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Ch2 4 river valley civ skf

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Early River Valley Civilization. Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India

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Ch2 4 river valley civ skf

  1. 1. Chapter 2 4 early River Valley Civilizations • Mesopotamia [Sumer] (Tigris & Euphrates Rivers) • Egyptians (Nile River) • Indus Valley (Indus River) • Ancient China (Huang He River)
  2. 2. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” • Mesopotamia [Sumer] (Tigris & Euphrates Rivers) City-States in Mesopotamia
  3. 3. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in MesopotamiaI. GEOGRAPHY A. Mostly dry desert climate in SW Asia (Middle East) 1. Except in region between Tigris / Euphrates rivers 2. a flat plain known as Mesopotamia lies between the two rivers 3. Because of this region’s shape and the richness of its soil, it is called the Fertile Crescent. Fertile Crescent
  4. 4. B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental ChallengesSumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil. 1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months 2. No natural barriers for protection - small villages lying in open plain were defenseless 3. Limited natural resources - stone, wood, metal PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
  5. 5. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY C. Solutions 1. Irrigation ditches 2. Built city walls with mud bricks 3. Traded with people around them for the products they lacked. Initiated Bronze Age.
  6. 6. The Ziggurat at Ur was first by British archaeologist Woolley in 1923.
  7. 7. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia The City-State Structure of GovernmentDynasty – a series of rulers descending from asingle family line.
  8. 8. Cultural diffusion is the spread of elements of one culture to another people, generally through trade. Can you give examples of cultural diffusion in your society today?
  9. 9. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism Marduk, the Dragon god A Sumerian warrior-god, gold figurine, ca. 2,400-2,500 B.C.E.
  10. 10. DID YOU KNOW…Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature.Like many ancient civilizations, the Sumerians also had “a flood story.”That’s not surprising given their challenging environment sittingbetween two unpredictable rivers indeed, destroy their “entire world.” Tablet XIGREAT WEBSITE to visit: GILGAMESH Great website to visit: http://gilgamesh.psnc.pl/
  11. 11. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in MesopotamiaIII. SUMERIAN CULTURE B. SOCIETY 1. Three social classes a. Priests and royalty (kings) b. Wealthy merchants c. Ordinary workers 2. Women a. Had more rights than in many later civilizations Left: Statue of Sumerian woman with hands clasped at chest, ca. 2600-2300 B.C. Right: Gypsum statue of man and woman at Inanna Temple at Nippur, circa 2600-2300 B.C.
  12. 12. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform
  13. 13. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in MesopotamiaIII. SUMERIAN CULTURE C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform 2. Invented wheel, the sail, the plow 3. First to use bronze.
  14. 14. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in MesopotamiaFirst EMPIRE Builders 1. Took control of the region, creating world’s first empire - when several peoples, nations, or independent states are placed under the control of one ruler.
  15. 15. 2. The Akkadian Empire lasted about 200 years, 2350 – approx. 2150 B.C.E.
  16. 16. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in MesopotamiaC. Babylonian Empire 1. Overtook Sumerians around 2,000 B.C. 2. Built capital, Babylon, on Euphrates river
  17. 17. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia C. Babylonian Empire 1. Overtook Sumerians around 2,000 B.C.E. 2. Built captial, Babylon, on Euphrates river 3. Reign of Hammurabi [1792-1750 B.C.E.]
  18. 18. 3. Reign of Hammurabi a. Famous Code of Law • he wisely took all the laws of the region’s city-states and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region.A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The topportion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash ispresenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administerthe law. Although Hammurabis Code is not the first code of laws (the first recordsdate four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting thesocial structure of Babylon during Hammurabis rule.This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museumin Paris, France.
  19. 19. 4 early River Valley Civilizations • Mesopotamia [Sumer] (Tigris & Euphrates Rivers) • •Egyptians (Nile River) Egyptians (Nile River) • Indus Valley (Indus River) • Ancient China (Huang He River)
  20. 20. “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” • Mesopotamia [Sumer] (Tigris & Euphrates Rivers) • Egypt (Nile River) ENTER
  21. 21. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” Egypt on the NileI. GEOGRAPHY B. Upper and Lower Egypt 1. Most of Egypt’s history focused around Lower Egypt, around the Nile delta which flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Nile- provided reliable transportation Environment: Unlike Mesopotamia, the Nile was predictable Deserts on both sides of Nile provided natural protection against invaders. Also, reduced interaction with other people PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
  22. 22. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” Egypt on the NileII. UNITED EGYPT’S GOVERNMENT C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] – the ruler of Egypt 1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be divinely-guided, is a theocracy. 2. Therefore, Pharaoh’s tomb very important, because it was still a place of rule. pyramids- massive tombs. The pyramids were built mainly in the Old Kingdom Period. The Great Pyramids at Giza.
  23. 23. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” Egypt on the Nile IV. EGYPTIAN WRITING . Form of writing- hieroglyphics- picture writing where sylables represent object or sounds . Written on Papyrus, unfurled reed from the Nile, dried into strips The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799 A.D. Ancient Egyptian artifact to advance understanding of hieroglyphic writing. It was in 3 languages
  24. 24. The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799 A.D.The Rosetta Stone can be viewed bytourists today in the British Museum.
  25. 25. The pyramid at Saqqara is believed by archaeologists to be one of the earliest.
  26. 26. A modern-day Egyptian guide useshis Coleman lantern to illuminatethe amazing hieroglyphic textcovering the walls deep within thetunnels below the Saqqarapyramid.
  27. 27. An artist’s conception of the building of the great Khufu pyramid at Giza, Sphinx in foreground.
  28. 28. The Sphinx and Pyramid
  29. 29. Take a panoramic view of the Sphinx
  30. 30. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” Egypt on the NileIII. EGYPTIANCULTURE B. SOCIAL STRUCTURE• Royal Family• Upper class Landowners (also known as aristocracy or nobility) Priests Army commanders Government officials• Middle Class (merchants / artisans)• Lower class(peasant farmers, unskilledlaborers Socially Mobile classes Not “locked in”, lower and middle classes A. Harvesting grain; B. Musicians play for the workers could rise up through marriage in the fields; C. Women winnowing the grain; D. or through merit (success). Scribes tally the farmer’s taxes; E. The farmer’s son tending the livestock / cattle.
  31. 31. : “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Polytheistic a. Over 2,000 b. Belief in afterlife! mummification – embalming and preserving the corpse to prevent it from decaying.Above: jars for the body’s various organs.Right: Coffin of a Middle Kingdom government official.
  32. 32. The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural mummies.Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect themfrom wild animals in the desert. However, they realized that bodies placed incoffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert.Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preservingbodies so they would remain lifelike. The process included embalming the bodiesand wrapping them in strips of linen. Today we call this process mummification.
  33. 33. The mummy of Ramses II (1304 -1237 BC ) still preserved today, 3,200 years later,at the Cairo Museum.
  34. 34. Annubis, god of embalming
  35. 35. Young males educated asscribes paint the walls of atomb in preparation for aburial.
  36. 36. Egyptian coffins
  37. 37. BURIAL MASKS

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