Main ideas in our discussion..• Strategies for Effective Learning• Fundamentals of Thinking• Persuasive Communication• Becoming an Individual• Evaluating Arguments• Recognizing Errors in Thinking• Applying Your Thinking Skills
Thinking Deeper..How much you will benefit from this book, your other textbooks, and your overall educational experience will depend on your ability to learn. You may have heard that this ability can’t be acquired; it is something you either have in your genes or you don’t.
Admit it..While it is true that some people learn more easily than others and seem to have an inborn talent that helps them be successful, there’s another important factor that isn’t found in people’s genes the strategies or “tricks” that enhance learning
Strategies for Effective Learning• Planning your days – ELIMINATE WHAT NEED NOT BE DONE – SIMPLIFY WHAT MUST BE DONE – COMBINE TASKS WHENEVER POSSIBLE• Dealing with frustration – Grumbling, griping, feeling defeated – Whenever things go wrong for you, remember these success stories and seizes your opportunity
Continued..• Handling unpleasant or complex tasks• Taking charge of your mind• Studying efficiently• Understanding what you read• Keeping a journal• Building good habits
Taking charge of your mind..• Become more aware of your mental activities• Listen intently• Refuse to tolerate confusion• Be alert for insights
Fundamentals of Thinking..• What is intelligence? – Factual knowledge is knowing about – Performance knowledge is knowing how, sometimes referred to as “know-how”• What is thinking? – One process is the production of ideas (creative thinking) – The other process is evaluation of ideas (critical thinking)
A comprehensive thinking strategy..• Step 1: Identify facts and opinions• Step 2: Check the facts and test the opinion(s)• Step 3: Evaluate the evidence• Step 4: Make your judgment
Persuasive Communication..• Have you ever had someone say, in the middle of a disagreement with you,“You’re so right. I see the issue clearly now. I don’t know how I could have reached such a silly conclusion. Thanks for helping me see my error.” You probably haven’t.• People don’t abandon their beliefs that easily.
Persuasive..• Persuasion is the art of getting people to give a fair hearing to ideas that differ from their own
Forum Group Discussion..• Prepare in advance• Anticipate disputes• Leave private agendas outside• Cooperate with the leader• Listen to others• Understand before judging• Be balanced• Be courteous• Monitor your contributions• Be alert for insights
Becoming an Individual..• Individuality Individuality is the quality or qualities that set one person apart from others• Acknowledging influences The first step in becoming an individual is to admit that other people have shaped you• Understanding attitudes Our attitudes are strongly influenced by our culture that we were introduced to at home and in our community
Empower your attitudes..• Attitude 1: There’s always room for improvement• Attitude 2: Criticism, including self- criticism, has value• Attitude 3: Effort is the key to success• Attitude 4: Other people are as important as I am
Habits of individually..• Be wary of first impressions• Fight confusion• Produce many ideas• Acknowledge complexity• Look for connections among subjects• Consider other viewpoints• Base your judgments on evidence
Be honest with yourself..• Much that we blame on others is really our own fault• When we deny our mistakes, we compound them• Others can usually see our faults better than we can• Most of us tend to be too concerned about our rights and not concerned enough about our responsibilities• Much that we think we know, we really only guess or assume