On 'Kantian Experimentation‘ In The Health Sciences For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides were...
On ‘Kantian Experimentation’ in the Health Sciences
 
 
Karl Popper (1902-1994) The Logic of Scientific Discovery (London, 1959) tr. of Logik der Forschung (Vienna, 1935)
How different are philosophy and science? <ul><li>There is no method peculiar to philosophy … And yet, I am quite ready to...
The Philosophers’ Magazine Poll <ul><li>Plato’s ‘Republic’ </li></ul><ul><li>Kant’s ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ </li></ul><u...
Peter Medawar (1915-1987)
Baconian  (or Inductive) Francis Bacon  (1561-1626)
Galilean  (or Critical) Galileo Galilei  (1564-1642)
Aristotelian  (or Demonstrative) Aristotle  (384-322 BC)
Kantian  (or Deductive) Immanuel Kant  (1724-1804)
Kantian  (or Deductive) Experimentation <ul><li>Based on the idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s see what happens if we take a d...
Thesis, Antithesis & Synthesis Thesis Antithesis Synthesis Antithesis Synthesis Thesis Thesis Etc.
<ul><li>‘ In presenting antimony, </li></ul><ul><li>I hoped to shake reason from </li></ul><ul><li>the slumber of fictitio...
Shanidar 1
Shanidar ‘-1’
Linnaeus (Carl von Linné (1707-1778)) <ul><li>Systema Naturae - 1735  [ System of Nature ] </li></ul><ul><li>Genera Morbor...
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) <ul><li>De Sedibus et Causis Morborum - 1761   [On the seats and causes of disease]...
François Xavier Bichat (1771-1802) <ul><li>Traité des Membranes - 1800   [Treatise on Membranes] </li></ul>
Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1902) <ul><li>Die Cellularpathologie - 1858   [Cellular Pathology] </li></ul>
What isn’t - Disease is  not  equivalent to Pathology Normal is  not  equivalent to Healthy
The Nature of Knowledge Synthetic Facts & Analytic Facts (Immanuel Kant 1724-1804) Matters of Fact & Relations of Ideas (D...
Willard van Orman Quine (1908-2000) Two Dogmas of Empiricism The Philosophical Review (1951) 60: 20-43
Approaches to the definition of Health and Disease <ul><li>Descriptivism (Naturalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Normativism </li><...
Approaches to the definition of Health and Disease <ul><li>Descriptivism (Naturalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Normativism </li><...
 
Disease Health
‘ Disease’ (Objective pathology) ‘ Health’ (Subjective experience) (+, +) (-, +) (+, -) (-, -) + : Presence, - : Absence
Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995)
René Leriche (1879-1955) <ul><li>Health is equivalent to the </li></ul><ul><li>'silence of the body in its organs'. </li><...
 
On 'Kantian Experimentation‘ In The Health Sciences For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides were...
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On 'Kantian Experimentation' In The Health Sciences

  1. 1. On 'Kantian Experimentation‘ In The Health Sciences For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides were an accompaniment, please visit: https://sites.google.com/site/sjlewis55/presentations/seminar2002
  2. 2. On ‘Kantian Experimentation’ in the Health Sciences
  3. 5. Karl Popper (1902-1994) The Logic of Scientific Discovery (London, 1959) tr. of Logik der Forschung (Vienna, 1935)
  4. 6. How different are philosophy and science? <ul><li>There is no method peculiar to philosophy … And yet, I am quite ready to admit that there is a method which might be described as 'the method of philosophy'. But it is not characteristic of philosophy alone; it is, rather, the one method of all rational discussion , and therefore of the natural sciences as well as of philosophy. The method I have in mind is that of stating one’s problem clearly and of examining its various proposed solutions critically. </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Philosophers’ Magazine Poll <ul><li>Plato’s ‘Republic’ </li></ul><ul><li>Kant’s ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’ </li></ul>Books that ought to be placed in a hypothetical United Nations library of philosophy
  6. 8. Peter Medawar (1915-1987)
  7. 9. Baconian (or Inductive) Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  8. 10. Galilean (or Critical) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  9. 11. Aristotelian (or Demonstrative) Aristotle (384-322 BC)
  10. 12. Kantian (or Deductive) Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
  11. 13. Kantian (or Deductive) Experimentation <ul><li>Based on the idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s see what happens if we take a different view </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments in which we examine the consequences of varying [our] axioms or presuppositions </li></ul>
  12. 14. Thesis, Antithesis & Synthesis Thesis Antithesis Synthesis Antithesis Synthesis Thesis Thesis Etc.
  13. 15. <ul><li>‘ In presenting antimony, </li></ul><ul><li>I hoped to shake reason from </li></ul><ul><li>the slumber of fictitious conviction.’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Kant) </li></ul>
  14. 16. Shanidar 1
  15. 17. Shanidar ‘-1’
  16. 18. Linnaeus (Carl von Linné (1707-1778)) <ul><li>Systema Naturae - 1735 [ System of Nature ] </li></ul><ul><li>Genera Morborum – 1763 [ Types of Diseases ] </li></ul>
  17. 19. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) <ul><li>De Sedibus et Causis Morborum - 1761 [On the seats and causes of disease] </li></ul>
  18. 20. François Xavier Bichat (1771-1802) <ul><li>Traité des Membranes - 1800 [Treatise on Membranes] </li></ul>
  19. 21. Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1902) <ul><li>Die Cellularpathologie - 1858 [Cellular Pathology] </li></ul>
  20. 22. What isn’t - Disease is not equivalent to Pathology Normal is not equivalent to Healthy
  21. 23. The Nature of Knowledge Synthetic Facts & Analytic Facts (Immanuel Kant 1724-1804) Matters of Fact & Relations of Ideas (David Hume 1711-1776) Truths of Facts & Truths of Reason (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz 1646-1716)
  22. 24. Willard van Orman Quine (1908-2000) Two Dogmas of Empiricism The Philosophical Review (1951) 60: 20-43
  23. 25. Approaches to the definition of Health and Disease <ul><li>Descriptivism (Naturalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Normativism </li></ul>+ Naïve Normalism Associated with: ‘ Humanities’ Associated with: ‘ Science’
  24. 26. Approaches to the definition of Health and Disease <ul><li>Descriptivism (Naturalism) </li></ul><ul><li>Normativism </li></ul>Based on: Analytic Facts Relations of Ideas Truths of Reason Based on: Synthetic Facts Matters of Fact Truths of Facts
  25. 28. Disease Health
  26. 29. ‘ Disease’ (Objective pathology) ‘ Health’ (Subjective experience) (+, +) (-, +) (+, -) (-, -) + : Presence, - : Absence
  27. 30. Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995)
  28. 31. René Leriche (1879-1955) <ul><li>Health is equivalent to the </li></ul><ul><li>'silence of the body in its organs'. </li></ul>
  29. 33. On 'Kantian Experimentation‘ In The Health Sciences For a full transcript of the presentation, for which these slides were an accompaniment, please visit: https://sites.google.com/site/sjlewis55/presentations/seminar2002

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