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Dcla13 discourse, computation and context – sociocultural dcla

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My DCLA13 talk at LAK13 in Leuven. The images should all be CC licensed with links provided in the speaker notes on the slides.
I'd recommend looking at the other slides from this session (see http://www.solaresearch.org/events/lak/lak13/dcla13/ ) particularly those on context - this presentation provides a theoretical perspective on context, which some of the other presentations were showing really interesting examples of in empirical (and well theorised) work.

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Dcla13 discourse, computation and context – sociocultural dcla

  1. 1. Discourse, Computation andContext – Sociocultural DCLA Revisited Simon Knight @sjgknight http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/knight/ Karen Littleton http://www.open.ac.uk/education-and- languages/main/people/k.s.littletonCC-BY-NC http://xkcd.com/1085/
  2. 2. Acknowledgements/ReferencesThis talk is based on:Knight, S, and Littleton, K. “Discourse, Computationand Context – Sociocultural DCLA Revisited.” In 1stInternational Workshop on Discourse-CentricLearning Analytics. Leuven, Belgium, 2013.http://oro.open.ac.uk/36640/Thanks to the anonymous reviewers, mysupervisors Simon and Karen, Yulan He and RebeccaFerguson for helpful comments and conversations.
  3. 3. Context in context1. Research around discourse for learning2. Particular emphasis on context3. Current work in DCLA4. Remaining challenge5. Moving forward
  4. 4. Discourse for learning supporting individuals’ subject Track subject language learning supporting psychological Track argument behaviours,development – the development structures, and language of oral language and reasoning skillspromoting whole class and small Track social interaction group understanding or commonalityenabling sharing of ideas that can Track co-constructive artefactbe improved together (both whole development class and small group)…
  5. 5. Context in learning discourseCommon Knowledge• Shared Perspective• Built through discourse and joint action• It both constitutes a context, and is a dynamic facet of context
  6. 6. Temporal ContextMercer, Neil (2008) “The Seeds of Time: Why ClassroomDialogue Needs a Temporal Analysis.”• Education is not a series of discrete events• Dialogue mediates this long term process• Yet this aspect is not well theorised or empirically studied
  7. 7. Common KnowledgeBackground DynamicHistoric FluidBased in communities of Built on co-constructionpractice within groups• Dialogue as a representation of context• Dialogue as a dynamic co-constructed context
  8. 8. Context in learning discourseExploratory Talk andAccountable Talk• Critical constructive engagement• Justifications given• Active participation• Reasoning is visible, and talk is accountable – participants Interthink
  9. 9. E.g. of exploratory talkA: OK (reads) so is she a good role model, and why?A: Yeah I think she isB: Wait though, we have to say why, why is she agood role model?A: Hm, she’s a good role model because she helpedpeople…B: ….she helped them to get betterA: Yeah, and she helped them in like, a new way?B: Right, she started a new method
  10. 10. DCLA supporting individuals’ subject learning Subject vocabulary use supporting psychological development – the Rhetorical development of oral language and reasoning marker use skills promoting whole class and small group Social Network understanding or commonality Analysisenabling sharing of ideas that can be improved Temporallytogether (both whole class and small group)… driven discourse analysis
  11. 11. What do we want?• Domain general analytics• For peer talk rather than peer/teacher or peer/conversation agent• With a focus on common knowledge, and exploratory talk – related to positive outcomes
  12. 12. Combining DCLAEducation is interested in progress – getting fromhere to there. Methods can be combined to:1. identify the apt-concepts for any particular discourse (row 1)2. understand the network of intercolutors and their contributions – conceptual & rhetorical interthinking resources (rows 2 and 3)3. and understanding how these discourses are related across time and location (row 4)
  13. 13. The Challenge for context…• Moving beyond understanding where someone else is• To understanding how they got there too (and who they travelled with)• And the (joint) artefacts they created, left behind, and plan to createWhat is happening v. what is being done
  14. 14. E.g. of exploratory talkA: OK (reads) so is she a good role model, and why?A: Yeah I think she isB: Wait though, we have to say why, why is she agood role model?A: Hm, she’s a good role model because she helpedpeople…B: ….she helped them to get betterA: Yeah, and she helped them in like, a new way?B: Right, she started a new method
  15. 15. Disambiguation - A ‘basic’ challenge in DCLA
  16. 16. Example problems in DCLA & Education• “Context is a problem, isn’t it?” Rhetoric and anaphora are linguistic problems (as are speech acts such as ‘can you pass the salt?’)• “Stop that!” “is that right?” spoken by a child or teacher is rather different• “What were the key medical developments?” Asked at start/end of lesson, or of different students• “The wiglywoo” Words (or non-words) take on new meanings through on going dialogue• “should think about x” Can be an imperative, a hypothesis, a question/suggestion, etc.
  17. 17. Documents v. Conversations• Documents – relatively stable snapshots of distribution of topics• Conversations unfold, and topics are renegotiatedThus Introne and Drescher:• Analyse sequences of replies to understand word clusters, changes, merges, splits to model co- occurrence as opposed to modelling based on dictionaries or other corpora
  18. 18. Methods as ContextThe data we train on, and the processes we use have animpact on classifications and how we can treat them• Training sets require human coders – their methods are an aspect of context• Document splitting which treats each turn as a document may gloss temporal aspects of context• Smoothing across turns may rectify this (cf current evidence)• Other methods for temporal analysis
  19. 19. Methods as Context• Topic modelling for knowledge flow (and cohesive ties) (domain, and possibly social network specific) – Transactivity• Plus exploratory talk markers (domain- general)
  20. 20. Discourse as ContextDiscourse:1. exists within a particular context and mediates it, and2. creates context, as a dynamic, collaborative, discursive property.
  21. 21. You Are Here Your Route/ landscapeGoing forward (with…)
  22. 22. Parallels in Pragmatic Web?Move from:1. syntax (logical forms and symbolic structures)2. semantics (meaning of symbols) – preoccupation with standardisation based on ontologies3. pragmatics address the evolving contexts and practices of creating, using, and developing epistemic artifacts.Language in action: The shift “from…language as a tool ofrepresenting the world to its view as a means ofinteracting with the world.” *22:39+Context, language in action, community networks
  23. 23. A note of caution• DCLA has novel potential for new assessment practices• However, we should tread cautiously…“in developing tools with limited – but perhaps unstated – views on the nature of language use for learning”• Once we can detect – how do we support? (offline work)
  24. 24. Thank you for listening@sjgknightsjgknight@gmail.comhttp://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/knight/

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