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Intro to law notes

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Intro to Law

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Intro to law notes

  1. 1. Unit 1: Introduction to Law
  2. 2. Law: a definition A system of “rules and regulations made and enforced by a government that regulate conduct of the people within a society”.
  3. 3. Goals of the Legal System 1. Protecting basic human rights 2. Promoting fairness 3. Helping resolve conflicts 4. Promoting order and stability 5. Promoting desirable social and economic behavior. 6. Representing the will of the majority 7. Protecting the rights of minorities
  4. 4. LAW AND VALUES •LAWS ARE CREATED TO REFLECT AND PROMOTE A SOCIETY’S VALUES( THE IDEAS OF RIGHT & WRONG) •THEY OFTEN STEM FROM RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND •THE STONGER THE VALUE, THE STRONGER THE LAW & THE MORE SEVERE THE PUNISHMENT
  5. 5. Laws are based on 4 primary types of values •Moral values •Political values •Economic values •Social Values
  6. 6. Moral values Ideas of Right and Wrong Protection of Life Severe Punishment
  7. 7. Social values Important Issues Change over Time Laws encourage values Punishments less severe
  8. 8. Economic values Deal with accumulation, preservation, use, and distribution of wealth Laws to protect property
  9. 9. Political values Regulate the relationship between citizens and government
  10. 10. Summary Law encourages us to “do the right thing” & punishes those who violate society’s values
  11. 11. KINDS OF LAWS -CRIMINAL LAW -CIVIL LAW
  12. 12. Criminal Law • PURPOSE OF CRIMINAL LAW • REGULATE PUBLIC CONDUCT • SETS DUTIES OWED TO SOCIETY • PROTECTS US FROM OURSELVES, OTHERS, AND OUR GOVERNMENT • CASES FILED BY: • GOVERNMENT BRINGS CHARGES ON BEHALF OF SOCIETY
  13. 13. Criminal Law • Purpose for Criminal laws • REGULATE PUBLIC CONDUCT • SETS DUTIES OWED TO SOCIETY • PROTECTS US FROM OURSELVES, OTHERS, AND OUR GOVERNMENT • CASES FILED BY: • GOVERNMENT BRINGS CHARGES ON BEHALF OF SOCIETY
  14. 14. Criminal Law TYPES OF CRIMINAL OFFENSES • SUMMARY OFFENSE - FINE • MISDEMEANOR – 1 YEAR OR LESS • FELONY - 1 YEAR OR MORE IN JAIL BURDEN OF PROOF: • "Beyond a reasonable doubt"
  15. 15. Purpose of Civil Law PURPOSE OF CIVIL LAWS • REGULATE RELATIONS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS • HELPS TO PEACEFULLY SETTLE DISPUTES • GOVERNMENT NOT DIRECTLY INVOLVED CASES FILED BY: • PRIVATE PARTIES
  16. 16. Purpose of Civil Law BURDEN OF PROOF • "Preponderance of evidence." • CLAIMANT MUST PRODUCE EVIDENCE BEYOND THE BALANCE OF PROBABILITES. TYPE OF PUNISHMENT: • AWARDS MONEY TO INJURED PERSON
  17. 17. “ O U R S I S A G O V E R N M E N T O F L A W S , N O T M E N . ” – John Adams, 1779, the year he penned the Massachusetts state constitution LEGISLATION
  18. 18. Types of Laws •Statute – National or State – passed by Legislature •Ordinance – Enacted by local authority – enforced only in that small area •Policy – enacted by an institution (school)
  19. 19. LETTER OF THE LAW When one obeys the letter of the law but not the spirit, one is obeying the literal interpretation of the words (the "letter") of the law, but not the intent of those who wrote the law.
  20. 20. LEGISLATIVE INTENT • Bills are used to enact laws or amend or repeal old laws. • Legislators are responsible drafting and approving Bills • The language of law is open to different interpretations. (Law may be unclear) • The Court will interpret what the Legislature meant when making the law.
  21. 21. A GOOD “LAW” • The law written in clear language • The law is easily understandable • The law does not contradict any other laws. • The law enforceable. • The penalties for breaking the law are clear and reasonable. • The law clearly states when it goes into effect.
  22. 22. S E T T L I N G D I S P UT E S CHAPTER 4
  23. 23. DISADVANTAGES OF GOING TO COURT • Time Consuming • Expensive • Anger and Bitterness
  24. 24. NEGOTIATION  Negotiation is when people try to resolve the conflict by reaching a solution that is acceptable to all  Is important because the skills involved in handling conflict responsibly are used everyday by people in all aspects of life  People can hire attorneys to negotiate in situations like auto accidents.
  25. 25. 3 PHASES OF NEGOTIATION  Phase 1 - Preparation 1. All parties should have a sincere interest in settling dispute 2. Identify issue causing the conflict 3. Consider issue from the other side 4. Identify two workable solutions to resolve problem  Phase 2 - Negotiation 1. Work together to identify issue causing conflict 2. After identifying issues, parties should work together to create a list of possible solutions (Identify 2-3 most workable) 3. Repeat all points of the final agreement to be sure of understanding • Write down agreement and decide on consequences if broken  Phase 3 - Post-negotiation 1. Make final decisions
  26. 26. ARBITRATION Arbitration is when both parties agree to have a 3rd party listen to their arguments and make a decision for them Decisions made by an arbitrator are legally binding Common places to have an arbitration hearing:  Contract and Labor Management Disputes  International law cases
  27. 27. MEDIATION  Mediation is when a 3rd party helps the disputing parties talk about their problems and settle their differences  Mediators do not make decisions for the parties, they only help the settlement between them
  28. 28. COURT ACTION  Lastly you could take court action  Why do you think this should be the last resort?

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