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An Evolution in Women’s International
Human Rights
Rape as a Weapon of War
Presenters: Abby Buskager, Sara Ko, Laine
Cavan...
Analyze the role of international media in
shaping and reconstructing the narrative of
“comfort women”
Objective:
Understa...
Communication Theories:
Understanding the Issue
❖O’Loughlin and Roselle’s “Strategic
Narratives”
❖Manuel Castell’s “Commun...
Rape: An Ancient War Weapon
Rape: The“Spoils of War”
Rape: A Strategic Weapon
❖ Well organized and systematic
❖ ‘Wounding Honor’
- Strategy aimed at relatives of victims
- Mar...
The Start of the Discussion:
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
❖ Article 1: All human beings are born free
and eq...
Re-Framing the Narrative:
Case of “Comfort Women”
❖ 80,000-200,000 women and girls forcibly conscripted into
sexual slaver...
“Comfort Women” Issue:
Domestic to Global
Timeline:
❖ Late 1980s: Korean religious and secular human rights
NGOs put publi...
“Comfort Women” Issue:
The Role of International Communication
Narratives of Comfort Women issue as
human rights issue on ...
The Narrative:
Comfort Women in the International Arena
❖ 2007 Resolution passed in the US House of Representatives: “shou...
Today: A Fight for the Narrative
Comfort Women Narrative:
Yumiko Yamamoto’s Appeals to the UN:
"Comfort Women were not Sex Slaves"
Comfort Women Narratives:
Arirang Special "Comfort Women - One Last Cry”
Final Analysis:
Active Role in Narrative
❖ International Actors
 International Criminal Court, International Court of
Jus...
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SIS 640 International Communication Presentation: Rape as a Weapon of War-Case of "Comfort Women"

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SIS 640 International Communication Presentation: Rape as a Weapon of War-Case of "Comfort Women"

  1. 1. An Evolution in Women’s International Human Rights Rape as a Weapon of War Presenters: Abby Buskager, Sara Ko, Laine Cavanaugh, Erica Freund
  2. 2. Analyze the role of international media in shaping and reconstructing the narrative of “comfort women” Objective: Understanding the Issue
  3. 3. Communication Theories: Understanding the Issue ❖O’Loughlin and Roselle’s “Strategic Narratives” ❖Manuel Castell’s “Communication Power”
  4. 4. Rape: An Ancient War Weapon
  5. 5. Rape: The“Spoils of War”
  6. 6. Rape: A Strategic Weapon ❖ Well organized and systematic ❖ ‘Wounding Honor’ - Strategy aimed at relatives of victims - Marred the honor and competence of those unable to protect their women ❖ 1938 “Kristallnacht” ❖ 1945 Soviet counterattack campaign - As Russian soldiers advanced and eventually occupied Berlin they raped nearly 1 million German women (Smith 269)
  7. 7. The Start of the Discussion: 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights ❖ Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. ❖ Article 3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. ❖Article 4: No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. ❖Article 5: No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
  8. 8. Re-Framing the Narrative: Case of “Comfort Women” ❖ 80,000-200,000 women and girls forcibly conscripted into sexual slavery by Japanese Imperial Army from 1932 to 1945 ❖ Majority from Korea but many also from China, the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies ❖ Forgotten, dark war-time past and crime until August 1991 when former comfort woman Kim Hak-sun publicly reveals her story ❖ Several other victims follow “Grandma Kim’s” footsteps and filed a lawsuit in Tokyo district court for “crimes against humanity” ❖ Former comfort women cite “shame,” “disgrace,” and “judgment” as main reasons for silencing atrocities ❖ During “spearheaded “mission” by Japanese government, Korean “middle brokers” working under Japanese rule participated to deceive and “recruit” victims
  9. 9. “Comfort Women” Issue: Domestic to Global Timeline: ❖ Late 1980s: Korean religious and secular human rights NGOs put public spotlight on “comfort women” issue ❖ August 1991: Kim Hak-sun story ❖ February 1992: Comfort women issue raised at United Nations Commission on Human Rights ❖ 1995: Japanese government creates Asian Women’s Fund but receives international criticism for providing “moral” yet lack of “legal” responsibility ❖ February 6, 1996: The UN officially condemns Japan for sexual slavery ❖ Today: Japanese government continues to deny “forcible sexual slavery” and argues all “compensation” already made during 1965 Normalization Treaty
  10. 10. “Comfort Women” Issue: The Role of International Communication Narratives of Comfort Women issue as human rights issue on the global stage: ❖ Weekly Wednesday protests in front of Japanese Embassy in Seoul begins since January 1992 ❖ Various foreign media record and publish “comfort women” stories ❖ Prominent international NGOs (i.e. Amnesty International) create reports and testimonies of former comfort women for global distribution ❖ With Information Age, individual protesters and other civic groups become more active participants in disseminating “comfort women” issue
  11. 11. The Narrative: Comfort Women in the International Arena ❖ 2007 Resolution passed in the US House of Representatives: “should formally acknowledge, apologize, and accept historical responsibility in a clear and unequivocal manner for its Imperial Armed Forces’ coercion of young women into sexual slavery.” ❖ United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay: said on 6 August 2014 that Japan “has failed to pursue a comprehensive, impartial and lasting resolution” to address the rights of “comfort women” from the Second World War. ❖ Japanese Foreign Ministry Ambassador in charge of human rights and humanitarian issues, Kuni Sato: asked for revisions to comfort women statements, October 14, 2014.
  12. 12. Today: A Fight for the Narrative
  13. 13. Comfort Women Narrative: Yumiko Yamamoto’s Appeals to the UN: "Comfort Women were not Sex Slaves"
  14. 14. Comfort Women Narratives: Arirang Special "Comfort Women - One Last Cry”
  15. 15. Final Analysis: Active Role in Narrative ❖ International Actors  International Criminal Court, International Court of Justice, United Nations ❖ Government Actors

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