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Perceptual Dyslexia
Definition…Perceptual Dyslexia is a visual-perceptual disorderaffecting reading and writing based activities such as:1.Rea...
What Is Perceptual Dyslexia?• Not standard dyslexia• Perceptual vice optical  – Based on sensitivity to light frequencies,...
When ordinary readers look at text…       The way we see is not determined by what we want to see but       how we have le...
When dyslexics look at text…      The way we see is not determined by what we want to see but      how we have learned to ...
Symptoms of Perceptual          Dyslexia• Light sensitivity• Problems with high-gloss or high-contrast  material• Ineffici...
The Victims of Perceptual          Dyslexia• Estimated 46-50% of those with learning  disabilities or reading problems• Es...
Blurry Effect                                                                                    What They See            ...
Halo Effect                                                                                  What They See              Re...
Rivers Effect                                                                                    What They See            ...
Seasaw Effect                                                                                    What They See            ...
Shaky Effect                                                                                   What They See              ...
Swirl Effect                                                                                   What They See              ...
Washout Effect                                                                                     What They See          ...
What They SeeIrlen Syndrome w/Dyslexia                            Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by He...
What They SeeOverlapping writing                      Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
Discovery by IrlenSerendipitous discoveryA student using a red overlay noticed her page and words nolonger swayed back and...
Effects of Perceptual Dyslexia• Brains of perceptual dyslexics are in “overdrive”  when working problems• Signal in visual...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging• Dyslexics use different part of the brain for reading• Dyslexics use larger portion of brain’s...
Looking for the   Reason   What Is the Cause of   Perceptual Dyslexia?
Receptor Field Theory :  – Developed in ’80s by visual physiologists  – Hypothesizes that cones of the eye organized    in...
Hypothesized Types of Receptor           Fields
Receptor Field Theory• Type of field  determined by:  – Field’s color region    arrangement  – Balance of the    output of...
Receptor Field Theory• All receptor fields  transmit their  respective signal to  brain’s visual  processing center  – Sig...
The way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrate...
Reading with a window-maskThe way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seein...
Reading with a window-maskThe way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seein...
Reading with a window-maskThe way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seein...
How To Fix It• Dim the lights• Use natural vice fluorescent lighting• Use blackboards instead of white boards• Allow stude...
Cont…• Computers  – Can be modified using display options of    operating system     » Brighten or dim background     » Ch...
Testing for Color• Irlen Method   Two types of screening   -Quick, simple test, consisting of about 10-15     questions   ...
Wilkins Rate of Reading Test:  –Fairly simple, easy to administer  –Fairly quick “diagnosis” for   appropriate overlay(s) ...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attribute...
Benefits   Improve individual quality of life   Improved reading speed/comprehension   Lower visual fatigue   Longer a...
Its in our hands to change this sad situation and help the high flights               of ALL!
Perceptual dyslexia
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Perceptual dyslexia

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Perceptual dyslexia

  1. 1. Perceptual Dyslexia
  2. 2. Definition…Perceptual Dyslexia is a visual-perceptual disorderaffecting reading and writing based activities such as:1.Reading 4. Math2.Writing 5. Copying3.Spelling 6. Reading music• And other activities such as:1.Computer work 3. Sports performance2.Driving 4. Comfort under fluorescents
  3. 3. What Is Perceptual Dyslexia?• Not standard dyslexia• Perceptual vice optical – Based on sensitivity to light frequencies, not optical dysfunction Victim can have 20/20 vision and still be affected
  4. 4. When ordinary readers look at text… The way we see is not determined by what we want to see but how we have learned to practice seeing. There are several strategies that we pick between depending on what we have learned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes. So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey, a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architect uses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Each discipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic, you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.
  5. 5. When dyslexics look at text… The way we see is not determined by what we want to see but how we have learned to practice seeing. There are several strategies that we pick between depending on what we have learned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes. So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey, a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architect uses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Each discipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic, you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.
  6. 6. Symptoms of Perceptual Dyslexia• Light sensitivity• Problems with high-gloss or high-contrast material• Inefficient reading• Slow reading rate• Attention deficit• Strain or fatigue• Poor depth perception
  7. 7. The Victims of Perceptual Dyslexia• Estimated 46-50% of those with learning disabilities or reading problems• Estimated 33% of those with dyslexia, ADD/HD, or other behavioral problems• Estimated 12-14% of the general population
  8. 8. Blurry Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  9. 9. Halo Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  10. 10. Rivers Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  11. 11. Seasaw Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  12. 12. Shaky Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  13. 13. Swirl Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  14. 14. Washout Effect What They See Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  15. 15. What They SeeIrlen Syndrome w/Dyslexia Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  16. 16. What They SeeOverlapping writing Reprinted by permission from Reading by the Colors by Helen Irlen
  17. 17. Discovery by IrlenSerendipitous discoveryA student using a red overlay noticed her page and words nolonger swayed back and forthRed did not work for everyoneTried overlays of other colors – 31 out of 37 in class and 58 out of 75 in private practice helped by colored overlays – Each individual helped had certain colors that made things better or worse
  18. 18. Effects of Perceptual Dyslexia• Brains of perceptual dyslexics are in “overdrive” when working problems• Signal in visual neural pathways of optic nerves of perceptual dyslexics is different
  19. 19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging• Dyslexics use different part of the brain for reading• Dyslexics use larger portion of brain’s capacity in reading and visual tasks Normal Brain Dyslexic Brain
  20. 20. Looking for the Reason What Is the Cause of Perceptual Dyslexia?
  21. 21. Receptor Field Theory : – Developed in ’80s by visual physiologists – Hypothesizes that cones of the eye organized into 8 sets of concentric, counterbalancing fields
  22. 22. Hypothesized Types of Receptor Fields
  23. 23. Receptor Field Theory• Type of field determined by: – Field’s color region arrangement – Balance of the output of each field’s energy (signal) » Positive or negative
  24. 24. Receptor Field Theory• All receptor fields transmit their respective signal to brain’s visual processing center – Signals summed to a unity, forming output image in brain
  25. 25. The way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.The way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.
  26. 26. Reading with a window-maskThe way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.The way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.
  27. 27. Reading with a window-maskThe way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.The way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.
  28. 28. Reading with a window-maskThe way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.The way we see is not determined by what we want to see buthow we have learned to practice seeing. There are severalstrategies that we pick between depending on what we havelearned to see, and we switch between them as the task changes.So for example, a hunter uses a wide field of vision to locate prey,a scribe uses a narrow field to write and a painter or architectuses a variable field to arrange an ensemble into a whole. Eachdiscipline of seeing take practice. But suppose, like a dyslexic,you have a strategy inappropriate to reading.
  29. 29. How To Fix It• Dim the lights• Use natural vice fluorescent lighting• Use blackboards instead of white boards• Allow students to use colored paper• Allow caps/visors to be worn indoors
  30. 30. Cont…• Computers – Can be modified using display options of operating system » Brighten or dim background » Change background and font colors on computer screen• Modification of light spectrum presented – Colored film overlays – Colored eyeglass filters• Each person’s color different
  31. 31. Testing for Color• Irlen Method Two types of screening -Quick, simple test, consisting of about 10-15 questions -In-depth, reading-related screening (1½-2 hours)
  32. 32. Wilkins Rate of Reading Test: –Fairly simple, easy to administer –Fairly quick “diagnosis” for appropriate overlay(s) More muted colours can improve visibility
  33. 33. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  34. 34. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  35. 35. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  36. 36. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  37. 37. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  38. 38. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  39. 39. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  40. 40. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  41. 41. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  42. 42. The military services have traditionally been leadersin evaluating their personnel for physical andphysiological attributes to place them in a workenvironment where their unique personal talents andcapabilities can be used. Using this screeningprocedure will provide a new avenue for selection formilitary personnel for placement in environmentswhere their natural talents and abilities can be put tooptimum use, while avoiding assignment of personnelto those operational environments where their visualperformance parameters would cause them toinherently perform badly, thereby putting the mission,service assets, and/or other personnel at risk.
  43. 43. Benefits Improve individual quality of life Improved reading speed/comprehension Lower visual fatigue Longer attention span Reduced nervousness More self-confidence Improved attitude toward training Higher work-task efficiency
  44. 44. Its in our hands to change this sad situation and help the high flights of ALL!

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