Israel palestine conflict


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This presentation includes the history of Israel and Palestine concept along with various factors. A word file attached with it has got details where under NOTES, the explanation is written

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  • Journalist who followed Dreyfus Affair (Alfred Dreyfus ,An officer and a Spy by Robert Harris). Herzl presented his proposal to the Grand Vizier: the Jews would pay the Turkish foreign debt and attempt to help regulate Turkish finances if they were given Palestine as a Jewish homeland under Turkish rule.
  • Israel palestine conflict

    1. 1. ISRAEL PALESTINE CONFLICT Rohit Sachdeva
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Israel Palestine is a conflict of land and to an extent rivalry among Zionism and Islam  Longest spanning problem in the world stretching for a century  Involvement of different religious groups, Strong Jew lobby at one hand and Oil rich Arab countries on other hand.  Conflict on the claim of land (For Jews: Moses led Israelites and David conquered Jerusalem. For Arabs: Abraham’s son Ishmael is the forefather of the Arabs, then God’s promise of the land to the children of Abraham includes Arabs as well)
    3. 3. HISOTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  Mameluks (slave soldiers of Egyptian Arabs) established empire of Arab speaking Muslims (13th Century)  This started emigration of Jews  Defeated by Ottoman Empire in 1517, not a political unit at the time of Empire. Jerusalem was under direct authority due to international significance of Bethelehem for Jews, Christians and Muslims (1875: 462,465 subjects-403,795 Muslims, 43,659 Christians and 15,011 Jews and 10,000 with foreign citizenship)  Jews in Major cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safad and Tiberias. Religious Orthodoxity and no national
    4. 4.  Napoleon came in 1798. War led in reduction of population and revolts led the generation of nationalist feeling.  Certain Zionist movements started which initiated Jewish settlements but restrictions imposed in terms of land.  French Revolution evolved liberal ideas and first formal Zionist Congress in 1897 by Theodor Herzel in Basel.  Idea of Jewish Homeland under Turkish or German Rule.  Farm communities in Petah, Tikva, Zichron, Jacob and a new city was established Tel Aviv, north of Jaffa.  World War I : Ottoman joined Germany and Austria Hungary against Allies.  Turkish military governor ordered deportation of foreign
    5. 5.  There are several different forms of Zionism. From the 1920s until the 1970s, the dominant form was Labor Zionism, which sought to link socialism and nationalism.  By the 1920s, Labor Zionists in Palestine established the kibbutz movement (a kibbutz is a collective commune, usually with an agricultural economy)  the Jewish trade unionand cooperative movement, the main Zionist militias (the Haganah and Palmach)  and the political parties that ultimately coalesced in the Israeli Labor Party in 1968.  The top leader of Labor Zionism was David Ben- Gurion, who became the first Prime Minister of Israel  Revisionist movement led by Vladimir Jabotinsky, territorial claims West of Jordan
    6. 6.  differed from Labor Zionists by declaring openly the objective to establish a Jewish state (rather than the vaguer formula of a “national home”).  believed that armed force would be required to establish such a state.  included the Betar youth movement and the ETZEL (National Military Organization) formed the core of what became the Herut (Freedom) Party after Israeli independence.  subsequently became the central component of the Likud Party, the largest right wing Israeli party since the 1970s.  Anti Zionist Belief by Orthodox, Regarded Zionism against God will but Holocaust strengthened the feeling,
    7. 7. British Mandate of Palestine (Sykes Picot Agreement, Balfour Declaration and British White Paper)  British High Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, secretly corresponded with Husayn ibn `Ali, the patriarch of the Hashemite family and Ottoman governor of Mecca and Medina.  The Arab revolt, led by T. E. Lawrence (“Lawrenceof Arabia”) and Husayn’s son Faysal, was successful in defeating the Ottomans.  British Foreign Minister, Lord Arthur Balfour declaration for Jewish National Home in Palestine and Britian- France Control  French Mandate :Syria carving out Lebanon (Christian Majority), British Mandate: Present Israel, West Bank, Gaza, Jordan.  1921: East of Jordan River, Empire of Transjordan, West Palestine Mandate.
    8. 8.  Rising Jewish immigration from Europe led to Arab resistance.  1920s: Jewish National Fund purchased large tracts of land from absentee Arab landowners, the Arabs living in these areas were evicted.  Clashes in 1921 when equal number of Arab and Jews killed.  1928 : Wailing Wall Clash (NOTES)  1929: Earlier Zionist presented their case in Paris Peace Conference and at San Remo Conference, much larger Palestine was given to Jewish Community and Jewish Agency was created in Palestine  Hitler Rise to power led to immigration (1939-1942, 1945-1948) and breaking of riots in 1936 and Issue of White Paper by British government. (population from 1 to 35 percent)
    9. 9.  Demands in support of immigration of Jews and against immigration by Arabs made situation complex. (NOTES)  Outbreak of World War II. Zionist joined Allies due to extermination of European Jews  Underground Zionist Leaders freed in general amnesty. White paper had deteriorated relations  At the height of Nazi atrocities, Zionist leadership met in 1942 in New York city in support of Jewish Commonwealth (Biltmore Declaration)  Labour Party came in power and promised reversal of White Paper.  Jewish underground started attacking British Personnel.
    10. 10.  Britain took the matter to UN and a UN Committee investigated the situation in Palestine.  At the end of 1946, 1,269,000 Arabs and 608,000 Jews resided within the borders of Mandate Palestine.  Nov 29, 1947: Two states divided on the basis of majority in a way that some Jewish settlements will fall in Arab state and vice versa.  Jewish state was larger (56/43) on the assumption of Jewish immigration.  Jerusalem and Bethlehem declared international city.  Palestinians agreed but Arab states considered it betrayal.  Fighting among Israel and Jewish residents led to the war of 1948
    11. 11.  After Britain withdrew forces on May 1948, region became a no man’s land.  Zionist proclaimed state of Israel and Arab states (Jordan, Egypt, Syria and Iraq) sought to save Palestine which led to first Arab-Israel War.  Till 1948, the outcome of war was unclear but after hipments from Czechoslovakia reached Israel, its armed forces established superiority and conquered territories beyond the UN partition plan borders (68 percent of land)  Moreover 1936-39 war had weakened Arab forces in the area with no proper organization structure while Israel’s armed militia BETUR, Haganah and Palmach, though in small numbers, had a strong organizational structure.
    12. 12.  Till the time of ceasefire (armistice agreement) only Gaza and West Bank remained with Arabs. They called it defeat and exile of Palestinian Arab Nakba (disaster)  Over 700,000 Palestinian Arabs became refugees. (NOTES)  Treatment of Refugees in the state of Israel as second grade citizens  Curtailed Speech and expression, confiscation of 40 percent of land to those who were left in Israel.  One important expression of this identity was the organization of a general strike on March 30, 1976, designated as Land Day, to protest the continuing confiscation of Arab lands.  The Israeli security forces killed six Arab citizens on that day. All Palestinians now commemorate it as a national
    13. 13.  In 1957,Yaseer Arafat (an Egyptian Palestinian who grew up in Gaza Strip) moved to Kuwait and together with Khalid al Hassan, Mahmoud Abbas and other founded HARAKAT TAHRIR FILASTIN (reverse acronym FATAH)  1960: Tension started on with Israel implementing National Water Carrier plan to irrigate south and central Israel.  Fatah declared it imperalist event and criticized Egyptian President Naseer for not going for any effective action.  In response to this Naseer found Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), an armed alternative of Fatah with a goal to re-establish Undivided Palestine with Jerusalem
    14. 14.  Syria recruited army intelligence for terrorist attacks which got wide publicity in Arab world.  After 1967 , Yaseer Arafat, who headed Fatah, also became chairman of PLO which emerged as a major actor in Palestine movement.  PLO got recognition by all Arab states and later by UN General Assembly in 1974 as a face of Palestine  Israel strongly opposed the charter and USA, USSR also abstained in voting.  PLO primary base of operation was Jordan but due to infighting in 1971,PLO leadership was forced out to Lebanon, which also expelled it in Lebanon civil war in 1982 as it became a party in conflict. Base shifted to Tunisia.
    15. 15.  In 1956, Israel joined with Britain and France to attack Egypt, ostensibly to reverse the Egyptian government’s nationalization of the Suez Canal (then under French and British control).  Israeli forces captured Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula, but were forced to evacuate back to the armistice lines as a result of UN pressure led by the US.  In the spring of 1967, the Soviet Union misinformed the Syrian government that Israeli forces were massing in northern Israel to attack Syria.  But clashes between Israel and Syria had been escalating for about a year, and Israeli leaders had publicly declared that it might be necessary to bring down the Syrian regime if it failed to end Palestinian commando attacks against Israel from Syrian territory
    16. 16.  Responding to a Syrian request for assistance, in May 1967 Egyptian troops entered the Sinai Peninsula bordering Israel.  The Egyptians then occupied Sharm al-Shaykh at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula and proclaimed a blockade of the Israeli port of Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba, arguing that access was through Egyptian Waters.  On June 5, 1967 Israel pre-emptively attacked Egypt and Syria, destroying their air forces on the ground within a few hours.  The Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian armies were decisively defeated, and Israel captured the West Bank from Jordan, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
    17. 17.  Due to pressure from US, Israel agreed to withdraw from conquered territories in a peace settlement. (UN Security Council Resolution 242)  Soon after this Naseer died and was replaced by Anwar Sadat.  Sadat made an offer to negotiate settlement which was rejected by Israel, due to which on the holy day of Yum Ki Pour, Egypt and Syria launched attack on Israel.  Arabs achieved some early military victories. This prompted American political intervention, along with sharply increased military aid to Israel.  Cease took place and Fighting ended within a month.  After the war Yitzhak Rabin became the new Prime Minister of Israel and Arab states targeted US and
    18. 18.  After the war, US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger pursued a diplomatic strategy for the fate of West Bank and Gaza.  European countries started making diplomatic efforts in favour of Arabs.  In 1978, Anwar Sadat decided to initiate a separate overture to Israel and signed Camp David Agreement with Menahem Begin leading to a peace treaty in 1979.  Thus Egypt became the first country in Arab world to recognize the Israel state.  In 1982, Sinai Peninsula was given back to Egypt.  Christian Phalangist’s Civil War 1975-1976 in Lebanon (NOTES)  Syrian Intervention in Lebanon and eventual Israel invasion.
    19. 19.  1987: Local residents in Gaza Strip and West Bank revolted called as Intifadeh.  Low level violence to gain sympathy for Palestinians  civil disobedience, including massive demonstrations, general strikes, refusal to pay taxes, boycotts of Israeli products  the establishment of underground schools  Intifada activism was organized through popular committees under the umbrella of the United National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU)  The UNLU was a coalition of the four PLO parties active in the occupied territories: Fatah, the PFLP, the DFLP and the PPP  From 1987 to 1991sraeli forces killed over 1,000 Palestinians, including over 200 under the age of sixteen and jailed leaders.  growing rivalry between the various PLO factions and
    20. 20.  Intifadeh ended but Gulf War in 1991and dissolution of USSR called to solve the Israel Palestine problem.  After the war, thePLO was diplomatically isolated.  Kuwait and Saudi Arabia cut off financial support they had been providing, bringing the PLO to the brink of crisis.  Bush pressurised PM Yitzhak Shamir to open talks with Palestine and Shamir demanded PLO to be excluded from talks.  Palestinians were represented by a delegation from the occupied territories  Although Israeli and Palestinian delegations met many times, little progress was achieved.  New Israeli Labor Party government led by Yitzhak
    21. 21.  Human rights conditions in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip deteriorated dramatically after Rabin assumed office.  Growth of radical Islamist led to violent attacks by HAMAS and Islamic Jihad.  The weakness of the PLO after the Gulf War, the stalemate in the Washington talks, and fear of radical Islam brought the Rabin government to reverse the long- standing Israeli refusal to negotiate with the PLO.  Israel and PLO signed Oslo Declaration (NOTES) which created Palestinian National authority (PNA) to negotiate with Israel on issue of West Bank and Gaza Strip.  In 1996, Palestinians elected a legislature controlled by Fatah faction with Yaseer as Chairman to administer areas.
    22. 22.  Ehud Barak of Labour Party became PM in 1999 and he pursued negotiation actively.  Troops withdrew and a suburb of Jerusalem, Abu Dis was offered as Palestinian Capital.  However violence broke out in Mid May 2000.  Clinton Bridging proposal gave Palestinians 97 percent of West Bank and sovereignty over air space.  Also provided Palestinians refugees to return if Israel agrees.  Proposal was accepted by Israel with reservations but there was no definite reply from Palestine side.  Second Infitadeh in 2000 over Arion Shariel visit to East Jerusalem  World Trade Center attack changed the whole equation
    23. 23.  Arafat died in November 2004 and possibility of peace improved.  Mahmoud Abbas was elected President of PNA.  Israel and Palestine met in Sharm EL Sheikh in Feb 2005 at a summit conference in Egypt.  Conference attended by Jordan’s king Abdullah and Egyptian President Mubarak but peace could be established due to suicide bombings in Tel Aviv.  2006: HAMAS movement won over Fateh. Mahmoud remained President with broad powers. America and Europe pledged not to negotiate with HAMAS
    24. 24.  Israeli withdrawal from the Arab territories captured in 1967  Return of refugees to the land from where they were displaced.  Establishment of an independent state of Palestine with East Jerusalem as its capital.  Divide of Palestine as per UN plan of 1949  This will result in recognition of Israel by Arab nations and resolving of issues, said Crown Prince Abdullah  Geneva Accord was also signed between Israeli opposition leaders and Palestinian leaders on same lines, but no progess achieved so far.
    25. 25.  Labour Party during the election came up with the idea of The Security Barrier or Apartheid Wall.  Though initially resisted as it would give de facto recognition to Palestine.  But the route changed afterwards dividing Palestine in two enclaves.  International Court of Justice ruled it immoral and illegal construction in a disputed territory.  Israel government also pursued the assassination of HAMAS leader in Palestine and leaders like Sheikh Ahmed Yassin in the process.  International Quartet (US, Russia, EU and UN) for a Roadmap to settle the issue.  Arab Quartet in 2007 (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and UAE) to implement Saudi Arabia Plan 2002
    26. 26.  2006 :Hezbollah began series of rocket attacks on Israel from Lebanese border.  Lebanon want return of prisoners and immediate withdrawal from territory.  Demanded Sheba Farms whereas UN ruled that Sheba farms on Golan Heights are a part of Syria.  International Peace Conference in Annapolis, US as Hezbollah captured Gaza in 2007.  2008: Egypt called for a truce between HAMAS and Israel but till 2009 attacks continued after which Israel called for unilateral ceasefire  Israel pressure on Egypt about smuggling of weapons to Gaza.  85 percent of planned wall in Palestinian territory  Weakened PLO and strengthening Islamic Jihad