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Enlightenment - How Did We Get Here?


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Courtesy of Ms. Cobles History Course at

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Enlightenment - How Did We Get Here?

  1. 1. The Enlightenment did we get here???
  2. 2. The Renaissance & Democratic Thinking ❖ Renaissance (1350-1600)= rebirth of culture, thought, and art $ ➡ Individualism - Importance of the individual$ - Civic duty$ - Politics as a science $ ➡ Humanism - The importance of man$ - Education would lead to a better life$ ➡ Secularism - Concern for worldly goods not just focusing on the afterlife
  3. 3. Renaissance Art Enthroned Madonna and Child$ Cimabue$ 1285 Portrait of a Man in a Turban$ Jan Van Eyke$ 1433 BeforetheRenaissance HeightoftheRenaissance
  4. 4. The Reformation & Democratic Thinking ❖ Reformation (16th century)= An emergence of new thought amongst Christians that led to new Protestant Religions $ ➡ Backlash against a corrupt Catholic Church - Practice of indulgences (forgiveness of sins through pilgrimages, prayers, or donations)$ - Clerical abuses $ ➡ Martin Luther & John Calvin were central figures - Luther’s 3 Key Ideas$ ‣ Faith alone brings salvation$ ‣ Faith comes through knowledge of scripture$ ‣ All believers are equal$ ➡ Importance of the individual in religion
  5. 5. Reformation Architecture St. Peter’s Basilica ! Vatican City Kandersteg Calvanist Church! Switzerland CatholicChurch CalvinistChurch
  6. 6. Discuss! 1. What was the Renaissance? What three “-isms” changed the way people thought about their own life? $ 2. What were leaders and followers of the Reformation upset about? Why is education considered important to Luther and other Protestants?
  7. 7. The Scientific Revolution & Democratic Thinking ❖ Scientific Revolution (1500-1727)= major shifts in thinking about science and mathematics $ ❖ Before the SR people mainly looked to the Bible and Aristotle’s teachings to explain the laws of nature$ ➡ Scientists begin to question the natural laws and show that there were inherent truths about nature - Not just God, angered the Church$ ➡ Use of reason and logic instead of faith alone - Reasoning= gaining knowledge through facts and argumentation$ - Question the laws of nature and the laws of man
  8. 8. Figures of the Scientific Rev. Built a telescope to prove Copernican universe Formulated mathematical physical laws GalileoGalilei SirIsaacNewton
  9. 9. Discuss! 1. How did the Scientific Revolution change the way people think? What do people use instead of relying solely on the Bible?$ 2. How do the ideas of the Scientific Revolution compare to the ideas of the Athenian philosophers (Aristotle and/or Plato)?
  10. 10. What is the Enlightenment? ❖ Social critics, called philosophes, began to question the way that society was run as well as the nature of man$ ❖ Period lasted from 1680-1800 CE$ ❖ Scientific Revolution showed that all things could be figured out through reason$ - Progress to better societies through reason$ ❖ Enlightenment led to a shift in political thinking in Western Europe and America...
  11. 11. Absolutism to Constitutionalism ❖ Absolutism$ - King or Queen has absolute and total power over a land and all of its people ❖ Constitutionalism$ - Government whose power is constrained by a constitution and the monarch shares power Magna Carta, 1215! Set limits on the King’s Power
  12. 12. Discuss! 1. What is the Enlightenment?$ 2. What were philosophes arguing about? $ 3. What is the difference between Absolutism and Constitutionalism? What Greek philosopher would like the idea of Constitutionalism? $ 4. Name four core values that you think are important to Enlightenment thinkers.
  13. 13. Enlightenment Values Reason$ Progress$ Individualism$ Secularism$ Humanism$ Freedom$ Equality