On The Place Of Disease And Health In Human Existence For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides we...
On The Place Of Disease And Health In Human Existence Stephen Lewis
<ul><li>Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infi...
<ul><li>‘ In the last quarter of the 20 th  Century we have been witnessing an intense discussion on the nature of health ...
<ul><li>‘ In the last quarter of the 20 th  Century we have been witnessing an intense discussion on the nature of health ...
Approaches to the definition of Health and Disease <ul><li>Naturalism (Descriptivism) </li></ul><ul><li>Normativism </li><...
 
<ul><li>Non-disease: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a human process or problem that some have defined as a medical condition but wher...
<ul><li>“ Some critics thought it was an absurd exercise, but our primary aim was to illustrate the slipperiness of the no...
Normal Disease And Health As A Continuum Peak of Health Pathological Average
‘ The Curve of Biological State’ Optimum Average ‘ Biological State’ Characterization of ‘Biological State’
Chemical/ Molecular Cellular Tissue Organ System Organism Organisational Levels of the Organism Function Units
Organisational Levels of the Organism <ul><li>Organism </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul>...
Chemical/ Molecular Cellular Tissue Organ System Organism Organisational Levels of the Organism Function Units
 
Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (Introduction  à l’étude de la médicine expérimentale) ( Claude Bernard...
Normal Disease And Health As A Continuum Peak of Health Pathological Average
‘ The Curve of Biological State’ Optimum Average ‘ Biological State’ Characterization of ‘Biological State’ Zero Biologica...
 
<ul><li>‘ Physiological tests reveal that modern man has retained many … physiological and mental attributes ill suited to...
<ul><li>Darwinian medicine is the enterprise of trying to find evolutionary explanations for vulnerabilities to disease. <...
<ul><li>Evolutionary medicine is </li></ul><ul><li>‘ [the pursuit of] how evolutionary theory can sharpen the efficacy of ...
 
Natural Selection operates if and when the following conditions are met: <ul><li>Reproduction - entities must have a means...
 
On The Place Of Disease And Health In Human Existence For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides we...
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On the Place of Disease and Health in Human Existence

  1. 1. On The Place Of Disease And Health In Human Existence For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides were an accompaniment, please visit: https://sites.google.com/site/sjlewis55/presentations/nettuno2003
  2. 2. On The Place Of Disease And Health In Human Existence Stephen Lewis
  3. 3. <ul><li>Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. </li></ul><ul><li>W.H.O. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>‘ In the last quarter of the 20 th Century we have been witnessing an intense discussion on the nature of health … and disease and on the meaning of these … basic notions of medicine.’ </li></ul>Sadegh-Zadeh, K. (2000)
  5. 5. <ul><li>‘ In the last quarter of the 20 th Century we have been witnessing an intense discussion on the nature of health … and disease and on the meaning of these … basic notions of medicine. The discussion seems to have ended up a blind alley, however.’ </li></ul>Sadegh-Zadeh, K. (2000)
  6. 6. Approaches to the definition of Health and Disease <ul><li>Naturalism (Descriptivism) </li></ul><ul><li>Normativism </li></ul>Associated with: ‘ Humanism’ Associated with: ‘ Science’ Health Science Health Studies
  7. 8. <ul><li>Non-disease: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a human process or problem that some have defined as a medical condition but where people may have better outcomes if the problem or process was not defined in that way.” </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>“ Some critics thought it was an absurd exercise, but our primary aim was to illustrate the slipperiness of the notion of disease. We wanted to prompt a debate on what is and what is not a disease and draw attention to the increasing tendency to classify people’s problems as diseases.” </li></ul><ul><li>(BMJ 13th April 2002) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Normal Disease And Health As A Continuum Peak of Health Pathological Average
  10. 11. ‘ The Curve of Biological State’ Optimum Average ‘ Biological State’ Characterization of ‘Biological State’
  11. 12. Chemical/ Molecular Cellular Tissue Organ System Organism Organisational Levels of the Organism Function Units
  12. 13. Organisational Levels of the Organism <ul><li>Organism </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-atomic Particles </li></ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul>(After Koestler, 1978)
  13. 14. Chemical/ Molecular Cellular Tissue Organ System Organism Organisational Levels of the Organism Function Units
  14. 16. Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (Introduction à l’étude de la médicine expérimentale) ( Claude Bernard – 1865) “ the words, life, death, health, disease, have no objective reality.”
  15. 17. Normal Disease And Health As A Continuum Peak of Health Pathological Average
  16. 18. ‘ The Curve of Biological State’ Optimum Average ‘ Biological State’ Characterization of ‘Biological State’ Zero Biological State Dead
  17. 20. <ul><li>‘ Physiological tests reveal that modern man has retained many … physiological and mental attributes ill suited to civilized life, just as he has retained useless anatomical vestiges from his evolutionary past. As a result, he must meet the challenges of today with biological equipment largely anachronistic. Many forms of organic and mental disease originate from the responses that man's Paleolithic nature makes to the conditions of modern life.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dubos, R. (1968) </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Darwinian medicine is the enterprise of trying to find evolutionary explanations for vulnerabilities to disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Nesse, R. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Evolutionary medicine is </li></ul><ul><li>‘ [the pursuit of] how evolutionary theory can sharpen the efficacy of medical practice’. </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrega, H. (1997) </li></ul>
  20. 24. Natural Selection operates if and when the following conditions are met: <ul><li>Reproduction - entities must have a means of reproducing to form a new generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity - offspring must be like their parents, but there must also be ... </li></ul><ul><li>Variation - offspring must be able to differ from their parents in specific characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Differential ‘fitness’ - the products of the above differ in their ability to reproduce. </li></ul>
  21. 26. On The Place Of Disease And Health In Human Existence For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides were an accompaniment, please visit: https://sites.google.com/site/sjlewis55/presentations/nettuno2003

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