By technology I mean centra vs no centra, synchronous vs asynchronous
AHRD instructor presence 2006
Instructor Presence in the Online Classroom Sophia J. Stone Diane D. Chapman North Carolina State University
What is Instructor Presence?• Social presence: high instructor immediacy behaviors• Linked to teaching style (interactive, participative)• Part of the instructional design process• Instructor visibility
Instructor PresencePresence and online learning• Enhances student learning satisfaction• Enhances student motivation to learn• Improves student performance• Decreases student feelings of isolation and alienation
ChallengesInstructor Presence is challenged by:– Student expectations for feedback and support– Student expectations for personal approach to learning– Lack of serendipitous encounters– Technology limitations– Consistency level in instructor-student interactions
PurposeThe purpose of our study was tounderstand how instructors establish andsustain presence in the online learningenvironment.
Research Question“How do faculty members facilitate instructor presence in the online learning environment?”This question was framed by four topical questions…
Interview Questions• Q1: What comes to mind when I mention the words "instructor presence?"’• Q2: How do you construct your own presence, in the online classroom?• Q3: What instructional strategies do you use to promote instructor presence in your online course?• Q4: How do you sustain instructor presence in your online course?
Methodology• 1 hr semi-structured interview (3 faculty)• Online teaching experience 5 yrs or >• Data collection: interviews, document analysis
Limitations• Student perceptions of instructor presence• Sample size and selection – convenience sample – time constraints• Demographic limitations – class size – undergraduate vs. graduate students
Results of the Interviews: Q1Q1: What comes to mind when I mention the words instructor presence?• unique teaching style (personal style)• course content (use own materials)• feedback (instructor to student)• format of content (media selection)
Results of the Interviews: Q2Q2: How do you construct your own presence, in the online classroom?• “deliverer of content” via feedback (acknowledgement/assignment/content/ online quiz feedback)• variety of media used• Use of learning objects
Results of the Interviews: Q3Q3: What instructional strategies do you use to promote instructor presence in your online course?• Instructor immediacy behaviors• Establish clear expectations for type and level of feedback• Establish patterns of individualized feedback to students• Construct a visible support role
Results of the Interviews: Q4Q4: How do you sustain instructor presence in your online course, over the duration of the semester?• As a “facilitator of learning”• Promote self-directed learning• Attentive to student learning needs• Automated feedback systems
Future Study• Discipline based study of instructor presence• Ideal instructor presence• Student and instructor perceptions on the meaning of instructor presence• Impact of new technologies such as Centra