Beyond Open Access:   Open Data, Web services, and Semantics  Eric Kansa UC Berkeley School of Information Unless otherwis...
Web 2.0 and Open <ul><li>Find research faster, easier </li></ul><ul><li>Build on the work of others </li></ul><ul><li>Faci...
Web 2.0 Challenges <ul><li>Smaller, highly specialized communities </li></ul><ul><li>Structured data is hard for Web 2.0 c...
Web 2.0 Challenges <ul><li>Smaller, highly specialized communities </li></ul><ul><li>Structured data is hard for Web 2.0 c...
Open Context makes  primary research  easy to share ,  use  and  cite …   … and is  freely accessible   across the globe
OCHRE, Open Context <ul><li>OCHRE:  Fully supports ArchaeoML global schema using a native XML database and free java clien...
Global Schemas:  ArchaeoML <ul><li>Simple, general schema makes it easier to pool diverse content </li></ul><ul><li>Not ov...
Open Context Components <ul><li>Two Parts : </li></ul><ul><li>Open access interfaces for browse, “tagging”, analysis, expo...
Faceted Browse  <ul><li>Data from multiple projects browsed, queried (even with Boolean algebra), and results pooled toget...
Summary Statistics
Records in Open Context Contextual relationships: (Spatial containment)
Media Record
Discussion Caveats <ul><li>Caveats : </li></ul><ul><li>Up to now, we’ve been validating a data model. Need user experience...
Open Context Tagging
Open Context Tagging Pingback:  Register of a link made to a set tagged as “weaving tools” from a weblog To Do:  Link Open...
Open Context & Search <ul><li>PHP/MySQL:  Drives many dynamic content websites, relatively simple standard technology. “Bl...
Open Context  Referrals from  Search Engine Queries  (based on 3,611 searches, Jan-Mar 2008) Note: 2585 Search requests fo...
Ownership in Open Context Citation information with stable URL direct to the item being cited.
Ownership in Open Context Unique for every single item in the database!
Ownership in Open Context Zotero  (www.zotero.org) uses COinS (a micro-format) metadata to make bibliographic references
Ownership in Open Context Copyright ownership and Creative Commons license information, including RDF metadata Internet-wi...
Penelope Pictures  <ul><li>Suggests need for more information about people! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links with Facebook? Lin...
Web 2.0 and Open <ul><li>Find research faster, easier </li></ul><ul><li>Build on the work of others </li></ul><ul><li>Faci...
Records in Open Context XML data output, enables: (1) Sharing between web resources (2) Custom presentation (Zooarcheology...
Faceted Browse  <ul><li>Petra Great Temple: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>128,187 locations / objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1...
Faceted Browse  <ul><li>RESTful Web Service under the facet browse feature </li></ul><ul><li>Very flexible way to  query  ...
Back to the Long Tail: Open Search <ul><li>Recently implemented the “Open Search Standard” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send Open...
<ul><li>XML/XSLT enables us to have multiple interfaces optimized for different users / types of content </li></ul><ul><ul...
Open Context Components <ul><li>Two Parts : </li></ul><ul><li>Open access interfaces for browse, “tagging”, analysis, expo...
Schema Mapping into ArchaeoML <ul><li>Importer an important part, most people work with Excel, Filemaker, Access…  </li></...
Penelope 2
Penelope 2 <ul><li>Petra Great Temple: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 individual databases (some very large) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Web 2.0 Structured Data  <ul><li>Web resources using highly generalized data structures see growing popularity </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Schema mapping is major challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave to Open Context editors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
<ul><li>Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work </li></ul><ul><li>Key to cracking the nut of making “Web 2.0” ...
Open Context Developers <ul><li>Eric Kansa (Lead developer, tagging system, interface design) </li></ul><ul><li>Ahrash Bis...
Special Thanks University of Chicago: OCHRE Project The Electronic Frontier Foundation Doris and Donald Fisher SAA 2008 Co...
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Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics (the Open Context Data Publication System for Archaeology)

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"Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics" -- This presentation was given at the Society for American Archaeology 2008 meeting, in a session on Web 2.0 Tools for Archaeological Collaboration and Communication. The paper is coauthored by Eric Kansa (UC Berkeley School of Information) and Sarah Whitcher Kansa (Alexandria Archive Institute).

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Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics (the Open Context Data Publication System for Archaeology)

  1. 1. Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics Eric Kansa UC Berkeley School of Information Unless otherwise indicated, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/> Sarah Whitcher Kansa Alexandria Archive Institute
  2. 2. Web 2.0 and Open <ul><li>Find research faster, easier </li></ul><ul><li>Build on the work of others </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate creative / innovative reuse (“remixes”, “mashups”) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Web 2.0 Challenges <ul><li>Smaller, highly specialized communities </li></ul><ul><li>Structured data is hard for Web 2.0 collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Work-flow, incentive, user experience </li></ul>
  4. 4. Web 2.0 Challenges <ul><li>Smaller, highly specialized communities </li></ul><ul><li>Structured data is hard for Web 2.0 collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Work-flow, incentive, user experience </li></ul>
  5. 5. Open Context makes primary research easy to share , use and cite … … and is freely accessible across the globe
  6. 6. OCHRE, Open Context <ul><li>OCHRE: Fully supports ArchaeoML global schema using a native XML database and free java client </li></ul><ul><li>Open Context: Uses a subset of the ArchaeoML schema (via MySQL/PHP) for web-browser access. Not a repository (partnerships needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Common services, including complex querying and analysis for pooled content </li></ul>
  7. 7. Global Schemas: ArchaeoML <ul><li>Simple, general schema makes it easier to pool diverse content </li></ul><ul><li>Not overly determined, support multiple research agendas </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to implement . But we’re gaining experience </li></ul>UML Diagram of a subset of ArchaeoML
  8. 8. Open Context Components <ul><li>Two Parts : </li></ul><ul><li>Open access interfaces for browse, “tagging”, analysis, export of public data </li></ul><ul><li>Penelope data import and schema mapping tool for publishing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Faceted Browse <ul><li>Data from multiple projects browsed, queried (even with Boolean algebra), and results pooled together </li></ul><ul><li>Individual records dynamically exposed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Summary Statistics
  11. 11. Records in Open Context Contextual relationships: (Spatial containment)
  12. 12. Media Record
  13. 13. Discussion Caveats <ul><li>Caveats : </li></ul><ul><li>Up to now, we’ve been validating a data model. Need user experience study & optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Too early to talk of use of “classic” Web 2.0 tools. (First major complete dataset went live in December) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Open Context Tagging
  15. 15. Open Context Tagging Pingback: Register of a link made to a set tagged as “weaving tools” from a weblog To Do: Link Open Context tagging with Del.icio.us / Connotea
  16. 16. Open Context & Search <ul><li>PHP/MySQL: Drives many dynamic content websites, relatively simple standard technology. “Bleeding edge” difficult for our target community. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy integration of Open Source Tools (RSS-feeds, ping-back, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Open to Search Engines: Increasingly important research tools (Harley 2006) </li></ul>2 Diane Harley, Sarah Earl-Novell, Jennifer Arter, Shannon Lawrence, and C. Judson King, Jr. “The Influence of Academic Values on Scholarly Publication and Communication Practices”, Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.13.06 <http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs/ROP.Harley.AcademicValues.13.06.pdf>.
  17. 17. Open Context Referrals from Search Engine Queries (based on 3,611 searches, Jan-Mar 2008) Note: 2585 Search requests for “context” excluded from this diagram. Person Place Object “ Long Tail”- 53% of searches
  18. 18. Ownership in Open Context Citation information with stable URL direct to the item being cited.
  19. 19. Ownership in Open Context Unique for every single item in the database!
  20. 20. Ownership in Open Context Zotero (www.zotero.org) uses COinS (a micro-format) metadata to make bibliographic references
  21. 21. Ownership in Open Context Copyright ownership and Creative Commons license information, including RDF metadata Internet-wide standard metadata, links ownership & permissions
  22. 22. Penelope Pictures <ul><li>Suggests need for more information about people! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links with Facebook? LinkedIn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field notes should document people more? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Web 2.0 and Open <ul><li>Find research faster, easier </li></ul><ul><li>Build on the work of others </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate creative / innovative reuse (“remixes”, “mashups”) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Records in Open Context XML data output, enables: (1) Sharing between web resources (2) Custom presentation (Zooarcheology, or Brown University-specific style templates, etc.)
  25. 25. Faceted Browse <ul><li>Petra Great Temple: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>128,187 locations / objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 million descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1626 media objects ( more to come ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>298,500 relationships </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Faceted Browse <ul><li>RESTful Web Service under the facet browse feature </li></ul><ul><li>Very flexible way to query Open Context to get XML data </li></ul>
  27. 27. Back to the Long Tail: Open Search <ul><li>Recently implemented the “Open Search Standard” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send Open Context “Google-like” search string, return results in Atom (XML) format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to understand ArchaeoML </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy way for distributed search across multiple projects! ( More use of all initiatives ) </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>XML/XSLT enables us to have multiple interfaces optimized for different users / types of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media heavy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis/visualization (Swivel tools?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work </li></ul>User Experience Image by Jeff Kubina via Flickr (CC-by license) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/296367267/>
  29. 29. Open Context Components <ul><li>Two Parts : </li></ul><ul><li>Open access interfaces for browse, “tagging”, analysis, export of public data </li></ul><ul><li>Penelope data import and schema mapping tool for publishing </li></ul>
  30. 30. Schema Mapping into ArchaeoML <ul><li>Importer an important part, most people work with Excel, Filemaker, Access… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Individuals can upload their own data, map them into ArchaeoML and submit for review and publishing </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Penelope 2
  32. 32. Penelope 2 <ul><li>Petra Great Temple: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 individual databases (some very large) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~200 text documents with embedded tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1600+ related media files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Stress-test” for Penelope! </li></ul>
  33. 33. Web 2.0 Structured Data <ul><li>Web resources using highly generalized data structures see growing popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swivel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Eyes (IBM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freebase (Metaweb) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common store for structured data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freebase and Open Context share similar data models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Still haven’t made tools for easy upload… </li></ul>Freebase (www.freebase.com)
  34. 34. <ul><li>Schema mapping is major challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave to Open Context editors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave to schema geeks who may draw data of interest from a repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-automate (make suggested mappings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work </li></ul>User Experience Image by Jeff Kubina via Flickr (CC-by license) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/296367267/>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work </li></ul><ul><li>Key to cracking the nut of making “Web 2.0” work for archaeology </li></ul>Summary: Web 2.0 & User Experience Image by Jeff Kubina via Flickr (CC-by license) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/296367267/>
  36. 36. Open Context Developers <ul><li>Eric Kansa (Lead developer, tagging system, interface design) </li></ul><ul><li>Ahrash Bissell (Penelope design, usability) </li></ul><ul><li>Nathan Hirth (XML, XSLT, schema mapping) </li></ul><ul><li>David Schloen (ArchaeoML schema) </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah W. Kansa (Usability, interface design, documentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Jeanne Lopiparo (Interface and graphic design, usability) </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Ashley (Filemaker item-view mockup) </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Hoffman (Usability, optimization ) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Special Thanks University of Chicago: OCHRE Project The Electronic Frontier Foundation Doris and Donald Fisher SAA 2008 Conference Presidio Archaeology: NPS, Golden Gate National Rec. Area Science Commons Internet Archive (media repository services)

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