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  • Nini johanna claderon Tatiana chaves moncayo Patrick daniel marizansen
  • There are three clinical types of diarrhoea: Acute watery diarrhoea It lasts several hours or days; the stool is loose and watery without blood and includes cholera. Acute bloody diarrhoea It also lasts for hours or a few days, the stool contains blood in it and also called dysentery. Persistent diarrhoea This is prolonged diarrhoea and lasts 14 days or longer.
  • May or may not be otherwise unwell Symptoms can range from a mild stomach upset for a day or two with slight diarrhoea, to severe watery diarrhoea for several days or longer. Blood or mucus can appear in the stools with some infections. Crampy pains in the abdomen are common. Pains may ease each time some diarrhoea is passed. Vomiting, high temperature (fever), aching limbs and headache may also develop.
  • Most common complication of diarrhoea in children is dehydration which can be fatal if not taken into account on time. Bacterial bowel infection may rarely cause septicaemia, meningitis and osteomyelitis Very rarely, Infection may also lead to bowel perforation, intussusception, appendicitis or liver abscess. Continued… The degree of dehydration is rated on a scale of three: No dehydration No signs or symptoms of dehydration Moderate dehydration: Thirst Restless or irritable behaviour Decreased skin elasticity Sunken eyes Severe dehydration: Symptoms become more severe Shock, with diminished consciousness, lack of urine output, cool, moist extremities, a rapid and feeble pulse, low or undetectable blood pressure, and pale skin
  • Diarrea

    1. 1. DIARRHEANini Johanna CalderonTatiana Chaves MoncayoPatrick Daniel Marisancen
    2. 2. Diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality andmorbidity in the world after pneumonia among children underfive globally.Globally, there are about two billion cases of diarrheal diseaseevery year.Nearly one in five child deaths, about 1.5 million each year, isdue to diarrhea.Today only 39 per cent of children with diarrhea in developingcountries receive the recommended treatment, and limitedtrend data suggest that there has been little progress since2000.DIARRHEA A PUBLIC HEALTHCONCERN
    3. 3. Diarrhea is defined by the World HealthOrganization as having 3 or more loose or liquidstools per day, or as having more stools than isnormal for that person.Diarrhea is usually a symptom of an infection in theintestinal tract, which can be caused by a variety ofbacterial, viral and parasitic organisms.People of all ages can get diarrhea, but it is morecommon in children below five years of age.WHAT IS DIARRHEA?
    4. 4. TYPES OF DIARRHEAAcute waterydiarrhea.Acute bloodydiarrhea.Persistent diarrhea.
    6. 6.  Viral InfectionsRota virusNorovirus (Adults)Adenovirus types 40 and 41Astroviruses Parasitic InfectionsGiardia and Entamoeba histolytica1. Organisms involved… Bacterial InfectionsEscherichia coliSalmonellaeShigellaeCampylobacterVibrio choleraClostridium difficile
    7. 7. 2. Sources of infection… Poor Personal Hygiene Improper Sanitation Contaminated Water and Food Systemic InfectionsUrinary tract infectionPneumoniaOtitis mediaMeningitisSepticaemia
    8. 8. 3. Non infectious… MalabsorptionCystic fibrosis,Coeliac disease Food Intolerance or AllergyLactose Intolerance,Cows milk Protein Allergy Drug induced- Antibiotics InflammationUlcerative colitisCrohns disease Surgical ConditionsAppendicitisIntussusceptionPartial bowel obstruction Other rare conditionsHaemolytic-uraemic syndromePseudomembranous colitisToddler diarrhoea
    10. 10. May or may not be otherwise unwellA mild stomach upset for a day or two withslight diarrhea,To severe watery diarrhea for several daysor longer.Blood or mucus.Crampy pains in the abdomen.Pains may ease each time somediarrhea is passed.Vomiting, high temperature, aching limbsand headache may also develop.
    11. 11.  Bacterial bowel infectionCOMPLICATIONS Dehydration Infections
    12. 12.  Rehydration ORS Continued Feeding ZincSupplements Consulting a Health worker if thereare signs of DehydrationTREATMENT
    13. 13. Water, sanitation and hygiene programmesNutritionBreastFeeding Micronutrient supplementationImmunizationPREVENTION
    14. 14.  Treatment PackageFluid replacement to prevent dehydrationZinc treatment Prevention PackageRotavirus and measles VACCINATIONPROMOTION of early and exclusive breastfeeding andvitamin A supplementationPromotion of HAND WASHING with soapIMPROVED drinking water supply quantity and qualityincluding treatment and safe storage of household waterCOMMUNITY-wide SANITATION promotionPLANCONTROL AND PREVENTIONOF DIARRHEA