designer
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
2007-current
 2007-2010 MSc in Strategic Product Design
 2011-2012 Design Researcher and UX Designer in Mobile Communication
 2012-2013 Lecturer in Industrial Design and Technology
 2013-2017 PhD in Sustainable Design
 Jan-Sep 2017 Research Associate/Fellow
 Sep 2017-current VC2020 Lecturer in Product Design
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Workshop introduction
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Rationale behind this workshop: UN’s SDGs
Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Rationale behind this workshop: emerging CE
 European Commission: new Circular
Economy Package
 WRAP: visions and support for the
UK CE to 2020
 Ellen McArthur Foundation
 China: national strategies
 …
Source: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm; http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy;
https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612006117
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Rationale behind this workshop: upcycling
Source: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Rationale behind this workshop: upcycling SMEs
Source: http://www.upcycledfurniture.co.uk/product/the-american-fluted-chair/; http://annika-n.co.uk/; http://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Rationale behind this workshop: scaling up
Source: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/
 Niche practices
becoming mainstream
(regimes)
 Interventions across a
range of scales
involving various
actors
 Systems approach
required
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Rationale behind this workshop: system maps
Source: http://www.xinli-lin.com/gg-co-learning/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Learning outcomes
By the end of the workshop, you will be able to:
 Discuss different approaches to sustainable design, production and
consumption (including circular economy and upcycling);
 Explain challenges faced by upcycling-based businesses in the UK; and
 Generate and develop ideas, concepts and system maps to resolve
complex/wicked design problems involving multiple stakeholders (scaling
up upcycling businesses in the UK) individually and as a team
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice/behaviour
 National governments and inter-governmental organisations: national
policies, EU regulations, UN SDGs, etc.
 Local authorities: waste management, recycling, etc.
 Companies: product take-back, CSR activities, etc.
 Designers: design for disassembly, selection of low impact materials, etc.
 Individuals: repair, reuse, recycling, walk/cycling/public transportation
(instead of driving cars), sustainably sourced food, 2nd hand market, etc.
 …
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice example: paper recycling
 Widely practiced
 Rate: 63-73% and improving
steadily
 Recycling bin  collected into bales
 sent to a ‘pulper’ (water and
chemicals)  cut into small pieces
 heated  separate the cellulose
fibres  form the pulp
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice example: paper recycling
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAqVxsEgWIM
Process
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice example: paper recycling
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Gt CO2
Sankey diagram of paper production
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice example: paper recycling
 Increasing the rate of waste paper collection
 Using less energy to pulp recycled paper
 Improving the yield of recycled pulp by improving the separation of ink
and other contaminants from the used paper
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Improving the recycling loop
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice example: paper recycling
Limitations of paper recycling
 Tissue and sanitary paper CANNOT be recycled
 Some paper kept in archives
  80% recycling rates as a realistic limit (CEPI, 2009)
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable practice example: paper recycling
Beyond paper recycling
 Shared use of books, magazines, newspapers, etc.
 Less packaging
 Lighter paper
 Printing on demand
 Removing print for re-use
 E-readers
 …
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Beyond papers and beyond recycling
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sources of global CO2 emissions
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Approximate numbers about key materials
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Concern about escalating demand for materials
 Resource shortages
 Water stress
 Land stress
 By-products and toxic chemicals
 Climate change
 …
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Strategies towards sustainable use of materials
Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
 Use less materials by design
 Reduce yield losses (pre-consumption waste)
 Divert manufacturing scrap for reuse (not recycling)
 Reuse of old components before recycling
 Product lifetime extension
 Final demand reduction
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy
Source: https://www.nature.com/news/the-circular-economy-1.19594
 Turning goods that
are at the end of
their service life into
resources for others,
closing loops in
industrial ecosystems
and minimizing waste
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram
Circular economy
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy
 Waste reduction
 Greater resource productivity
 More competitive UK economy
 Better addressing emerging resource
scarcity issues
 Reducing the environmental impacts
of our production and consumption
in both the UK and abroad
Circular economy in the UK
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/priorities/jobs-growth-and-investment/towards-circular-economy_en
 Circular Economy Package: actions contributing to
“closing the loop” of product lifecycles through greater
recycling and re-use, and bringing benefits for both the
environment and economy
  maximum value and use from all raw materials,
products and waste, fostering energy savings and
reducing GHGs
Circular economy in EU
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.ifixit.com/; https://repaircafe.org/en/ https://therestartproject.org/groups/restarters-leicester/
Circular economy in practice: Repair
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy in practice: Repair
http://www.roathcardiff.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/450-
Oxfam-shop-Albany-Road-300x224.jpg
https://www.letsrecycle.com/wp-
content/uploads/2016/07/charity-shop-crop.gif
http://www.mswandas.co.uk/wp-
content/uploads/2012/05/cancer_researchfront.jpg
https://www.ilovefreegle.org/https://www.ebay.co.uk/ https://www.gumtree.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy in practice: Upcycling
http://www.sarahturner.co.uk/Cola%2010/cola30.html
http://www.upcycledfurniture.co.
uk/product/the-american-fluted-
chair/
http://hbu.h-
cdn.co/assets/15/46/14471861
25-tarva-ikea-hack.jpg
http://www.angharadmclaren.co.uk/
#/weaving-darns/
https://s-media-cache-
ak0.pinimg.com/736x/b2/3d/93/b23d938511
b2da3c389190f91c55cbf9.jpg
https://s-media-cache-
ak0.pinimg.com/736x/6a/e4/04/6ae404c
1afdf06bf5d1e4cf23e7eb8cc.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.uber.com/en-GB/; http://www.Airbnb.co.uk
Circular economy in practice: Share
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Circular economy in practice: PSS (Product Service System)
http://www.lighting.philips.co.uk/services/lighting-capital https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get2/I0000HVv1ygOo1nA/fit=1000x750/UK-Laundrette-0161.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://shop.fairphone.com/en/
Circular economy in practice:
Product design for repair, reuse, upcycling, etc.
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainable design
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Green design
Source: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/design-for-sustainable-change-9782940439775/
 Early 1990s ~
 Design’s ecological
impact
 Focusing on single issue:
e.g. materials or energy
consumption
 Often using recycled
materials
https://designmuseum.org/design/chairs-1990s
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Eco design
 Late 1990s ~
 Holistic view of where designers
should influence
 Throughout the complete life
cycle of the product
 Lifecycle thinking
 Lifecycle assessment
 From efficiency to effectiveness
https://app.sustainableminds.com/learning-center/ecodesign-strategies/strategy-wheel
Source: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/design-for-sustainable-change-9782940439775/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Design for sustainable behaviour
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142694X09000301
 2000~
 Focusing on use phase
 Focusing on resource efficiency
(water, energy, etc.)
 Influencing consumer
behaviour in household
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Design for sustainability (sustainable development)
Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Sustainability
Source: United Nations General Assembly (2005:12) and UNESCO (2001: Preface and Article 3) in https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/design-for-sustainable-change-9782940439775/
Sustainable development
Environment
Society
Economy
Society
Environment Economy
Bearable Equitable
Viable
Sustainable
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Evolution of design for sustainability
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142694X16300631
 Product innovation level
 Product-service system innovation level
 Spatio-social innovation level
 Socio-technical system innovation level
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling research
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Project background
Source: http://ciemap.leeds.ac.uk/
UK target: Reductions
in GHGs by 80% from
1990 levels by 2050.
Government’s
commitment: RCUK
Energy Programme.
CIE-MAP goal: Identify opportunities that may
ultimately deliver a reduction in GHGs.
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling
http://ghk.h-cdn.co/assets/cm/15/11/54ff6adf88ead-peplum.jpg http://www.flashdrivepros.com/Images/1000recoveredflashdrives.jpg
Creation or modification of a product from used materials, components or
products which is of equal or higher quality or value than the compositional
elements (Sung, Cooper & Kettley 2014; Sung 2017)
Source: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/; https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14672
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Benefits of upcycling
Environmental:
 extending lifetimes of used products, components and materials 
increasing material efficiency + reducing industrial energy consumption
(Allwood, Ashby, Gutowski, & Worrell, 2011)  lowering GHGs (Hamit-Haggar, 2012)
 Reducing solid waste (Bramston & Maycroft, 2013)
Economic: creating jobs (businesses) + saving money (consumers)
Social: offering jobs for disadvantaged people (businesses) +
emotional/psychological well-being (consumers) (Politowicz, 2009; Sung, 2017; Sung,
Cooper and Kettley, 2014; Teli, Valia, Maurya, & Shitole, 2014)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Understanding household upcycling behaviour in the UK
Semi-
structured
interview
(n=23)
Online
survey
(n=122)
Semi-
Delphi
(n=25)
Source: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Understanding upcycling-based SMEs in the UK
 Upcycling as design and manufacturing/fabrication practice
 Focusing on used timber and textiles (e.g. furniture and clothing)
 Stakeholder (practitioners + consumers) perspectives on challenges
and success factors for scaling up upcycling-based SMEs in the UK
(interviews; n=29)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Key stakeholders in upcycling businesses in the UK
Material
suppliers
Upcycling
designers &
makers
Retailers
Consumers
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Material suppliers’ perspectives: Challenges
 Increasing cost
 Sourcing materials
 Legislation
 Public misunderstanding
 Macro-economic situation
 …
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Material suppliers’ perspectives: Success factors
 Awareness raising
 Promotion
 Legal and legislative support
 Financial support
 Pressure on companies
 …
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling designers and makers’ perspectives: Challenges
 Difficulty in sourcing materials
 Limited hands-on skills
 Limitation from the materials
 Finding necessary equipment
 One-off nature  high price
 …
http://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/
http://www.urbanupholstery.com/
http://samesister.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Upcycling designers and makers’ perspectives: Success factors
 Material provision system
 Online marketing support
 Employees and apprentices
 Business advice
 Financial support
 …
http://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/
http://www.urbanupholstery.com/
http://samesister.com/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Retailers’ perspectives: Challenges
 Consumers’ negative perception
 Attracting suitable consumers
 Seasonal demand
 Obtaining quality products
 Location of the shop
 …
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Retailers’ perspectives: Success factors
 Reasonable pricing
 Effective online marketing
 Good story/history behind the product
 Celebrity involvement in promotion
 Awareness-raising (e.g. appreciation of
the skills and time for upcycling)
 …
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Consumers’ perspectives: Challenges
 Limited availability and access
 Finding good quality products
 Time and effort
 High price
 Suitability (e.g. size of clothing)
 …
Image source: http://www.bbdirect.com/ckfinder/userfiles/images/Consumers.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Consumers’ perspectives: Success factors
 Bespoke products
 Increased availability
 More information
 One stop shop
 Lowered price
 …
Image source: http://www.bbdirect.com/ckfinder/userfiles/images/Consumers.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Any questions?
Further questions
kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
0116 207 8498https://i.pinimg.com/originals/71/93/b0/7193b0002d52dcd6ecb0a78394d85543.png
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Workshop
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Time Duration Activity Outcome
09:50-10:20 30 mins Individual idea generation Min. 10 ideas
10:20-10:30 10 mins Break
10:30-11:00 30 mins Group idea share and system design System map
11:00-11:30 30 mins individual idea development Min. 3 concepts
11:30-12:00 30 mins Group presentation preparation Ppt presentation
12:00-12:30 30 mins Lunch break
12:30-13:15 45 mins Group presentation 5-min presentation
13:15-13:45 30 mins Feedback
Workshop schedule
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
1. Individual idea generation (30 mins)
 Four client briefs
 Material suppliers / upcycling
designers and makers / retailers
/ consumers
 Client profile
 Problem descriptions
 Goal
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
1. Individual idea generation (30 mins)
10 minutes
20 minutes
 Read the given brief thoroughly and carefully
 Create a mind-map for your comprehension
 Generate a minimum of 10 ideas (rough sketches and
annotations) in A3
 Number each idea
http://www.thrive4kids.ca/mindmap-example2-large.png
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-
NLNvykqT3i8/TcMHGl6rNlI/AAAAAAAAAOk/rU_IsS_iUZ4/s1600/mind%2Bmap.JPG
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Break (10 mins)
Image source: http://www.botswanayouth.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/break.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
2. Group idea share and system design (30 mins)
 System map: supports the
visualisation of stakeholders of
PSS, and facilitates material,
information, and financial flow
among them. Visualises the
importance of flow. Highlights
which stakeholders are involved
and how they interact to
support a specific action of a
stakeholder. (van Halen et al., 2005)
Source: Van Halen, C., Vezzoli, C. and Wimmer, R., 2005. Methodology for product service system innovation: how to develop clean, clever and
competitive strategies in companies. Uitgeverij Van Gorcum.
Source: http://www.xinli-lin.com/gg-co-learning/
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
2. Group idea share and system design (30 mins)
Source: http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/28
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
2. Group idea share and system design (30 mins)
10 minutes
20 minutes
 Explain your brief using the original brief and your mind-map
within the group
 Share your 10 (Min) ideas to achieve the goal
 Select the top 3 (up to 5) ideas per person based on
discussion / voting / etc. as a team
 Create a system map to visualise all stakeholders (material
suppliers, upcycling designers and makers, retailers,
consumers, and more if applicable) and all selected ideas
 Make sure your system map shows interrelationships,
connections and flows between stakeholders, infrastructure,
products, services, activities, information, etc.
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
3. Individual idea/concept development (30 mins)
10 minutes
20 minutes
 Create 3 (Min) variations of each selected idea to explore the
potential of ideas
 Develop the selected ideas into 3 (Min) concepts
 Number each idea and concept
 Put one concept per A3 (or PPT slide if you are using CAD)
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
4. Group presentation preparation (30 mins)
10 minutes
20 minutes
 Scan/photograph selected ideas, system map and concepts
 Update or upgrade the system map if applicable
 Make PowerPoint presentation for 5 minutes, including:
1. All mind-maps and selected idea sketches
2. Initial system map
3. All developed concepts
4. Final system map
5. What you’ve learned today
 Ensure that all team members present
 Email the file (ppt or pdf) to J.Yoon2@liverpool.ac.uk and
Kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Lunch break (30 mins)
Image source: https://www.thesilverline.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Lunch-Break1.jpg
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
5. Group presentation (5 mins per group)
As a presenter:
 Aim for 4’30”
 When you see this sign, prepare to finish: it means you have
one minute left
As an audience:
 Pay attention to other presentations
 Give a big applause after each presentation
Image source: http://www.aussieelectricalandplumbing.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/one-finger.png
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
6. Feedback plenary session (30 mins)
 Feedback questionnaire
https://docs.google.com/forms
/d/e/1FAIpQLSdrhirQNGb5z3X
eTxBfRI03Tu5dDK6ned4--
Xy9kapPrrKgKQ/viewform?c=0
&w=1
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
6. Feedback plenary session (30 mins)
 Whole group discussion:
1. What did you like about today’s workshop?
2. What did you not like about today’s workshop?
3. If you could organise another workshop in the future, what would
you do differently to improve the workshop?
Kyungeun Sung / School of Design
Any questions?
Further questions
kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
0116 207 8498https://i.pinimg.com/originals/71/93/b0/7193b0002d52dcd6ecb0a78394d85543.png

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Sustainable design & product development with circular economy and upcycling

  • 1. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Product Development 2 Design Workshop Series School of Engineering, University of Liverpool (24/04/2018) Sustainable design & product development with circular economy and upcycling Dr. Kyungeun Sung Product Design School of Design Faculty of Arts, Design and Humanities Kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
  • 2. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Personal introduction
  • 3. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 2001-2004: BSc in Industrial Design
  • 4. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 2005-2007: Product Designer
  • 5. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 2007-current  2007-2010 MSc in Strategic Product Design  2011-2012 Design Researcher and UX Designer in Mobile Communication  2012-2013 Lecturer in Industrial Design and Technology  2013-2017 PhD in Sustainable Design  Jan-Sep 2017 Research Associate/Fellow  Sep 2017-current VC2020 Lecturer in Product Design
  • 6. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Workshop introduction
  • 7. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Rationale behind this workshop: UN’s SDGs Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
  • 8. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Rationale behind this workshop: emerging CE  European Commission: new Circular Economy Package  WRAP: visions and support for the UK CE to 2020  Ellen McArthur Foundation  China: national strategies  … Source: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm; http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy; https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612006117
  • 9. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Rationale behind this workshop: upcycling Source: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram
  • 10. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Rationale behind this workshop: upcycling SMEs Source: http://www.upcycledfurniture.co.uk/product/the-american-fluted-chair/; http://annika-n.co.uk/; http://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/
  • 11. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Rationale behind this workshop: scaling up Source: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/  Niche practices becoming mainstream (regimes)  Interventions across a range of scales involving various actors  Systems approach required
  • 12. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Rationale behind this workshop: system maps Source: http://www.xinli-lin.com/gg-co-learning/
  • 13. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Learning outcomes By the end of the workshop, you will be able to:  Discuss different approaches to sustainable design, production and consumption (including circular economy and upcycling);  Explain challenges faced by upcycling-based businesses in the UK; and  Generate and develop ideas, concepts and system maps to resolve complex/wicked design problems involving multiple stakeholders (scaling up upcycling businesses in the UK) individually and as a team
  • 14. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice
  • 15. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice/behaviour  National governments and inter-governmental organisations: national policies, EU regulations, UN SDGs, etc.  Local authorities: waste management, recycling, etc.  Companies: product take-back, CSR activities, etc.  Designers: design for disassembly, selection of low impact materials, etc.  Individuals: repair, reuse, recycling, walk/cycling/public transportation (instead of driving cars), sustainably sourced food, 2nd hand market, etc.  …
  • 16. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice example: paper recycling  Widely practiced  Rate: 63-73% and improving steadily  Recycling bin  collected into bales  sent to a ‘pulper’ (water and chemicals)  cut into small pieces  heated  separate the cellulose fibres  form the pulp Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
  • 17. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice example: paper recycling Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAqVxsEgWIM Process
  • 18. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice example: paper recycling Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/ Gt CO2 Sankey diagram of paper production
  • 19. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice example: paper recycling  Increasing the rate of waste paper collection  Using less energy to pulp recycled paper  Improving the yield of recycled pulp by improving the separation of ink and other contaminants from the used paper Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/ Improving the recycling loop
  • 20. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice example: paper recycling Limitations of paper recycling  Tissue and sanitary paper CANNOT be recycled  Some paper kept in archives   80% recycling rates as a realistic limit (CEPI, 2009) Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
  • 21. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable practice example: paper recycling Beyond paper recycling  Shared use of books, magazines, newspapers, etc.  Less packaging  Lighter paper  Printing on demand  Removing print for re-use  E-readers  … Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
  • 22. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Beyond papers and beyond recycling
  • 23. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sources of global CO2 emissions Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
  • 24. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Approximate numbers about key materials Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
  • 25. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Concern about escalating demand for materials  Resource shortages  Water stress  Land stress  By-products and toxic chemicals  Climate change  … Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/
  • 26. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Strategies towards sustainable use of materials Source: http://www.withbotheyesopen.com/  Use less materials by design  Reduce yield losses (pre-consumption waste)  Divert manufacturing scrap for reuse (not recycling)  Reuse of old components before recycling  Product lifetime extension  Final demand reduction
  • 27. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy
  • 28. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy Source: https://www.nature.com/news/the-circular-economy-1.19594  Turning goods that are at the end of their service life into resources for others, closing loops in industrial ecosystems and minimizing waste
  • 29. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram Circular economy
  • 30. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy  Waste reduction  Greater resource productivity  More competitive UK economy  Better addressing emerging resource scarcity issues  Reducing the environmental impacts of our production and consumption in both the UK and abroad Circular economy in the UK
  • 31. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/priorities/jobs-growth-and-investment/towards-circular-economy_en  Circular Economy Package: actions contributing to “closing the loop” of product lifecycles through greater recycling and re-use, and bringing benefits for both the environment and economy   maximum value and use from all raw materials, products and waste, fostering energy savings and reducing GHGs Circular economy in EU
  • 32. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.ifixit.com/; https://repaircafe.org/en/ https://therestartproject.org/groups/restarters-leicester/ Circular economy in practice: Repair
  • 33. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy in practice: Repair http://www.roathcardiff.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/450- Oxfam-shop-Albany-Road-300x224.jpg https://www.letsrecycle.com/wp- content/uploads/2016/07/charity-shop-crop.gif http://www.mswandas.co.uk/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/cancer_researchfront.jpg https://www.ilovefreegle.org/https://www.ebay.co.uk/ https://www.gumtree.com/
  • 34. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy in practice: Upcycling http://www.sarahturner.co.uk/Cola%2010/cola30.html http://www.upcycledfurniture.co. uk/product/the-american-fluted- chair/ http://hbu.h- cdn.co/assets/15/46/14471861 25-tarva-ikea-hack.jpg http://www.angharadmclaren.co.uk/ #/weaving-darns/ https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/736x/b2/3d/93/b23d938511 b2da3c389190f91c55cbf9.jpg https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/736x/6a/e4/04/6ae404c 1afdf06bf5d1e4cf23e7eb8cc.jpg
  • 35. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://www.uber.com/en-GB/; http://www.Airbnb.co.uk Circular economy in practice: Share
  • 36. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Circular economy in practice: PSS (Product Service System) http://www.lighting.philips.co.uk/services/lighting-capital https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get2/I0000HVv1ygOo1nA/fit=1000x750/UK-Laundrette-0161.jpg
  • 37. Kyungeun Sung / School of DesignSource: https://shop.fairphone.com/en/ Circular economy in practice: Product design for repair, reuse, upcycling, etc.
  • 38. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainable design
  • 39. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Green design Source: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/design-for-sustainable-change-9782940439775/  Early 1990s ~  Design’s ecological impact  Focusing on single issue: e.g. materials or energy consumption  Often using recycled materials https://designmuseum.org/design/chairs-1990s
  • 40. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Eco design  Late 1990s ~  Holistic view of where designers should influence  Throughout the complete life cycle of the product  Lifecycle thinking  Lifecycle assessment  From efficiency to effectiveness https://app.sustainableminds.com/learning-center/ecodesign-strategies/strategy-wheel Source: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/design-for-sustainable-change-9782940439775/
  • 41. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Design for sustainable behaviour Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142694X09000301  2000~  Focusing on use phase  Focusing on resource efficiency (water, energy, etc.)  Influencing consumer behaviour in household
  • 42. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Design for sustainability (sustainable development) Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
  • 43. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Sustainability Source: United Nations General Assembly (2005:12) and UNESCO (2001: Preface and Article 3) in https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/design-for-sustainable-change-9782940439775/ Sustainable development Environment Society Economy Society Environment Economy Bearable Equitable Viable Sustainable
  • 44. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Evolution of design for sustainability Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142694X16300631  Product innovation level  Product-service system innovation level  Spatio-social innovation level  Socio-technical system innovation level
  • 45. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling research
  • 46. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Project background Source: http://ciemap.leeds.ac.uk/ UK target: Reductions in GHGs by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. Government’s commitment: RCUK Energy Programme. CIE-MAP goal: Identify opportunities that may ultimately deliver a reduction in GHGs.
  • 47. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling http://ghk.h-cdn.co/assets/cm/15/11/54ff6adf88ead-peplum.jpg http://www.flashdrivepros.com/Images/1000recoveredflashdrives.jpg Creation or modification of a product from used materials, components or products which is of equal or higher quality or value than the compositional elements (Sung, Cooper & Kettley 2014; Sung 2017) Source: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/; https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/14672
  • 48. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Benefits of upcycling Environmental:  extending lifetimes of used products, components and materials  increasing material efficiency + reducing industrial energy consumption (Allwood, Ashby, Gutowski, & Worrell, 2011)  lowering GHGs (Hamit-Haggar, 2012)  Reducing solid waste (Bramston & Maycroft, 2013) Economic: creating jobs (businesses) + saving money (consumers) Social: offering jobs for disadvantaged people (businesses) + emotional/psychological well-being (consumers) (Politowicz, 2009; Sung, 2017; Sung, Cooper and Kettley, 2014; Teli, Valia, Maurya, & Shitole, 2014)
  • 49. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Understanding household upcycling behaviour in the UK Semi- structured interview (n=23) Online survey (n=122) Semi- Delphi (n=25) Source: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31125/
  • 50. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Understanding upcycling-based SMEs in the UK  Upcycling as design and manufacturing/fabrication practice  Focusing on used timber and textiles (e.g. furniture and clothing)  Stakeholder (practitioners + consumers) perspectives on challenges and success factors for scaling up upcycling-based SMEs in the UK (interviews; n=29)
  • 51. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Key stakeholders in upcycling businesses in the UK Material suppliers Upcycling designers & makers Retailers Consumers
  • 52. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Material suppliers’ perspectives: Challenges  Increasing cost  Sourcing materials  Legislation  Public misunderstanding  Macro-economic situation  …
  • 53. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Material suppliers’ perspectives: Success factors  Awareness raising  Promotion  Legal and legislative support  Financial support  Pressure on companies  …
  • 54. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling designers and makers’ perspectives: Challenges  Difficulty in sourcing materials  Limited hands-on skills  Limitation from the materials  Finding necessary equipment  One-off nature  high price  … http://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/ http://www.urbanupholstery.com/ http://samesister.com/
  • 55. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Upcycling designers and makers’ perspectives: Success factors  Material provision system  Online marketing support  Employees and apprentices  Business advice  Financial support  … http://seadriftdesign.bigcartel.com/ http://www.urbanupholstery.com/ http://samesister.com/
  • 56. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Retailers’ perspectives: Challenges  Consumers’ negative perception  Attracting suitable consumers  Seasonal demand  Obtaining quality products  Location of the shop  …
  • 57. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Retailers’ perspectives: Success factors  Reasonable pricing  Effective online marketing  Good story/history behind the product  Celebrity involvement in promotion  Awareness-raising (e.g. appreciation of the skills and time for upcycling)  …
  • 58. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Consumers’ perspectives: Challenges  Limited availability and access  Finding good quality products  Time and effort  High price  Suitability (e.g. size of clothing)  … Image source: http://www.bbdirect.com/ckfinder/userfiles/images/Consumers.jpg
  • 59. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Consumers’ perspectives: Success factors  Bespoke products  Increased availability  More information  One stop shop  Lowered price  … Image source: http://www.bbdirect.com/ckfinder/userfiles/images/Consumers.jpg
  • 60. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Any questions? Further questions kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk 0116 207 8498https://i.pinimg.com/originals/71/93/b0/7193b0002d52dcd6ecb0a78394d85543.png
  • 61. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Workshop
  • 62. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Time Duration Activity Outcome 09:50-10:20 30 mins Individual idea generation Min. 10 ideas 10:20-10:30 10 mins Break 10:30-11:00 30 mins Group idea share and system design System map 11:00-11:30 30 mins individual idea development Min. 3 concepts 11:30-12:00 30 mins Group presentation preparation Ppt presentation 12:00-12:30 30 mins Lunch break 12:30-13:15 45 mins Group presentation 5-min presentation 13:15-13:45 30 mins Feedback Workshop schedule
  • 63. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 1. Individual idea generation (30 mins)  Four client briefs  Material suppliers / upcycling designers and makers / retailers / consumers  Client profile  Problem descriptions  Goal
  • 64. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 1. Individual idea generation (30 mins) 10 minutes 20 minutes  Read the given brief thoroughly and carefully  Create a mind-map for your comprehension  Generate a minimum of 10 ideas (rough sketches and annotations) in A3  Number each idea http://www.thrive4kids.ca/mindmap-example2-large.png http://3.bp.blogspot.com/- NLNvykqT3i8/TcMHGl6rNlI/AAAAAAAAAOk/rU_IsS_iUZ4/s1600/mind%2Bmap.JPG
  • 65. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Break (10 mins) Image source: http://www.botswanayouth.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/break.jpg
  • 66. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 2. Group idea share and system design (30 mins)  System map: supports the visualisation of stakeholders of PSS, and facilitates material, information, and financial flow among them. Visualises the importance of flow. Highlights which stakeholders are involved and how they interact to support a specific action of a stakeholder. (van Halen et al., 2005) Source: Van Halen, C., Vezzoli, C. and Wimmer, R., 2005. Methodology for product service system innovation: how to develop clean, clever and competitive strategies in companies. Uitgeverij Van Gorcum. Source: http://www.xinli-lin.com/gg-co-learning/
  • 67. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 2. Group idea share and system design (30 mins) Source: http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/28
  • 68. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 2. Group idea share and system design (30 mins) 10 minutes 20 minutes  Explain your brief using the original brief and your mind-map within the group  Share your 10 (Min) ideas to achieve the goal  Select the top 3 (up to 5) ideas per person based on discussion / voting / etc. as a team  Create a system map to visualise all stakeholders (material suppliers, upcycling designers and makers, retailers, consumers, and more if applicable) and all selected ideas  Make sure your system map shows interrelationships, connections and flows between stakeholders, infrastructure, products, services, activities, information, etc.
  • 69. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 3. Individual idea/concept development (30 mins) 10 minutes 20 minutes  Create 3 (Min) variations of each selected idea to explore the potential of ideas  Develop the selected ideas into 3 (Min) concepts  Number each idea and concept  Put one concept per A3 (or PPT slide if you are using CAD)
  • 70. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 4. Group presentation preparation (30 mins) 10 minutes 20 minutes  Scan/photograph selected ideas, system map and concepts  Update or upgrade the system map if applicable  Make PowerPoint presentation for 5 minutes, including: 1. All mind-maps and selected idea sketches 2. Initial system map 3. All developed concepts 4. Final system map 5. What you’ve learned today  Ensure that all team members present  Email the file (ppt or pdf) to J.Yoon2@liverpool.ac.uk and Kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
  • 71. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Lunch break (30 mins) Image source: https://www.thesilverline.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Lunch-Break1.jpg
  • 72. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 5. Group presentation (5 mins per group) As a presenter:  Aim for 4’30”  When you see this sign, prepare to finish: it means you have one minute left As an audience:  Pay attention to other presentations  Give a big applause after each presentation Image source: http://www.aussieelectricalandplumbing.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/one-finger.png
  • 73. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 6. Feedback plenary session (30 mins)  Feedback questionnaire https://docs.google.com/forms /d/e/1FAIpQLSdrhirQNGb5z3X eTxBfRI03Tu5dDK6ned4-- Xy9kapPrrKgKQ/viewform?c=0 &w=1
  • 74. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design 6. Feedback plenary session (30 mins)  Whole group discussion: 1. What did you like about today’s workshop? 2. What did you not like about today’s workshop? 3. If you could organise another workshop in the future, what would you do differently to improve the workshop?
  • 75. Kyungeun Sung / School of Design Any questions? Further questions kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk 0116 207 8498https://i.pinimg.com/originals/71/93/b0/7193b0002d52dcd6ecb0a78394d85543.png