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Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Kyungeun Sung
Supervised by Tim Cooper & Sarah Kettley
Sustainable Consumption Research Group
School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
An alternative approach to influencing
behaviour: Adapting Darnton’s Nine Principles
framework for scaling up individual upcycling
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Table of contents
 Introduction
 Darnton’s Nine Principles framework
 Setting the scene
 Adapted framework and application
 Conclusion
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Introduction
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Introduction: Recent role of design in influencing behaviour
 Traditional role: fulfilling needs and wishes of consumers
 New role: influencing human behaviour for desirable outcomes
 Application: sustainability, crime prevention, health enhancement, safety
(Niedderer, 2013)
 Outcomes: changing undesirable behaviour / reinforcing desirable
behaviour
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Introduction: Research on design for influencing behaviour
 Feasibility of design-led approaches to influence user behaviour to reduce
negative social impacts (Lilley, 2007)
 Framework to bridge the social-psychological theories and design
interventions to reduce environmental household impacts (Tang, 2010)
 Application of Community Based Social Marketing for design interventions
(Clune, 2010)
 Design with Intent Method, innovation tool, for improving user
performance (Lockton et al., 2010)
 …
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Introduction: Gaps in current knowledge
 Focus on products or communication information and graphics
  relative lack in interventions beyond product and communication design
(e.g. service design)
 Increasing interest in design for policy and service innovation in the public
sector (Bason, 2014; 2010; Boyer et al., 2011; European Commission, 2012)
  call for more general or wide-ranging approaches to design and policy
interventions
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Introduction: Aims of the paper
 Critically review Darnton’s Nine Principles framework (Darnton, 2008) as an
overarching framework for design and policy interventions
 Show how the framework can be adapted for relatively unexplored
behaviour with insufficient resources
 Demonstrate the application of the adapted framework through the case of
scaling up individual upcycling
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Darnton’s Nine Principles framework
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Framework: Starting point for behaviour intervention
 Behaviour understanding and behaviour change policies resting on
behaviour models (i.e. antecedents/determinants/factors  behaviour)
 Darnton’s framework designed to “integrate behaviour models with
theoretical understanding of effective approaches and change. The
framework provides a starting point for selecting [appropriate] models and
developing behaviour change interventions” (Darnton, 2008, p. 23)
 Based on theory-based guidance for planning interventions – e.g.
Community Based Social Marketing (McKenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999), Stern’s
Principles (Stern, 2000) – yet emphasis on models (Darnton, 2008)
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Framework: Nine Principles
1. Identify the audience groups and the target behaviour
2. Identify relevant behaviour models and list influencing factors
3. Select the key influencing factors to design objectives for the intervention
4. Identify effective intervention techniques
5. Engage the target audience for the intervention
6. Develop a prototype intervention
7. Pilot the intervention and monitor
8. Evaluate impacts and processes
9. Feedback learning from the evaluation
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Framework: Nine Principles framework
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Framework: Assumptions in Darnton’s framework
 Identify target behaviour and actor = understand behaviour/audience
 Extract key factors from the models and past empirical research = valid and
appropriate in all cases
 Co-create an intervention prototype with actors = prerequisite for
developing interventions
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Framework: Need for adaptation
What if…
 Behaviour under investigation not explored  empirical research required
 Not sufficient resources (e.g. time, financial support) for prototyping and
piloting
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Setting the scene
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Setting the scene: Project background
 UK target: Reduction in GHGs by 80% by 2050
 Government’s commitment: RCUK Energy
Programme establishing six EUED centres
 CIE-MAP: focus on materials and embodied
energy reduction
 PhD research: explore the emerging household
behaviour of upcycling as an important
opportunity to reduce carbon emissions related
to materials and energy consumption
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Setting the scene: (Individual) upcycling
Creation or modification of any product out of used materials in an attempt to
result in a product of higher quality or value than the compositional elements
(Sung, et al., 2014) by individuals (at the household level)
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Setting the scene: Benefits of upcycling when scaled up
 Environmental benefits (Ali et al., 2013; Goldsmith, 2009; Szaky, 2014)
 (-) need for new products > (-) materials and industrial
energy > (-) GHGs
 (-) municipal solid waste > (-) additional landfill spaces
 Economic benefits (Frank, 2013; Lang, 2013)
 Money saving
 SMEs (e.g. Sarah Turner in Sung & Cooper, 2015)
 Sociocultural & psychological benefits (Sung, Cooper & Kettley, 2014)
 Learning & empowering
 Sense of community & relaxing
 …
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
 contemporary Maker Movement (Anderson, 2012; Lang, 2013)
 readily available physical resources (e.g. Hackspaces)
 shared digital resources (e.g. Instructables, Etsy)
Setting the scene: Recent trend in upcycling
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Setting the scene: Research question
 Despite growing interest, still a marginal activity + considering potential
benefits  scaling up (Ceschin, 2012; van den Bosch, 2010)
 How can this emerging, yet still marginal activity, be scaled up into a
mainstream everyday activity in households (and possibly also in
industries) to make a bigger impact on the environment and society?
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework and application
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework: Rationale
 Focus on early stage activities in behaviour intervention
 Understand relatively unexplored behaviour for valid key factors (premise:
identified specific behaviour to target)
 Design effective interventions with limited resources
 Does NOT suggest: prototyping and piloting are unnecessary
 Suggest: split cycle between research-led intervention generation process
and the rest for half-way decision-making and planning
  effectively invest resources in prototyping and piloting of the prioritised
intervention options
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework: Adapted framework with three stages
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework:
 Crucial first step
a) “Different behaviours are driven by different factors and in different
combinations” (Darnton, 2008, p.25)
b) Models determine the scope of the understanding (number of
factors)
 Darnton’s ‘practical guide’ to models (Darnton, 2008): table with 8
behaviour domains and matching behaviour models
Stage one:
Understanding behaviour and consumers
1. Identify behaviour
model for exploration
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Case application:
 Thorough literature review
 Behaviour is complex and should be understood by both internal (e.g.
attitude) and external (e.g. situational conditions) factors (Egmond & Bruel, 2007;
Jackson 2005; Kallbekken, Rise & Westskog, 2008; artiskainen, 2007)
 Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB): recommended through an
extensive review on behaviour models by Jackson (2005) and Martiskainen
(2007); factors shared with a number of comprehensive models (e.g. Feola &
Binder, 2010; Klöckner & Blöbaum, 2010; Kallbekken, Rise, & Westskog, 2008); wider applicability
(e.g. technology adoption behaviour, civic behaviour, dietary behaviour,
sustainable consumption)
Stage one:
Understanding behaviour and consumers
1. Identify behaviour
model for exploration
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework:
 Darnton’s original model: identify actors and behaviour to target
 Could be more exploratory for designers
 Investigate each behaviour factor, consumer profiles
 Qualitative research (e.g. interviews, focus groups, observation)
Stage one:
Understanding behaviour and consumers
2. Understand
behaviour & consumers
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Case application:
 Semi-structured interviews with 23 UK-based consumers
 Based on TIB (perceived benefits, social factors, emotions, habits,
facilitating conditions)
 A variety of elements in each factor
 Potential group differences
Stage one:
Understanding behaviour and consumers
2. Understand
behaviour & consumers
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework:
 Make sure that the selected model is operationalisable for quants
 Refine the behaviour model
 Identify tested instrument by further literature review
Stage two:
Key behaviour factors identification
1. Refine behaviour model
for operationalisation
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Case application:
 Issues in TIB: a) no operational definition of variables (Araujo-Soares &
Presseau, 2008); b) differences in a few adapted models (e.g. Gagnon, et al.,
2008; Bamberg & Schmidt, 2003; Knoeri & Russell, 2014)
 Combine TIB and TPB (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) – one of the
widely used models but with limited prediction/explanation power
– for improved operationalisability and explanation power
Stage two:
Key behaviour factors identification
1. Refine behaviour model
for operationalisation
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework:
 Through quants (e.g. survey) based on the selected model
 Use variables and items identified from the qualitative (e.g.
interview)
 Statistical analysis (e.g. regression analysis): how much behaviour
variance by the model; which factors more influential
Stage two:
Key behaviour factors identification
2. Identify key drivers,
facilitators and barriers
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Case application: Stage two:
Key behaviour factors identification
2. Identify key drivers,
facilitators and barriers
 Internet survey with 122 British residents
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework:
 Benchmark existing intervention strategies
 E.g. 4Es model (Defra, 2005): Enable, Engage, Encourage and Exemplify
 Based on key behaviour factors (to design and prioritise)
 Strategic design (Manzini & Vezzoli, 2003) to come up with design and policy
interventions
Stage three:
Intervention strategies development
1. Design effective
intervention strategies
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Case application: Stage three:
Intervention strategies development
1. Design effective
intervention strategies
 Initial ideas based on the key behaviour factors
 Map onto the table of 4E actions + add extra ideas  MECE
Enable action Intervention/policy category Elements to deliver ① Designer interventions
Local authorities & government
interventions
Provide facilities (Remove
barriers)
Environmental restructuring /
Enablement / service provision /
Environmental or social planning
- Materials ②
- Tools ③
- Space
- Design tool hire/rent service
- Design toolkits for the novice
- Improve material provision service/system
- Improve community workshops
- Provide material collection centre or
reuse/upcycle centre
- Provide community workshops
- Subsidise design interventions
Ensure ability (Provide
skills and capacity)
Education ④ and training /
Enablement
- Curriculum
- Workshop sessions ⑤
- Training
- Events ⑥
- Competitions
- Business service ⑦
- Provide the best upcycling practices
- Provide skills and knowledge
- Provide inductions and training sessions
- Design community events and workshop
sessions
- Advance/develop curriculum in art and
design
- Organise or subsidise community
workshops, training, events,
competitions, and business service
Build understanding [+
provide inspiration]
Persuasion / Communication ⑧
and marketing
- Handbook / brochures
- Social marketing
communications
- Promotion campaigns
- Media demonstration
- Design effective communication and
demonstration materials in prints or online
- Design effective campaigns (wow experience)
- Disseminate print communication
materials
- Initiate and/or subsidise
communication activities
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Adapted framework:
 Important final step before developing prototypes with actors
 Explore and evaluate draft strategies (e.g. by a panel of experts, actors)
 Criteria: desirability, importance (potential impact on scaling up),
feasibility (technical, economic, political)
 Improve draft strategies based on the agreed evaluation results,
suggestions, comments
Stage three:
Intervention strategies development
2. Evaluate and improve the
draft strategies
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Case application:
 Semi-Delphi method: questionnaire study + workshop with experts (n=25)
 Expertise: policy (n=6), engineering (6), psychology (3), sociology (3), art
and design (3), business management (2), and economics (2).
 8 important interventions + 9 feasible interventions (out of 15)
 Multiple suitable actors
 Combination of interventions for short-term and long-term success
Stage three:
Intervention strategies development
2. Evaluate and improve the
draft strategies
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Conclusion
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Conclusion: Summary
 Critically reviewed Darnton’s Nine
Principle’s framework as an overarching
framework to address the need for design
and policy interventions
 Identified limitations from Darnton’s
framework
 Introduced the case: individual upcycling
 Illustrate the adapted framework with case
application
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Conclusion: Contribution
 Theory- and evidence-based intervention generation process
  higher chance of effectiveness in implementation + smooth buy-in
from decision makers
 More useful for strategic design
 Wider applicability (to any behaviour domain)
 Particularly useful for: a) understudied behaviour; and b) critical
decision-making process (with higher managers, clients, LAs, funders)
for the next steps (e.g. prototyping, piloting)
Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built EnvironmentImage sources: http://image.slidesharecdn.com/clapresentation-talisopenday-march14-140328085008-phpapp01/95/cla-presentation-talis-open-day-march-14-14-638.jpg?cb=1395996639
Thank you! Any question?
Kyungeun.sung2013@my.ntu.ac.uk
http://kyungeunsung.com
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kyungeun_Sung

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An alternative approach to influencing behaviour: Adapting Darnton's Nine Principles framework for scaling up individual upcycling

  • 1. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Kyungeun Sung Supervised by Tim Cooper & Sarah Kettley Sustainable Consumption Research Group School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment An alternative approach to influencing behaviour: Adapting Darnton’s Nine Principles framework for scaling up individual upcycling
  • 2. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Table of contents  Introduction  Darnton’s Nine Principles framework  Setting the scene  Adapted framework and application  Conclusion
  • 3. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Introduction
  • 4. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Introduction: Recent role of design in influencing behaviour  Traditional role: fulfilling needs and wishes of consumers  New role: influencing human behaviour for desirable outcomes  Application: sustainability, crime prevention, health enhancement, safety (Niedderer, 2013)  Outcomes: changing undesirable behaviour / reinforcing desirable behaviour
  • 5. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Introduction: Research on design for influencing behaviour  Feasibility of design-led approaches to influence user behaviour to reduce negative social impacts (Lilley, 2007)  Framework to bridge the social-psychological theories and design interventions to reduce environmental household impacts (Tang, 2010)  Application of Community Based Social Marketing for design interventions (Clune, 2010)  Design with Intent Method, innovation tool, for improving user performance (Lockton et al., 2010)  …
  • 6. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Introduction: Gaps in current knowledge  Focus on products or communication information and graphics   relative lack in interventions beyond product and communication design (e.g. service design)  Increasing interest in design for policy and service innovation in the public sector (Bason, 2014; 2010; Boyer et al., 2011; European Commission, 2012)   call for more general or wide-ranging approaches to design and policy interventions
  • 7. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Introduction: Aims of the paper  Critically review Darnton’s Nine Principles framework (Darnton, 2008) as an overarching framework for design and policy interventions  Show how the framework can be adapted for relatively unexplored behaviour with insufficient resources  Demonstrate the application of the adapted framework through the case of scaling up individual upcycling
  • 8. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Darnton’s Nine Principles framework
  • 9. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Framework: Starting point for behaviour intervention  Behaviour understanding and behaviour change policies resting on behaviour models (i.e. antecedents/determinants/factors  behaviour)  Darnton’s framework designed to “integrate behaviour models with theoretical understanding of effective approaches and change. The framework provides a starting point for selecting [appropriate] models and developing behaviour change interventions” (Darnton, 2008, p. 23)  Based on theory-based guidance for planning interventions – e.g. Community Based Social Marketing (McKenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999), Stern’s Principles (Stern, 2000) – yet emphasis on models (Darnton, 2008)
  • 10. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Framework: Nine Principles 1. Identify the audience groups and the target behaviour 2. Identify relevant behaviour models and list influencing factors 3. Select the key influencing factors to design objectives for the intervention 4. Identify effective intervention techniques 5. Engage the target audience for the intervention 6. Develop a prototype intervention 7. Pilot the intervention and monitor 8. Evaluate impacts and processes 9. Feedback learning from the evaluation
  • 11. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Framework: Nine Principles framework
  • 12. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Framework: Assumptions in Darnton’s framework  Identify target behaviour and actor = understand behaviour/audience  Extract key factors from the models and past empirical research = valid and appropriate in all cases  Co-create an intervention prototype with actors = prerequisite for developing interventions
  • 13. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Framework: Need for adaptation What if…  Behaviour under investigation not explored  empirical research required  Not sufficient resources (e.g. time, financial support) for prototyping and piloting
  • 14. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Setting the scene
  • 15. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Setting the scene: Project background  UK target: Reduction in GHGs by 80% by 2050  Government’s commitment: RCUK Energy Programme establishing six EUED centres  CIE-MAP: focus on materials and embodied energy reduction  PhD research: explore the emerging household behaviour of upcycling as an important opportunity to reduce carbon emissions related to materials and energy consumption
  • 16. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Setting the scene: (Individual) upcycling Creation or modification of any product out of used materials in an attempt to result in a product of higher quality or value than the compositional elements (Sung, et al., 2014) by individuals (at the household level)
  • 17. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Setting the scene: Benefits of upcycling when scaled up  Environmental benefits (Ali et al., 2013; Goldsmith, 2009; Szaky, 2014)  (-) need for new products > (-) materials and industrial energy > (-) GHGs  (-) municipal solid waste > (-) additional landfill spaces  Economic benefits (Frank, 2013; Lang, 2013)  Money saving  SMEs (e.g. Sarah Turner in Sung & Cooper, 2015)  Sociocultural & psychological benefits (Sung, Cooper & Kettley, 2014)  Learning & empowering  Sense of community & relaxing  …
  • 18. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment  contemporary Maker Movement (Anderson, 2012; Lang, 2013)  readily available physical resources (e.g. Hackspaces)  shared digital resources (e.g. Instructables, Etsy) Setting the scene: Recent trend in upcycling
  • 19. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Setting the scene: Research question  Despite growing interest, still a marginal activity + considering potential benefits  scaling up (Ceschin, 2012; van den Bosch, 2010)  How can this emerging, yet still marginal activity, be scaled up into a mainstream everyday activity in households (and possibly also in industries) to make a bigger impact on the environment and society?
  • 20. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework and application
  • 21. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework: Rationale  Focus on early stage activities in behaviour intervention  Understand relatively unexplored behaviour for valid key factors (premise: identified specific behaviour to target)  Design effective interventions with limited resources  Does NOT suggest: prototyping and piloting are unnecessary  Suggest: split cycle between research-led intervention generation process and the rest for half-way decision-making and planning   effectively invest resources in prototyping and piloting of the prioritised intervention options
  • 22. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework: Adapted framework with three stages
  • 23. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework:  Crucial first step a) “Different behaviours are driven by different factors and in different combinations” (Darnton, 2008, p.25) b) Models determine the scope of the understanding (number of factors)  Darnton’s ‘practical guide’ to models (Darnton, 2008): table with 8 behaviour domains and matching behaviour models Stage one: Understanding behaviour and consumers 1. Identify behaviour model for exploration
  • 24. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Case application:  Thorough literature review  Behaviour is complex and should be understood by both internal (e.g. attitude) and external (e.g. situational conditions) factors (Egmond & Bruel, 2007; Jackson 2005; Kallbekken, Rise & Westskog, 2008; artiskainen, 2007)  Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB): recommended through an extensive review on behaviour models by Jackson (2005) and Martiskainen (2007); factors shared with a number of comprehensive models (e.g. Feola & Binder, 2010; Klöckner & Blöbaum, 2010; Kallbekken, Rise, & Westskog, 2008); wider applicability (e.g. technology adoption behaviour, civic behaviour, dietary behaviour, sustainable consumption) Stage one: Understanding behaviour and consumers 1. Identify behaviour model for exploration
  • 25. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework:  Darnton’s original model: identify actors and behaviour to target  Could be more exploratory for designers  Investigate each behaviour factor, consumer profiles  Qualitative research (e.g. interviews, focus groups, observation) Stage one: Understanding behaviour and consumers 2. Understand behaviour & consumers
  • 26. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Case application:  Semi-structured interviews with 23 UK-based consumers  Based on TIB (perceived benefits, social factors, emotions, habits, facilitating conditions)  A variety of elements in each factor  Potential group differences Stage one: Understanding behaviour and consumers 2. Understand behaviour & consumers
  • 27. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework:  Make sure that the selected model is operationalisable for quants  Refine the behaviour model  Identify tested instrument by further literature review Stage two: Key behaviour factors identification 1. Refine behaviour model for operationalisation
  • 28. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Case application:  Issues in TIB: a) no operational definition of variables (Araujo-Soares & Presseau, 2008); b) differences in a few adapted models (e.g. Gagnon, et al., 2008; Bamberg & Schmidt, 2003; Knoeri & Russell, 2014)  Combine TIB and TPB (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) – one of the widely used models but with limited prediction/explanation power – for improved operationalisability and explanation power Stage two: Key behaviour factors identification 1. Refine behaviour model for operationalisation
  • 29. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework:  Through quants (e.g. survey) based on the selected model  Use variables and items identified from the qualitative (e.g. interview)  Statistical analysis (e.g. regression analysis): how much behaviour variance by the model; which factors more influential Stage two: Key behaviour factors identification 2. Identify key drivers, facilitators and barriers
  • 30. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Case application: Stage two: Key behaviour factors identification 2. Identify key drivers, facilitators and barriers  Internet survey with 122 British residents
  • 31. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework:  Benchmark existing intervention strategies  E.g. 4Es model (Defra, 2005): Enable, Engage, Encourage and Exemplify  Based on key behaviour factors (to design and prioritise)  Strategic design (Manzini & Vezzoli, 2003) to come up with design and policy interventions Stage three: Intervention strategies development 1. Design effective intervention strategies
  • 32. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Case application: Stage three: Intervention strategies development 1. Design effective intervention strategies  Initial ideas based on the key behaviour factors  Map onto the table of 4E actions + add extra ideas  MECE Enable action Intervention/policy category Elements to deliver ① Designer interventions Local authorities & government interventions Provide facilities (Remove barriers) Environmental restructuring / Enablement / service provision / Environmental or social planning - Materials ② - Tools ③ - Space - Design tool hire/rent service - Design toolkits for the novice - Improve material provision service/system - Improve community workshops - Provide material collection centre or reuse/upcycle centre - Provide community workshops - Subsidise design interventions Ensure ability (Provide skills and capacity) Education ④ and training / Enablement - Curriculum - Workshop sessions ⑤ - Training - Events ⑥ - Competitions - Business service ⑦ - Provide the best upcycling practices - Provide skills and knowledge - Provide inductions and training sessions - Design community events and workshop sessions - Advance/develop curriculum in art and design - Organise or subsidise community workshops, training, events, competitions, and business service Build understanding [+ provide inspiration] Persuasion / Communication ⑧ and marketing - Handbook / brochures - Social marketing communications - Promotion campaigns - Media demonstration - Design effective communication and demonstration materials in prints or online - Design effective campaigns (wow experience) - Disseminate print communication materials - Initiate and/or subsidise communication activities
  • 33. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Adapted framework:  Important final step before developing prototypes with actors  Explore and evaluate draft strategies (e.g. by a panel of experts, actors)  Criteria: desirability, importance (potential impact on scaling up), feasibility (technical, economic, political)  Improve draft strategies based on the agreed evaluation results, suggestions, comments Stage three: Intervention strategies development 2. Evaluate and improve the draft strategies
  • 34. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Case application:  Semi-Delphi method: questionnaire study + workshop with experts (n=25)  Expertise: policy (n=6), engineering (6), psychology (3), sociology (3), art and design (3), business management (2), and economics (2).  8 important interventions + 9 feasible interventions (out of 15)  Multiple suitable actors  Combination of interventions for short-term and long-term success Stage three: Intervention strategies development 2. Evaluate and improve the draft strategies
  • 35. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Conclusion
  • 36. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Conclusion: Summary  Critically reviewed Darnton’s Nine Principle’s framework as an overarching framework to address the need for design and policy interventions  Identified limitations from Darnton’s framework  Introduced the case: individual upcycling  Illustrate the adapted framework with case application
  • 37. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Conclusion: Contribution  Theory- and evidence-based intervention generation process   higher chance of effectiveness in implementation + smooth buy-in from decision makers  More useful for strategic design  Wider applicability (to any behaviour domain)  Particularly useful for: a) understudied behaviour; and b) critical decision-making process (with higher managers, clients, LAs, funders) for the next steps (e.g. prototyping, piloting)
  • 38. Kyungeun Sung, Sustainable Consumption Research Group, School of Architecture, Design and the Built EnvironmentImage sources: http://image.slidesharecdn.com/clapresentation-talisopenday-march14-140328085008-phpapp01/95/cla-presentation-talis-open-day-march-14-14-638.jpg?cb=1395996639 Thank you! Any question? Kyungeun.sung2013@my.ntu.ac.uk http://kyungeunsung.com https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kyungeun_Sung