Business Process Design

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Slides from a webinar that I did recently for TIBCO. Full webinar replay with audio available at http://www.tibco.com/mk/2007/wsemtbpdesign08-aug-07usarc.jsp

Published in: Business, Technology

Business Process Design

  1. 1. Business Process Design Sandy Kemsley Kemsley Design Ltd. www.column2.com
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>BPM standards: beyond pretty pictures </li></ul><ul><li>BPM and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>BPM design patterns and principles </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating business intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating business rules </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Brief Review
  4. 4. Process Discovery <ul><li>Drivers for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the as-is </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Think process </li></ul><ul><li>Process prototyping </li></ul>
  5. 5. Process Modeling <ul><li>Process types </li></ul><ul><li>BPM and SOA </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation and optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Process modeling standards (BPMN) </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling for ROI </li></ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul>
  6. 6. BPM Standards
  7. 7. BPM notation standards <ul><li>Shared vision and communication between stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Easy transition between tools for users </li></ul><ul><li>BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) </li></ul>
  8. 8. BPM interchange standards <ul><li>Import/export of process models </li></ul><ul><li>Evolving landscape of standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XPDL (XML Process Definition Language) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPDM (Business Process Definition Metamodel) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. XPDL (WfMC) <ul><li>Process definition serialization and interchange format </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains spatial information </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple processes per file </li></ul><ul><li>Allows vendor-specific extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Includes user interactions </li></ul>
  10. 10. BPDM (OMG) <ul><li>Process definition serialization and interchange format </li></ul><ul><li>Includes choreography </li></ul><ul><li>Will become part of BPMN in future version </li></ul><ul><li>May displace XPDL </li></ul>
  11. 11. BPEL (OASIS) <ul><li>Web services orchestration language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In BPM, typically used as interchange format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In SOA-related products, also used as execution language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not directly translate all BPMN structures </li></ul><ul><li>BPEL4People extension proposed </li></ul>
  12. 12. Related standards <ul><li>BPRI: Business Process Runtime Interface </li></ul><ul><li>SVBR: Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules </li></ul><ul><li>www.column2.com/category/bpmthinktank for more on standards </li></ul>
  13. 13. BPM and Architecture
  14. 14. BPM and Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>1st generation EA = classification schema </li></ul><ul><li>2nd generation EA = business processes as cornerstone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine goals to implement strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine business processes to meet goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify resources to implement processes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. BPM and Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>Where a designer would use a BPMS </li></ul><ul><li>How a builder would make it work </li></ul><ul><li>What an owner would see </li></ul>
  16. 16. Zachman Framework Rule Specifications Event Components Interface Components Network Components Program Components Data Components Components Rule Design Model Technology Event Diagram Presentation Architecture Network Technology Model Application Structure Chart Physical Data Model Technology Model Business Rule Model System Event Diagram Human Interface Architecture System Network Model System Process Model Logical Data Model System Model Business Strategy Model Business Event Model Business Workflow Model Business Network Model Business Process Model Business Entity Model Business Model List of Goals List of Cycles List of Organizations List of Locations List of Processes List of Things Scope Motivation (Why) Time (When) People (Who) Network (Where) Function (How) Data (What)
  17. 17. BPM and SOA Service A Service B Service C Service D Service E Legacy System Database ERP System Process Step 1 Process Step 2 Process Step 3 Process Step 4
  18. 18. BPM and SOA together <ul><li>BPM is the “killer app” for SOA; SOA is the enabling infrastructure for BPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOA alone only allows you to design and build a set of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPM alone would require custom coding for each system integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPM + SOA orchestrates people and services into a business process </li></ul>
  19. 19. SOA in process design <ul><li>Invocation of existing services </li></ul><ul><li>Design and development of new services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What new services need to be created or acquired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What legacy functions need to be wrapped in services </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. BPM Design Patterns
  21. 21. Initiating processes <ul><li>Human intervention </li></ul><ul><li>External event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., content added to repository </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invoked as web service </li></ul>
  22. 22. Human-facing steps <ul><li>Work type: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participation frequency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heads-down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participants outside the firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and governance </li></ul>
  23. 23. System steps <ul><li>Web service orchestration and legacy application integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data synchronization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invoke subprocesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content management integration </li></ul>
  24. 24. Role of content <ul><li>Document-focused: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create, review and approve document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document content does not impact process flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document-driven: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete a transaction based on document content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document content controls process flow </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Volume of work <ul><li>Work assignment methods </li></ul><ul><li>Work selection methods </li></ul><ul><li>Granularity and complexity of process governance </li></ul>
  26. 26. Process complexity <ul><li>Frequency of process/rule changes </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable subprocesses </li></ul><ul><li>Web service and other external calls </li></ul>
  27. 27. BPM Design Principles
  28. 28. Areas of process innovation <ul><li>Automational </li></ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Disintermediating </li></ul>Source: Process Innovation, Thomas H. Davenport, 1992
  29. 29. Redesigning for Automation <ul><li>Automate manual work steps </li></ul><ul><li>Directly integrate data between systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide process monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><li>Automate process statistics gathering and analysis </li></ul>
  30. 30. Redesigning for Disintermediation <ul><li>Provide customer self-service to initiate processes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide process visibility to customer </li></ul>
  31. 31. Redesigning for Location Independence <ul><li>Share redundant processes between business units </li></ul><ul><li>Identify steps that can be completed in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Automate escalation and handoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Separate heads-down from interactive functions </li></ul>
  32. 32. Steps in modeling/design <ul><li>Define graphical process flow </li></ul><ul><li>Define parameters of each step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-facing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System (automated) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define routing </li></ul><ul><li>Identify process triggers </li></ul>
  33. 33. Define process flow <ul><li>Graphical map of process </li></ul><ul><li>Steps for user or automated tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Routes between steps </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel and sequential flow </li></ul>
  34. 34. Define step parameters <ul><li>Data fields, including attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Human-facing steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant (individual or role) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface form/tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web service call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subprocess call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other custom action </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Define conditional routing <ul><li>Split/merge type </li></ul><ul><li>Merge conditions </li></ul>
  36. 36. Identify process launch triggers <ul><li>Manual launch </li></ul><ul><li>External event trigger </li></ul><ul><li>Invoked as web service </li></ul>
  37. 37. Designing work selection <ul><li>“Push” work selection </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced work assignment, e.g., skills matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Search for work </li></ul><ul><li>Embed in portal </li></ul><ul><li>Email work assignments </li></ul>
  38. 38. Designing the user interface <ul><li>Data display and validation </li></ul><ul><li>Launch other applications </li></ul><ul><li>Complex routing rules on exit </li></ul>
  39. 39. Designing process management <ul><li>Work assignment filtering rules/skills matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent work reallocation </li></ul><ul><li>Change work in progress </li></ul>
  40. 40. Integration with legacy systems <ul><li>Data synchronization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services or custom adapter to fetch/update data at process step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batch data upload/download </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invoke legacy process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for return state or allow for asynchronous rendezvous </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Incremental implementation <ul><li>Step 1: non-integrated BPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal customization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dashboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides process governance and optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2: integrate critical data synchronization interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces data entry/errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: integrate critical external process interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides overall process governance </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. BPM and Business Intelligence
  43. 43. What is business intelligence? <ul><li>Information for business decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Draw from multiple data sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational data stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental data marts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise data warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytical and presentation capabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive modeling </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. BI in BPM <ul><li>Use cases for BPM and BI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BI about a process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BI triggering/changing a process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BI inside a process to automate decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BI in work environment to provide information to a person for their decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predictive BI driving process work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPRI will help close gaps but BPM vendors have incomplete understanding of BI </li></ul><ul><li>[Source: BPM Think Tank sessions] </li></ul>
  45. 45. Operational BI <ul><li>Work in progress (near-real-time) </li></ul><ul><li>KPIs (historical over time) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to complete end-to-end process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to complete by step/user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May require joining with other operational data marts </li></ul>
  46. 46. Strategic BI <ul><li>Data mining and predictive analytics </li></ul><ul><li>Scorecards </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous cycle of performance improvement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and understanding current performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizing, planning and forecasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning operations with strategic objectives </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. BPM and Business Rules
  48. 48. When to use business rules <ul><li>Operational: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex work selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex routing rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-flight work modification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business rules change more frequently than processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement for highly agile processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architectural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate to separate rules from process logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing BRE infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. BPM/BR use cases <ul><li>Determine work selection criteria from skills matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Define routing conditions on leaving a step </li></ul>
  50. 50. Summary
  51. 51. Words of advice <ul><li>Start small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize up-front complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker ROI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let process specialists drive the process design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users tend to pave the cow paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologists tend to ignore inconvenient business requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put as much control as possible with the business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-flight changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting and analytics </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Think about the future <ul><li>Process syndication for management and visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative discovery/modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Process instance tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight integration and BPM mashups </li></ul>
  53. 53. Questions? Sandy Kemsley Kemsley Design Ltd. www.column2.com

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