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Brain Slides


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Basic neuroscience information from a general psychology course that I teach.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Brain Slides

  1. 1. The Nervous System The Brain and Behavior
  2. 2. What did Phrenologist Do?
  3. 3. Phrenology Developed by Franz Gall (1758)
  4. 4. EEG- Electroencephalograph <ul><ul><li>Brain waves are measured by electrodes attached to the scalp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an amplified recording of the electrical activity of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. MRI Scan
  6. 6. PET Scan Positron Emission Tomography
  7. 7. PET Scan Images
  8. 11. Lobes of the Brain Speaking Muscle movements Making plans Judgments Registers spatial location Attention Motor control Hearing Language processing Memory Visual: color, shape, motion
  9. 12. Regions of the Cortex Cortex = “bark”
  10. 13. Left Hemisphere
  11. 14. Interior of The Brain
  12. 15. Reptilian Brain Heartbeat Respiration Arousal Brain Stem
  13. 16. Limbic System Hunger Thirst Emotions Sex Old Mammalian Brain Master Gland of the Endocrine system Relay station Involved in Memory Formation
  14. 17. Cerebrum New Mammalian Brain Higher Processes, Thinking, Reasoning
  15. 18. Gage was a railroad construction foreman An 1848 explosion forced a steel tamping rod through his head Others said he was “…no longer Gage…” Lost his job, worked as a sideshow exhibit The Case of Phineas Gage
  16. 20. Neurons <ul><ul><li>the basic building block of the nervous system </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Types of Neurons <ul><li>Sensory or Afferent Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor or Efferent Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interneurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting neurons </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Neurons in a newborn’s brain are widely spaced, but form connections quickly. </li></ul>
  19. 23. Impoverished vs Enriched Environments
  20. 24. Parts of a Neuron
  21. 25. Neural Transmission
  22. 26. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Dopamine : motor, emotions, intellectual functions </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin : sleep, moods </li></ul><ul><li>Norephinephrine : memory, optimism, enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphins : opiate-lke regulators, pain-killing effect </li></ul>
  23. 29. Neurotransmission <ul><li>Resting Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more negative electrical charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-70 mill volts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium (+) and potassium (-) ion balance reaches about - 50 mill volts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reuptake or Enzyme action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ending of neurotransmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSRI’s, like Prozac interfere with reuptake </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Released when action potential occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Excitatory and Inhibitory functions </li></ul><ul><li>- Inhibitory : Lowers the charge in the receiving neuron, inhibiting neurotransmission </li></ul><ul><li>- Excitatory : Raises the charge in the receiving neuron to the threshold so it will fire </li></ul><ul><li>Lock & Key Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters and their receptor sites have accommodating chemical shapes </li></ul></ul>
  25. 31. LEFT Controls the Right Side Of the Body <ul><li>RIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the </li></ul><ul><li>Left Side of </li></ul><ul><li>The Body </li></ul><ul><li>Non verbal </li></ul>Verbal Abilities
  26. 32. Connects the two hemispheres Corpus Callosum
  27. 33. A Visual-Spatial Task
  28. 34. Gender Differences In the Left Hemisphere In the Incidence Of Aphasias
  29. 35. Visual Pathways
  30. 36. Endocrine System