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Poverty in India


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Poverty in India

  1. 1. Case StudyCase Study Project Head StartProject Head Start A Program in the U.S. War on PovertyA Program in the U.S. War on Poverty
  2. 2. Case Analysis and FindingsCase Analysis and Findings  18th May - President Johnson announced 2500 Head Start Project  Initially, 1676 Head start project were approved, involving 9,508 centers & 375,942 children at total cost of $ 65,686,741  Projects were designed to use the services of 41,000 professionals including teachers, physicians, dentists and nurses  Also included were low income people & part time volunteers  Projects were directed at assisting parents as well as the children & for treating health defects
  3. 3. Mission, Objectives and BeneficiariesMission, Objectives and Beneficiaries  Head start project mission was depicted in a planning report  They identified that deficient in early childhood development as a root cause of poverty  There is adequate evidence to support the view that special programs can be devised for children which will improve both the child’s opportunities and achievements
  4. 4. Program ObjectivesProgram Objectives  Improving a child’s physical health & abilities  Fostering emotional and social development  Improving mental processes &skills of child  Help in creating a climate of confidence for future learning  Increasing child’s capacity to relate positively to family  Developing a responsible attitude towards society  Increasing the sense of dignity and self-worth within children & their families
  5. 5. Components of the Head Start ProgramComponents of the Head Start Program  Health Component : Included the provision of medical examinations  Education Component : Specified a teacher student ratio of 1:5  Parental Involvement Component : To get parents participation in the project  Nutrition Component : Providing at least one hot meal & one snack each day of children  Social & Psychological Services Component : It set up referral service. Psychologist & Social Workers would identify cases that require counseling
  6. 6. Q.1. Do you agree that Deficient Childhood is aQ.1. Do you agree that Deficient Childhood is a Root Cause of Poverty? Justify?Root Cause of Poverty? Justify? Yes, we do agree that Deficient Early Childhood Development is the Root Cause of Poverty
  7. 7.  Early years of childhood are the most critical points in the poverty cycle  There are observable deficiencies which lay the foundation for a pattern of failure & thus poverty  Physical health & abilities  Level of Emotional bonding & social development can encourage: self confidence spontaneity curiosity, & self discipline improve a child’s mental processes and skills  The above establish & create patterns of success & build confidence for a child & aid his learning
  8. 8.  Emotional bonding helps nurture the child physically and create a confident approach within the child.  It helps increase the child’s capacity to relate positively to family members and others around.  The lack of the above creates a sense of insecurity and works in detriment to the child’s sense of wanting and bonding.  Therefore we agree that the childhood is the defining moment in one’s life and can be the root cause of poverty.
  9. 9. Q.2.The Project Planner of “Project Head Start”Q.2.The Project Planner of “Project Head Start” defined Program Objectives that would affectdefined Program Objectives that would affect Seven Areas of Child Development. Explain howSeven Areas of Child Development. Explain how these Seven Areas will help Fighting Poverty ?these Seven Areas will help Fighting Poverty ? Children who have been exposed to nothing more than brutal attacks of poverty and do not have a positive approach to life and it is highly fair on their part to take to succumb to their position, which obviously results only in continued poverty on a much larger scale
  10. 10. 7 Areas of Child Development7 Areas of Child Development (1) Improving a Child's physical health & abilities  Health is a multidimensional concept shaped by biological, social, economic & cultural factors  Health is influenced & shaped by the access to basic needs like food security; safe water supply, housing, sanitation & health services  The NFHS data show that 53% of children in rural areas are underweight in India & this varies across states. In some states this figure is as high as 60%who are underweight especially among the schedule tribes in the poorer states
  11. 11. (2) Fostering emotional and social development by encouraging self confidence, spontaneity, curiosity, and self-discipline Developmental characteristics include:  Child is curious and energetic, but depends on adults for reassurance & attention  Child is very dependant & attached, & is likely to be afraid of separation  They enjoy playing games with adults, especially repetitive games  They show an interest in other children, but usually play alone or alongside. There is no concept of sharing yet  The individual condition whereby the individual lacks the will, courage & self-confidence as a result of the social conditioning. However, through education, micro credit, support & encouragement it is possible for each & every individual to change their condition, to break out of the cycle of poverty & to get onto the bottom rung of the ladder of wealth
  12. 12. (3) Improving a child's mental processes & skills Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities used for thinking, studying and learning. It includes a wide range of mental processes essential in thinking, memory recall, and logic and reasoning skills (4) Establishing patterns & expectations of success for the child that will create a climate of confidence for future learning Can be done trough education and parental involvement (5) Increasing a child's capacity to relate positively to family members & others & strengthening the family's ability to relate positively to the child (6) Developing in children & their families a responsible attitude towards society (7) Increasing the sense of dignity & self-worth within children & their families
  13. 13. Q.3. In India, we have more Diversity in Target- Adopter Population than in USA & hence the Task is more complex & difficult. How can we overcome this problem ?
  14. 14. USAUSA Population : 30.84 Crores Factors related to Poverty  Age  Race / Ethnic Origin  Family Stability (Strongest)  Physical Health  Language & Cultural Differences 2009 - U.S. Census Bureau & Agriculture Department  3.5 million children < 5 yrs are at risk of hunger  1 of the poorest cities in U.S. - Camden, New Jersey  OECD – 20% Child poverty & 23% among elderly
  15. 15. LANGUAGES OF INDIALANGUAGES OF INDIA Hindi Sanskrit Tamil Gujarati UrduUrdu Punjabi Malayalam Bengali Marathi Konkani Kannada Assamese Telugu Oriya Rajasthani
  17. 17. IndiaIndia  Population (2009):- 119.80 Crores Urban - 29%, Rural - 71% & Growth Rate -1.55%  Ethnic Groups:- Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, others 3%. India > 2,000 Ethnic Groups  Religions:- Hindu 81.4%, Muslim 12.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, & other groups as Buddhist, Jain, Parsi within 1%  Languages: - Hindi, English, &16 other official languages  Poorest States (5): - Bihar, Orissa, UP, MP & Rajasthan  Education: Years compulsory – None  Literacy Rate - 61%
  18. 18. IndiaIndia  Health: IMR - 30.15 /1,000  Life expectancy: -70 years (2009 est.)  Rural Areas :- 75% poor are daily wagers, self-employed householders & landless labourers  Rural Areas Poverty Rates :- Rural Orissa (43%) & Rural Bihar (41%) -world's most extreme  Between 1999 and 2008 – Annual poverty growth rates Gujarat - 8.8% Haryana - 8.7% Delhi -7.4% Bihar -5.1% UP (4.4%) MP (3.5%)
  19. 19. Efforts To Overcome Poverty EradicationEfforts To Overcome Poverty Eradication India’s - 12 Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007)India’s - 12 Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007)  Reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 & to 10% by 2012  Providing gainful high quality employment  Universal access to primary education by 2007  Reduction in gender gaps in literacy & wage rates by at least 50% by 2007 & in population growth between 2001 & 2011 to 16.2%  Increase literacy rate to 72% within 2007 & to 80% by 2012  Reduction of IMR to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 & to 28 by 2012  All villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water by 2012  Cleaning of all major polluted rivers by 2007 & other notified stretches by 2012
  20. 20. Efforts To Overcome Poverty EradicationEfforts To Overcome Poverty Eradication Millenium Development GoalsMillenium Development Goals Millenium Development - Set of 8 Goals: 1. Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality & empower women 4. Improve maternal health 5. Reduce child mortality 6. Combat HIV, AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop global partnership for development Poverty
  21. 21. Efforts To Overcome Poverty EradicationEfforts To Overcome Poverty Eradication Diverse Communications for Target-Adopters PopulationDiverse Communications for Target-Adopters Population Personal Communication -Most powerful persuasion tool  Direct give-&-take exchange  Builds a relationship  Target-Adopter feels obligation to reciprocate The Communication Message –To be Universal & Varied  Initial implementation stage - Confidence & support of people in the project  Project Success – Target People’s confidence in the project  Effective communication –To provide information about the objectives of the project  Social Marketers has to use positive and exemplary aspects of the project, prepare articles, features, news, success stories etc. & make these materials periodically available to print & electronic media
  22. 22. Inequality of Income & WealthInequality of Income & Wealth Leads to Serious Economic & Social ConsequencesLeads to Serious Economic & Social Consequences  Class Conflict & Caste System : Dalits, OBC, Minorities  Political Domination: Results in corruption and social injustice  Exploitation of the Poor: Leads to political agitation & revolution  Suppression of Talent: Highly brilliant, but poor people are unable to make their full contribution to the society and the nation  No Real Democracy: Without economic equality (Wide gulf between the rich & poor)  Moral Degradation: Unequal distribution of income (Rich are corrupted by vice & poor are demoralized by lack of economic resources )  Economic Inequality: Corrupts the rich &degrades the poor
  23. 23. Measures to Reduce InequalitiesMeasures to Reduce Inequalities  1948 - Minimum Wage Act – Fix Minimum Wage  Social Security - Equal distribution of income, Free education up to a certain level, free medical & maternity aid, old-age pension, unemployment benefits, compensation for sickness & accidents, provident fund & group insurance schemes. Provide Social services like public parks, libraries, museums, community halls & community TV sets  Equality of Opportunity by Government - To both the rich & poor in getting employment / getting a start in trade or industry . Liberal scholarships, stipends & low interest loan to the poor for acquiring higher education & technical skills  Steeply-Graded Income Taxes - Prevent rich getting richer  Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings & Property -To reduce inequalities between big & small farmers
  24. 24. Conclusion : DiversityConclusion : Diversity Diversity of problems allows for a diversity of solutions  Solutions are ways of life and of livelihood  Many cross cultural problems arise out of a lack of appreciation of diversity  Diversity expands the range of alternatives & allows to conceptualize problems in novel ways  Diversity helps in making decisions based on facts rather than authority or influence  Emphasize on equal opportunity and fair treatment  Everyone is the same and differences do not count. All members treat one another exactly the same  Accept and celebrate differences  Realization of India -Being a multi-culture nation & operating in an increasingly multicultural environment  Country to leverage the experiences of the diverse  Indian people and culture have absorbed and modified these influences to produce a remarkable racial and cultural synthesis
  25. 25. Q.4. Head Start Planners Conceptualize theQ.4. Head Start Planners Conceptualize the project as having Five Components. For “Garibiproject as having Five Components. For “Garibi Hatao” program in India, will we be required toHatao” program in India, will we be required to cover more than these five components?cover more than these five components? What are those additional components and why?What are those additional components and why?
  26. 26. 5 Components of Head Start Planners5 Components of Head Start Planners  Health  Education  Parental Involvement  Nutrition  Social & Psychological services
  27. 27. Poverty In IndiaPoverty In India  Uneven progress in India, some states with higher rates of poverty than others  Inter-state differences in growth rates  Inter-state differences in responsiveness of poverty  This diversity across states explains the actions that are now needed to assure continuing progress for the country's poor
  28. 28. Why is India not making more progress againstWhy is India not making more progress against poverty?poverty?  The aggregate picture for India as a whole hides considerable diversity in rates of poverty reduction across states  The southern state of Kerala has had the highest long-term rate of poverty reduction  At the other extreme, the poverty rate fell at a trend rate of only 0.5% per year in the northern state of Bihar and even less in Assam in the northeast  Bihar has not only seen less economic growth over the longer- term, but the growth that has occurred has had less impact on poverty than in other states
  29. 29. Why does economic growth benefit the poor moreWhy does economic growth benefit the poor more in some states than others?in some states than others?  Differential levels of urban-rural disparity in living standards  The role of initial literacy alone is particularly important  For example, more than half of the difference between Bihar & Kerala in the poverty impact of non-agricultural output growth is attributable to Kerala's substantially higher literacy rate
  30. 30. Additional Components for Garibi HataoAdditional Components for Garibi Hatao  In pursuing higher growth in the aggregate, the sectoral growth should not be neglected  Promoting higher agricultural productivity, especially in lagging rural areas  Growth in the non-agricultural economy also has a significant role to play  Concentration on north-eastern states  Focus on rural infrastructure & technology
  32. 32. Sr. No Plan Salient Features Pub. Sector Outlay Pvt. Sector Investment Productivity / Results 1 1951 – 1956 Spread of community development projects and an effort to raise the living standards of the people. Rs. 2356 crs vs. actual expenditure of Rs. 1960 crs Rs. 1800 crs 2 1956 – 1961 This plan had its set objective in industrialization – the building up of rural India and the enhancing of employment opportunities Rs. 4800 crs vs. the actual expenditure of Rs. 4672 crs Rs. 3110 crs National Income rose by 19.5% 3 1961 – 1966 Targeted an increase in National Income by 5% p.a., self sufficiency in food and development of sectors like steel, fuel, machinery & power Rs. 7500 crs vs. actual expenditure of Rs. 8577 crs Rs. 4190 crs Plan failed due to increase in prices by 20%, Chinese aggression, Indo- Pak war. 1964-65 declared as Plan Holiday 4 1969 – 1974 2 main objectives: Growth followed by stability & self reliance, attainment of social justice & upliftment of the weaker sections of society Rs. 15,902 crs Rs. 8980 crs Target growth of 5.7% was not achieved 5 1974 – 1979 Aimed to remove poverty and achieving self reliance. This plan started a minimum need programme with measures for checking inflation Rs. 3030 crs Rs. 2704 crs This plan was terminated in the 4th year only i.e. 1978 only. The national income increased at 5.2
  33. 33. Sr. No. Plan Salient Features Pub. Sector Outlay Pvt. Sector Investment Productivity 6 1980 – 1985 Several objectives like growth rate of the economy, reduction in poverty and unemployment, improvement in the general quality of life Rs. 97,500 crs Rs. 75,710 crs National income grew by 5.4% 7 1985 – 1990 Growth in the production of food grains, the increase of opportunities of employment and the raising of productivity in all sectors of economy Rs. 18,000 crs Annual growth rate of GDP was 5.8% against plan target of 5% 8 1992 – 1997 This was delayed by two years. This plan had also set for itself several objectives, like the generation of employment, control of population growth, spread of elementary education and the growth of economy, in order to enable the Indian economy to compete with major free markets of the world. 9 1997 – 2002 It was developed in the context of four important dimensions: Quality of life, generation of productive employment, regional balance and self-reliance. Rs. 8,80,000 crs 10 2002 – 2007 To achieve the growth rate of GDP @ 8%. Reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and to 10% by 2012 Rs. 19, 68, 815 crs
  34. 34. Garibi HataoGaribi Hatao  Garibi Hatao (Meaning "Abolish Poverty" in Hindi) was the theme and slogan of Indira Gandhi's 1971 election bid & later also used by her son Rajiv Gandhi  The slogan & the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural & urban poor  This would allow Indira Gandhi to by-pass the dormant rural castes both of the state & local government; likewise the urban commercial class  And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth & political weight
  35. 35. Salient Features of Garibi Hatao programSalient Features of Garibi Hatao program  The poverty eradication effort came to be premised upon a massive creation of fictitious money through the budget deficit  The actual growth of output & productive capacity in the economy was totally incapable of supporting the increases in purchasing power entailed by the Garibi Hatao outlays  When the monsoon failure of 1972 led to a sharp drop in the availability of food grain, pent-up inflationary pressures came surging to the surface and an acute psychosis of scarcity took hold. Between June & September 1972, incensed crowds laid siege to the streets in places as far-flung as the States in the Hindi belt, Tamil Nadu & Punjab  Global oil prices increased in 1973 which further dented the ‘Garibi Hatao’ program
  36. 36. Q.5. What are the Problems & Challenges we areQ.5. What are the Problems & Challenges we are likely to face in India, while implementing “Thelikely to face in India, while implementing “The Garibi Hatao” Program ?Garibi Hatao” Program ?  GDP & NDP  High growth rate of population  Market deterioration in growth performance  Perceived economic reality  Resource availability
  37. 37. SummarySummary  Causes of poverty in India include, over population, caste system, literacy levels, unemployment , health, gender discrimination, food price inflation, role of women in Indian society, housing & basic amenities & family structure (joint to nuclear) e.g. family planning to control population.  The other areas that India needs to look into to eradicate Poverty are mentioned in the Tenth Plan (2002-2007).  Meet the Targets set by MDGs - Only 15% of the rural population has access to improved sanitation, hopelessly behind MDG targets  Due to diverse cultures in India, task of eradicating Poverty is more complex & difficult & measures to overcome inequality of income & wealth in India need to be taken at a sectorial level as well.  Anti-Poverty Programmes have brought down the Poverty Ratio since 1973 till date. (2007- It was 20%) State Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total All- India 56.44 49.01 54.88 37.27 32.36 35.97 27.09 23.62 26.10 1973-74 1993-94 1999-2000