We’re so glad to be here today! We’re going to talk about how 3D virtual worlds can be used to support student learning, And we’ll draw upon a qualitative case study where we examined how 3D virtual worlds are used across a number of disciplines. In addition to exploring the educational application of 3D virtual worlds, we studied the strengths and limitations this platform presents for teaching adults. There’s going to be a good bit of time for us to discuss some practical applications, and to gather your input on how you envision using this in your practice –is there educational potential and possibilities for you in your practice?Now, before we get started telling you a bit about ourselves and our background, and how we came to this topic area, I wanted to poll the audience to get a feel for your background –how many of you have used virtual worlds and what your interest area is.Questions for audience–how many have used virtual worlds?--which virtual worlds have you used?Great –well let me tell you a bit about our background, and how we came to this topic.
I teach in the Instructional Technology program at NC State, and coordinate the E-Learning Certificate program. As an aside, if any of you are interested in pursuing a graduate certificate in e-Learning, I’m happy to speak with you after the conference. I have a joint appointment, and my work at the Friday Institute is with the 1:1 Teaching and Learning technology collaborative, where we work with schools/districts in our grant funded areas to help then deploy 1:1 laptops in their schools, and to integrate Web 2.0 tools in their teaching. I’ve got a background in online learning, I’ve presented in second life for several UNC Teaching and Learning with Technology conferences, and before coming to NC State I worked at Duke, managing their online programs. I also completed my dissertation on virtual worlds with Diane here as my dissertation co-chair.
My dissertation as I mentioned focused on this area, so it gave me an opportunity to explore the topic in depth and understand how instructors were applying virtual worlds in their teaching, and what the strengths and limitations were using virtual worlds as a teaching tool. One of the research questions dealt with evaluating learning outcomes in this learning space, and we eventually published an article on this just this past December. It’s online but I’ve brought copies for you too,One of the topics we’re going to discuss in this presentation are assessment strategies and evaluation, so I thought it would be helpful for you to see the background we bring to that area. Also, Diane teaches a course on evaluation and I incorporate evaluation in class I teach in the instructional technology program.I mentioned we recently published an article on this topic (copies for audience) but also the qualitative case study specifically asked instructors how they measure learning outcomes –in other words, how do they know students have achieved learning outcomes and what constitutes a successful learning experience? That’s important, before you actually go forward using virtual worlds in your practice, you need to think about how you’re going to measure learning. We’ll talk about that more as we move through the presentation.
Ok, now that you’ve got the background information and you see how we came to this topic area, let me go over a few items about the presentation.We’ve got a full agenda –here’s what we’re planning to cover:Virtual worlds and 21st century learning –what specific strengths do virtual worlds bring that you can utilize to support student learning?2. What are some specific examples of how virtual worlds have been used in education, and how effective were these applications in support of student learning?3. What are some of the assessment and evaluation methods best suited to evaluating the digital artifacts students create in a virtual world?4. Based on the case study, and our own practical experiences, what are some of the potential challenges you might face integrating virtual worlds in your practice area?5. Finally, we’ll discuss as a whole and brainstorm potential applications of virtual worlds in your practice area.
Second Life applications:Application: professional development, PLCsEdheads:(educational content, including designing electronics, weather simulations, manipulating simple machines, Free online games devoted to science math critical thinkingActive Worlds:A self contained educational space –Clemson runs a program in AWTeleplace: online collaborationWas used at Duke for an writing tutorial centerQuest Atlantis:(a 3D multi-user environment that immerses children ages 9-16 in educational tasks)
What are some of the reasons educators might be drawn to using virtual worlds in their practice?An environment that embraces the digital and multimodal learning skills our students haveA place to co-create digital, authentic learning artifactsIt’s an adaptive environment, can be shaped to create the learning experience you want for your studentsStudents can participate in tasks that wouldn’t be possible given time and resource constraintsIt’s a collaborative space, offering a virtual space to collaborate, co-create, and interact simultaneously with colleagues around the world.
As we think about 21st c learning, we see that virtual worlds are one option for our students, many whom have are fluent in web 2.0, 3D gaming and have expectations for learning that include:Social learningimmersive Think about the generation we’ll be teaching as undergrads, Generation Z, the youngest are now senions in HS
What are some applications in this environmentInternships:Students can apply real world experiences –this fits with the situated learning theory -context and social learning play an important role in the learning processRole play –they can play out history periodsSimulation –create or interact with a scientific or medical processVirtual field tripsCreate, share, and interact with digital artifacts *a social constructivist environment
Based on what we know about 21st c learners, we can look to virtual worlds as possible learning spacesHigher level cognitive thinking engages students in activities involving interpreting, analyzing, discovering, evaluating, acting and problem solvingStudents and teachers can create digital artifacts –machinimas (videos from inside the virtual world)Collaborative & simultaneous interaction provides opportunities to learn concepts not easily learned independently or from a textbook
Why they implemented virtual worlds in their teaching. Instructors were most interested in:--this is Apollo lander on the moonDuring the interviews, instructors commented on the importance of creating learning experiences that offered the benefits of 3D visualization, authenticity, presence, immersion, and community. The participants talked about creating a “sense of home” or a “sense of place” for their learners. They were enthusiastic about the ‘sense of presence” and the social immersion these environments provide. They were hopeful their students would more easily grasp scientific concepts by “problem-solving” or “manipulating” 3D images and “interacting with content in a dynamic way.” Instructors talked about students bonding together, forming a “community” and “engaging their peers.” These instructors frequently cited presence, community, engagement, 3D visualization, authenticity, and learning in a social context as important components of their virtual world implementations.See Table 8 for a full list of implementations
COURSE: PHY 102, INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY, FALL 2008 -About this course: Astronomy examines the nature of light, astronomical instruments and our attempt to understand the origin of our solar system and its constituents: the Sun, the planets, the asteroids, comets and meteors-retention rate-Fall enrollment: 90 students in 3 sections of 30-SL space sciences outreach projects for end of course work in project teams.-a F2F course with SL as a supplement for end of course projects. Students use SL in computer lab with instructor present.-instructor got a grant and began using it in Summer 2005. Bought land with his own money and built a planetarium and later created Science Islands (SciLands). -He created a functional replica of the telescopes for his students in SL.-Instructor has background in gaming, Photoshop, programmingCASE 004: F2F course. SL as supplement. Does not use BB, because there is no sense of audience and no 3D visualization. Does not care for Elluminate-holds virtual office hours-he has created a planetarium in SL. Using that, students can create astronomy projects to present to the public-uses for student project work-Students build accurate models of the solar system. He dispenses small scripts that on the first day have them building small planets. He puts students in groups of 4 and holds a contest to see who can build the most accurate model. Contest is called “Star Naming for dummies.” The students build islands of exhibits dedicated to global warming. -this implementation allowed students to engage with 3D content in a virtual environment; great for teaching scientific concepts-development team: instructor with own programming background-instructor’s own funds, island is in own name, still “trying to offload it”-it was 90% favorably received-Students had problems with SL, usability, navigation, social avatar behavior, frustration, fear, technical phobias, using voice was problematic, there were software and hardware issues even in the lab. Students did not have programming experience to write scripts. SL is graphics intensive. Sharing digital artifacts by setting permissions was problematic. Support barriers. Not intuitive. High cost-benefit ratio. A “clunky tool.”-he created an orientation scavenger hunt tutorial to acclimate the students, he created notecards, he created orientation tools for them, he held regular virtual office hours. He had to create a “built in support structure for his students.” He created three basic scripts of “moving, touch, and labeling” for his students to use.Goal:Primary learning theory: Social constructivism, also situated learningSocial constructivism maintains that collaboration and communication are important components for learning, placing an emphasis on the social context of learningSocial constructivism underpins our understandings of how individuals learn in a social context and extends the learning process to include a collective reflection and sharing of experience.immersion fosters communal learning involving “diverse, tacit, situated experience, with knowledge distributed across a community and a context as well as within an individual.”Communal learning (Dede, 2004) Driver et al. (1994) believes constructivist learning is a personal, meaning-making activity. Meaning is made by the individual and is dependent on the individual’s previous and current knowledge structure. Learning is an internal, cognitive activity that is fostered by cognitive conflict. Social constructivists, such as (Vygotsky, 1978), believe learners construct knowledge through social interaction with others. Social constructivism maintains that collaboration and communication are important components for learning, placing an emphasis on the social context of learning. Thus, the socio-cultural context in which learning takes place and the context in which learning takes place impact the learning process (Huang, 2002). Social constructivism underpins our understandings of how individuals learn in a social context and extends the learning process to include a collective reflection and sharing of experience.Communal constructivism is the shared learning experience that occurs in a community of learners. Holmes and Gardner explain that communal constructivism is a “reinvestment in the learning environment”--the process in which learners place their learning back into the community to benefit others. Communal constructivism promotes learning as an evolutionary process and knowledge as a shared resource. ASSESSMENT*this group project was 10% of their final grade*Snapshots of student work in SLNotecards of student work in SLPosters created in SLPresentation to the general publicChallenge: to separate grading on astronomy vs. grading on Sl“a nightmare” to keep up with 23 student projects in SLSL Quizzes: clicking on the right stars, getting a “prize if they click on the right one”Rubric (students develop a learning contract for their group)C-level, B-level work. A-level, “you have to amaze me”Feedback80% loved it, 10% ok with it, 10% never acclimated[Assessment standard for classwork: he evaluates content learning and social learning] There is a scientific diagnostic test that is used[student feedback via online class evaluation forms]
Authentic learning environment. Authentic learning involves tasks that focus on real-world, complex problems and their solutions, using role-playing exercises, problem-based activities, case studies, and participation in virtual communities of practice. The learning environment is similar to a ‘real world’ application or discipline (Lombardi, 2007).
Students designed astronomy themed displays such as a mock up of a Meade telescope, a scale model of the solar system, and a replica of the Apollo 11 landing site where Neil Armstrong first walked on the moon
COURSE: PP 315, PRINCIPLES OF PLANT PATHOLOGY-95% retention rate-Fall enrollment: 35 – 55 students F2F; In Fall offers this as F2F and DE, in Spring 2009 DE offering only with 6 – 12 students-delivery mode: course website with interactive MM tools-3D flash based VLab (a working plant pathology lab)CASE 001: 3D Virtual Lab in use SPRING 2009, supplement to web based instruction for DL students, his course is online via web, he does use Elluminate to hold exam review sessions, does not use BB because it is not flexible, uses email, online discussion board, uses MM (ppt, videos, animations, online glossary, interactive flashcards, to enhance in “visualizing materials” and to enhance “understanding of concepts”. There is a course web site.-PLANT PATHOLOGY VLABS: DISEASE DIAGNOSIS: a plant pathology virtual laboratory and interactive game: Students are guided by the instructor’“virtual avatar” dressed in a lab coat and a photorealistic representation. Student conducts tests on a diseased tomato plant in hopes of identifying the pathogen that is the cause of the disease. Students learn how to identify the characteristics of an unhealthy plant, form a hypothesis, run tests at a number of lab stations, and develop a diagnosis based on their observations and test results. Through this experience students become familiar with the equipment and environment of a typical plant pathology lab. This game has a built in data mining tool to help the instructor assess the effectiveness of the tool for student learning. This is an interactive flash-based virtual lab that represents a fun and interactive way for students to learn about the disease diagnosis process. It is remarkable close to the same experiment in the actual, physical lab.-this implementation allowed students to engage with 3D content in a virtual environment that mimicked a real-life scientific lab setting-development team: campus instructional technology division: a team of mm specialists, a project director, an ISD, his grad student asst builds his web site-this instructor has worked with a team of individuals for over 7 years, starting with the development of flash based tools-has had several grant funded projects-this learning experience was beta tested-it is great for DE students, remarks were all “favorable”-a great way to teach lab content in the online environmentThis course has existing flash based tools, such as image rich flashcards, animated videos, glossaries and animated flashcards that include his voice This course is currently using a 3D flash based game, as a stand alone virtual environment, although under development is the disease clinic in SL that will run experiments in real-time, in dev. Now, will pilot test with a group of students About plant pathology: It’s a image rich course, it’s a synthesis science, focuses on the organisms that cause diseases in plants and how plants respond to those disease causing organisms and what we as plant managers can do to manage those losses or prevent those lossesStudent activities: load images, select magnification levels, write notecards with diagnosis of symptoms, list symptoms, diagnose diseaseGoal: interact with 3D images to build a mental model of what disease is; to give distance learners the same experience as F2F (who have 3 hours F2F lab per week and 3 experiments per week). DE students who are local can come to the F2F lab, but others can not. What was missing for DL students was the “interaction that leads to decision making.”“What we’re trying to do is give them a slice of reality, and provide it in a distance framework.”“It’s the difference between seeing a picture of the forest and walking into the forest.” A new way to understand science concepts and reinforce concepts learned in class.Primary learning theory: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING /PBL/SELF-DIRECTED LEARNINGExperiential Learning-focus on learner’s experience, critical reflectionHowever, learning from experience is a process that involves more than simply confirming the experience; it is an active, moving event. Tennant and Pogson (1995) explain experience has to be mediated and reconstructed (or transformed) by the student for learning to occur. Dewey states: “Every experience is a moving force. Its value can be judged only on the ground of what it moves toward and into” (1963, p. 35). Reflection “casts the individual as a central actor in a drama of personal meaning-making” as the learner “reflects on lived experience and then interprets and generalizes this experience to form mental structures” (Fenwick, 2000, p. 248). These mental structures are knowledge, stored in one’s memory as concepts that can be represented, expressed and transferred to new situations. However, not all learning occurs in a continuous manner. Van Eck (2006) argued that discontinuity and disequilibrium, known as cognitive disequilibrium, are powerful forces for learning.Virtual worlds can enhance experiential learning with the instructor serving as guide, allowing students to practice skills in a safe learning environment. Experiential learning by problem solving is a direct benefit to adults learning in this virtual environment. As an example, with the 3D virtual lab learning experience, the instructor described the many benefits to students. Students were able to question the 3D images, given a set of characteristics to make a decision, and to reflect on the process “…this happened, or this, and this, and this happened, it’s a watchful flow of ideas.” 3D visualization allowed the students to interact with the content and images, and to make decisions, in a way not possible in a 2D environment, especially in scientific disciplines. Students engaged in problem-based learning. PBL (Problem based learning)-problem based activitiesSELF-DIRECTED-student works in self-directed manner and is at the center of the learning experienceASSESSMENTRubricThe students have a rubric to complete based on going into this virtual lab and making a diagnosisThey get a certain number of points for each aspect of discerning symptoms, making a diagnosis, and how they navigated the environmentComparison to outcomes of F2FDE students did as well as the on campus studentsFeedbackthey loved the learning experienceStudents communicated they can see the application in other areas (pest and risk management)“When I hear positive feedback I know how successful the technology has been”[Assessment standard for class work: term paper, 3 (1 hour) exams, 5 (15 minute) lecture quizzes that are take home][student feedback via online class evaluation forms]
COURSE: Online Journalism in the Mass Comm Dept. (it’s a course about web journalism); also used in investigative journalism, where students may or may not conduct their research in SLJRN 4100 and JRN 4600, an investigative capstone course. Currently teaching Spring 2009Has been using it since spring 2007 and has been a resident since 2006-Fall enrollment: 20 students in each course-use:-a F2F course with SL as a supplement for investigative research project work. Students spent most of their time in SL and online-instructor used own time and built entire university island, as well as using in his own classCASE 003: F2F course. SL as supplement. -this implementation allowed students to conduct field research and interview real people with real life stories (behind the avatars)They are using SL to conduct investigative journalism and they are immersed in the learning experience, situated in contextI use SL as a "venue" as someone else might use Blackboard. I teach fully or partly in SL across most of my courses each semester.He oriented students by having a scavengar hunt 3x a week in SLTools uses: I use notecards filled with information, or with landmarks for moving around, or with photos, or even with other notecards embedded.I use scripts placed in objects to make those objects do things on command.Scripts animate objects in SL.I use such things as clothing and gestures when talking, for example, about historic things.I use clickable objects to give things such as landmarks, notecards, all of things I have mentioned just now, to students.I give web URL links to students...to websites, blogs, wiki's, twitter streams, etc.-development team: instructor-there was some grant money involved, but still the ownership is not institutionalized-students used voice audio-it is great for DE students, remarks were all “favorable”-a great way to teach investigative research skills so students don’t have to travel for the interviewsStudent activities: create an avatar, go all over SL, find people to interview, create photojournalistic pictures (snapshots etc) and create media in SL that mimics real life media. When this was viewed in class the student would also engage the interviewee and pose questions to be asked which he text typed inGoal: Each journalism student created an avatar reporter to travel the SL world and conduct interviews. They found real people with real aspirations behind the avatars they encountered. This led the responses to interview questions to be real and variable, which gave the students practice in forming relevant questions and employing feedback while interviewing. As a group, a class member would log on while others watched in the classroom. The in-world student would seek an interviewee, who was told about the class. As the student engaged the interviewee, the class discussed and proposed relevant questions to be posedAfter a period of exploring for familiarization, they identified possible news stories on several unusual and interesting areas of social, cultural, political and commercial life. They proceeded to locate reporting resources including persons in SL to interview, places to investigate, and sites to photograph. Each journalism student created an avatar reporter to travel the SL world and conduct interviews. In-world, they found real people with real aspirations behind the avatars they encountered. This led the responses to interview questions to be real and variable, which gave the students practice in forming relevant questions and employing feedback while interviewing. As a group, a class member would log on while others watched in the classroom. The in-world student would seek an interviewee, who was told about the class. As the student engaged the interviewee, the class discussed and proposed relevant questions to be posedReal-world classroom activities were highly interactive and employed peer learning. Frequently, I used the moment to act as guide and mentor as the students developed and polished their interviewing skills. In addition, student excitement with the project promoted a great deal of peer support outside of class. Students brought back to class news of experiences they shared while exploring the SL world with each other in search of interview subjects.The students used the snapshot feature to record their photojournalistic experiencesPrimary learning theory: situated learningExperiential LearningSELF-DIRECTED-student works in self-directed manner and is at the center of the learning experienceASSESSMENTFeedbackthey loved the learning experienceStudents communicated they can see the application in other areas The student avatars received feedback in real time while the class watched the student avatar conducting an interview and engaging in real live field research
BUSINESS MANGEMENT 3D VIRTUAL CLASSROOMCOLLEGE OF EDUCATION IN BUSINESS AND INFORMATION MANGEMENTTHE COURSE WAS OFFERED LAST FALL AND LAST SUMMERCOURSE: BVTE 5388: Seminar in Virtual Environments.The class is entirely delivered in the virtual world“I’ve used WebCT, now I use BB, I use moodle, I use Sakai, and I’m looking to use sloodle.”She taught herself how to use this with 4 avatars-Fall enrollment: 90 students in 3 sections of 30-SL space sciences outreach projects for end of course work in project teams.-a F2F course with SL as a supplement for end of course projects. Students use SL in computer lab with instructor present.-instructor got a grant and began using it in Summer 2005. Bought land with his own money and built a planetarium and later created Science Islands (SciLands). -He created a functional replica of the telescopes for his students in SL.The first portion of the class is learning about the social environment and the social dynamics that take place. It is really interesting to see how people interact in world. Many of the ways we interact in real life, we interact in world. So if someone were to come up and push me or hit me in RL, I’d be offended. The same thing happens in SL. On presentation day, my students all dressed up. It was funny for me to watch because they’d come to class in these crazy outfits, people as robots…but on presentation day they all made their avatar mimic their normal real life appearance. They wore clothes that would be appropriate if they were presenting in a classroomPrimary learning theoryASSESSMENTPre course implementation: surveyPeer learningDE students did as well as the on campus studentsSurveys inworld using a HUDJournalingSelf-reflectionFeedbackthey loved the learning experienceThey expressed they felt a sense of academic hom
Theme: Success Indicators: Performance AssessmentsDemonstrating their learning by:Creating a digital artifact that solves a problem (AW) [performance related artifacts that are relevant to the needs of working adults)Creating a digital artifact relevant to practice (AW)Hosting a presentation (SL) [see Figure above: The Tide Display]Distributing digital notecards (SL)Engaging the audience (SL)Peer review: each student in Business Mgmt. class had a peer review notecard they created and dropped it in each student’s peer review notebox Perceptions of a successful learning experience:Space sciences case: audience engagement, distributing notecards, creating community eventsOthers: discussion, bonding, peer learningBonding in a learning communityVisualizing the conceptsCan see application in other areasKey success indicators: seeing students socialize, have serendipitous encounters, form a learning community, feeling they are in a common spaceSocial learning facilitates that learning must be emebedded in the context in which it occurs
PLANNING FOR IMPLEMENTATIONThe implications for practice in terms of implementing this technology center on the limitations this technology presents, for instructors, and for adult learners. The first primary implication for practice is considerations in planning a virtual world implementation. Virtual worlds are not institutionalized; therefore the primary users of these spaces tend to be the early adopters. Thus, an instructor may find himself on the fringes of the institution, and often working alone. There were no formal processes and policies in place for management, funding, and oversight at the university level. Second Life had to develop policies for social behavior for student avatars, significant orientation resources and procedures for class management and student conduct. TECHNICAL EXPERTISE, FUNDING, SUSTAINABILITYThe findings point to an added complexity that carries implications for practice: the technical expertise needed to design learning environments. For example, to implement a complex scientific learning experience with 3D data, graphics, and simulations, instructors needed programming experience, technical expertise from other sources, and funding. For the more complex scientific simulations, a team of technology experts was needed including instructional designers, applications development staff, and multimedia experts. Production for one of these implementations took a total of three years. Technology support for these instructors came from the campuses’ academic technology group, or was outsourced. The findings indicate that in all cases, instructors were equally vested in their implementations whether the development was outsourced or built in-house.FACULTY DEVELOPMENTSkillsCompetenciesTrainingDevelopmentPlanning PreparationINSTITUTIONAL SUPPORTChallenges to implementation: funding, resources, expertiseRECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCHusability, transfer of learning, faculty development, and pedagogy institutional management, teaching functionality,evaluation and assessment, seamless integration into the existing online learning environment at one’s institution, disciplinary issues in the learning environment, issues with avatar representation, including trust,identity, privacy, social expectations for avatar behavior in the virtual world.
NCACTE 2011 Presentation
3D VIRTUAL WORLDS How to Leverage 3D Virtual Worlds to Support Student Learning NC ACTE 2011
ABOUT YOUR PRESENTER --SOPHIA• Instructional Technology Program• E-Learning graduate certificate program coordinator• Friday Institute for Educational Innovation (Online PD)• Online teaching• UNC TLT, 2009 - 2010• Former Assistant Director of distance learning at Duke TIP• Dissertation on virtual worlds
ABOUT YOUR PRESENTER --DIANE• T&D Online program director• T&D graduate certificate program coordinator• Teaching online & designing online courses since 2002• Experience with Second Life (SL) since 2007• UNC TLT presentations in SL (2009 – 2011)• Gertrude Cox Award: Innovative Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 2005• NCDLA Program Award, 2007• DELTA IDEA grant recipient• Blackboard Exemplary Course Award, 2008
BACKGROUND: 3D VIRTUAL WORLDSOur use….• Second Life virtual office hours, 2007• Active Worlds (VOLT, 2008)• “Virtual Worlds, New Directions for HRD Research & Practice” (2008)• AHRD Innovative Session: 3D Virtual Worlds, Issues, Challenges, and Implications for HRD• 2009 DELTA Summer Institute• UNC TLT presentations (In Second Life, 2009 – 2011)
BACKGROUND: 3D VIRTUAL WORLDSOur use: evaluation….• Evaluation in Training and Development (EAC)• Design and Evaluation of Instructional Materials (ECI 716)• A recent publication addressed methods and assessment techniques for measuring learning outcomes in VWs• Qualitative case study investigating evaluation practices in VWs
PRESENTATION OVERVIEW• What is a 3D Virtual World?• Virtual Worlds and Education• Application showcase: multiple-case study research project• Discuss assessment/evaluation methods• Explore challenges/barriers to utilization• Implementing 3D virtual worlds in your practice
WHAT IS A 3D VIRTUAL WORLD?• A virtual space where users interact in a simulated environment via avatars (a 3D representation of themselves)• MUVE(s) – multi-user virtual environment• A persistent social space• Adaptive to learners: role-play, problem-solve, digital artifacts• Immersive 3D virtual learning environment
CHARACTERISTICS• Shared social space• Graphical interface• User created content• Multi-user mode• 3D• Immersive• Presence
POPULAR VIRTUAL WORLDS• Second Life: secondlife.com• Edheads: edheads.org• Active Worlds: activeworlds.com• Teleplace: teleplace.com• Quest Atlantis: atlantis.crlt.indiana.edu
VIRTUAL WORLDS AND EDUCATION• 21st century learning• Digital, authentic artifacts• Adaptive environments (Participate in tasks that would not be possible due to resource constraints)• Collaborative education & simultaneous interaction
VIRTUAL WORLDS AND EDUCATION• 21st century learners • Social • Immersive • Collaborative & Interactive • Visual • From Millennials to Generation Z (b 1994 – 2004) • Google Generation • Social media generation • Internet generation • Hyper-connected digital natives ―Someone, please tell my school it‘s a new century!‖
VIRTUAL WORLDS AND 21ST CENTURY LEARNING • Internships & real-world experiences/role-play • Simulations & virtual field trips • Teacher training: classroom management & peer review • Professional development • Recruiting and marketing tool
VIRTUAL WORLDS AND 21ST CENTURY LEARNING• Higher level cognitive thinking engages students in activities involving interpreting, analyzing, discovering, evaluating, acting and problem solving• Students and teachers can create digital artifacts• Collaborative & simultaneous interaction provides opportunities to learn difficult concepts
Application: Space Sciences Outreach Project 15
Space Sciences Outreach Project Application: Collaborative project-based teamwork to teach scientific concepts in the space sciences• Social Constructivism• Communal learning (Dede, 2004) Creating content: Building small planets “I wanted them to truly engage with the content, to build their own learning artifacts, to engage with science.” –Space Sciences instructor 16
SPACE SCIENCES OUTREACH PROJECTKey Elements of the Experiencing a “sense of audience” inLearning Experience: front of a Laser Range• 3d Visualization Retroreflector• Authenticity• Co-creation of user generated content with 3D data manipulation• “Sense of Audience” “The sense of audience, Second Life offers that hands- down. You come into a virtual community. For those who are distance learners, Second Life offers a chance to be a part of a virtual college experience.” 17
SPACE SCIENCES OUTREACH PROJECTGoal of the learningexperience: “It’s a wonderful sense of place. You“Assess student learning of a feel as if students are really there.”topic and provide an audienceto share that topic with.”Benefits:• 3D visualization of scientific concepts• Synchronous audience• User-created digital A seizemometer built by the students artifacts” 18
“What we‘re trying to do is develop labs 3D Virtual Lab that give the distance learner as much of a realistic or hands on experience as we can compared to sitting in the class.”Application: 3D virtuallab to facilitatescientific decisionmaking -- a“real life”laboratory for DEstudents•Experiential learning•Problem-basedlearning•Self-directed learning 19
Health Sciences 3D Virtual ClassroomGoal of the learningexperience:“To create a synchronous,interactive VLE for DEstudents fordiscussion, reflection,synthesis and critique”Benefits:• Spontaneity in discussion• Presence/immersion• Learning community 3D synchronous virtual classroom 20
3D INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH “Second Life is a visual adventure in which the students were able to learn and practice the basic visual and technical aspects of seeing photos and recording images.‖ Application: • Investigative Research and Peer learning“I like the role play aspect of Second Life.You can visualize this as a real place, and • Investigative Reportingyou can react to it as if it is real. That isthe benefit to teaching and learning inthis space.‖ 21
The Possibility…..Goal of the learning experience:• Prepare students for real-world experience in a safe environment• Practice skills with mentoringBenefits:•Peer support/Peer learning•Safe learning•Synchronous•Practice•Skills mastery 22
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 3D VIRTUAL CLASSROOMApplication:Project display, and peerevaluation in asynchronous 3D virtualclassroom 23
AUTHENTIC COLLECTIVELEARNING WISDOMIMMERSIVELEARNING “SENSE OF HOME”
EVALUATION & ASSESSMENT• Measurement of learning outcomes • Evaluation of user-created in-world content • Engagement and social presence• Table 1: Evaluation methods: What to Measure• Table 2: Methods Used to Collect Evaluation Data
Performance-based LearningEvaluation in Practice-interaction with 3D images-learning by solving a problem:making a disease diagnosis:problem–based learningGoal of the learning experience:Interaction and visualizationthat leads to scientific decisionmaking in a real-life laboratorysetting.
Authentic AssessmentApplication: a 3D virtuallab to facilitate scientificdecision making andprovide a “real life”laboratory•Experiential learning•Problem-based learning•Self-directed learning 28
Social Learning & Group Learning Artifacts Application: Collaborative project-based teamwork to teach scientific concepts in the space sciences Collaborative project group work “I wanted them to truly engage with the content, to build their own learning artifacts, to engage with science.”—Instructor 29
PEER LEARNING & ROLE PLAY Application: • Investigative Research • Promotes skills mastery “Second Life is a visual adventure in which the students were able to learn and practice the basic visual and technical aspects of ‗seeing’ photos and recording images.”“I like the role play aspect of Second Life.You can visualize this as a real place, andyou can react to it as if it is real.” 30
PEER EVALUATION Application: Business management Case analysis, project display, and peer evaluation in a synchronous 3D virtual classroom • Self-reflection A display panel for peer review of projects 31
THE POSSIBILITIES…..• Capture learning that measures performance• Evaluation in context• Authentic application for students• Application to practice –your ideas!
VIRTUAL WORLDS IN TEACHER EDUCATION• WSU (Teach West Virginia Initiative)http://wvde.state.wv.us/teachwv/secondlife.html• Virtual field experiences• Virtual classroom management• Connecting pre-service teachers with education experts• Students gain clinical experience --online