Integrated Water Management


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Approaches to Integrated Water Management – Case Stories of Applied Solutions.
Presented by Torsten Jacobsen, Hydrologist (MSc, PhD), Water Resources Department, DHI.
ESI Annual Conference – Wednesday 20th June 2012.

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Integrated Water Management

  1. 1. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –Case Stories of Applied SolutionsTorsten JacobsenHydrologist (MSc, PhD),Water Resources Department, DHItvj@dhigroup.com20 years experience from consultany project around the world, mainly in integrated water management andintegrated hydrological modelling.
  2. 2. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –DHI in brief International research and specialised consultancy organisation within most aspects of water. • Software (MIKE by DHI) 6% 5% Core Funding for R&D (Performance Contract) • Present focus on Decision Support Systems Commissioned R&D (R&D Contracts) 19% Software Sales Equipment Sales (Other Products) Specialized 2% Consultancy 68% 8% 1% 6% 24% Denmark Rest of EU Rest of Europe 16% Middle East Africa Subsidiaries Asia Australia etc. Offices 3% North America Head office 2% South America 1% 39% DHI work both as consultants and as tool builders – ‘in-built knowledge’
  3. 3. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –‘Integration trends’ seen from a DHI perspective‘Traditional approaches’ ‘ New and upcoming approaches and trends’IWRM / WFD CUSTOMISED IT SYSTEMSPolicies and principles of multi Deliverables integrating withsector and stakeholder clients IT infrastructure, webinvolvement in the process based water management tools Nile Basin DSS – a platformfor IWRM WFD Program of Measures, Denmark PHYSICAL INTEGRATION REAL TIME AND PLANNING SW/GW managed as one Integration of operational and resource, integrated and planning systems for water dynamically linked modeling management tools MIKE SHE – Mike Urban CARM – Computer Aided River modeling tools used in climate Management, Murrumbidge, change adaptation AUS
  4. 4. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –Decision support systems / Information SystemsOn-line, real time operational DSS and water planning DSS platforms Policy Makers / Managers • Investment strategies • performance indicators • weightings (MCA) • operations (day-to-day) • socio economics DSS • water use strategies Modelling • problem identification and Analysis • scenario analysis • stakeholder involvement Exchange and access to • access to data • trust building • sharing of data data and information • Institutional issues • data safety Data • data visualisation • data processing • data ownership Technicians / Engineers
  5. 5. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –IWRM - The NB DSS ProjectClient : Nile Basin Initiative, Water ResourcesManagement Project, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Lead Consultant : DHISub-consultants:• Riverside Technologies, USA• Mott MacDonald, UK• Tropics Consultants, Ethiopia.• Funding : World Bank• Project Period (May 2009 – December 2012)• Project Scope (WP1 : IT Project) – Software Requirement Analysis – Software Architecture and Design – Software Development and Testing – Proof-of-concept• WP2 (NB DSS Application within the Nile Basin) – Software Testing – Full scale application
  6. 6. Approaches to Integrated Water Management – Why a Nile Basin DSS? tObjective:To enhance capacity to support basin wide communication, informationexchange, and identifying trans-boundary opportunities for cooperativedevelopment of the Nile Basin water resources based on IWRM.The Nile Basin DSS is expected is a tool to be used by all ripariancountries in the management of the shared Nile water resources. Regional level (Regional Nile Basin DSS Center,(NBI, Addis Ababa) Sub Regional Level (ENTRO (Eastern Nile), NELSAP (Nile Equatorial Lakes) National Level, DSS units in each of the 9 countries.
  7. 7. NB DSS - Areas of Concern(determined through stakeholder consultation)Water resources development: main focus on interventions that alter the time and spacedistribution of water in the basin; involve physical structures.Optimal water resources utilization: Main focus on those planning decisions required toenhance utilization of available water resources, mainly through non-structural interventions.Energy development (hydropower): focuses on development of hydropower potentials in thebasin.Rain-fed and irrigated agriculture: area focuses on assessing current productivity andproduction levels of both rain-fed and irrigated agriculture supporting efforts to increase foodproduction through relevant interventions, such as in the planning of irrigated agriculture.Coping with floods: main focus in the first phase of the DSS shall be to provide information oncharacteristics of flood prone areas, flow generation, assessing impacts (or benefits) of storagereservoirs on flood control, etc.Coping with droughts: support drought management efforts, including the planning foradaptation to climate change and variability.Watershed and Sediment Management: evaluation of impacts of alternative land use/cover onthe hydrology of the river system, the estimation of sediment yield, and reservoir sedimentation.Navigation: focus to identify how navigation might be affected by contemplated interventions andsupport efforts to minimize the adverse impacts. In addition, navigation benefits shall beconsidered in the planning and management of storage schemes.Cross cutting issues: Climate change and water quality
  8. 8. DSS Platform System Characteristics • State-of-the-art IT technology • Client-server system • Customisable / extendable • Open Interfaces / scriptable • Link to DHI models and other models Customized Solu- tions that build on a shared/generalised platform Model Data Scenario Tools Management Management Reporting Analysis MCA CBA Flood Reduction Investment Alternatives Evaluation Ensemble 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 Performance Value 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Water Supply Baseline Flood Control Alt 1 Pop. Displace. Alt 2 Sedimentation Alt 3 Cost Alt 4 Criteria Alternatives Alt 5 Total weighted
  9. 9. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –Integration between groundwater and surface waterMIKE SHE Features :• Integrated Fully dynamic coupling• Distributed Spatial and temporal variation of input data and parameters• Physically based Basic flow processes, physical interpretation of model parameters,direct use of field data• Comprehensive ‘All-in-one’-model
  10. 10. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –Integrating catchment hydrology and urban hydrology (MIKE SHE – MIKE URBAN) Runoff Infilltration Sewer-aquifer leakage Infilltration • Provides a full description of urban hydrological processes (GW and SW) • Sewer system receives considerable inflow from groundwater affceting cost-effectiveness of water treatment plants • Climate change catchment models will have to incorporate both ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ features
  11. 11. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –What is Computer Aided River Management ? CARM, Murrumbidgee NSW-AUS
  12. 12. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –CARM System Area - Murrumbidgee Catchment Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area Coleambally Irrigation Area Catchment area = 87,300 sq km 1300 km, dams to Balranald Annual average flow 4200GL
  13. 13. Approaches to Integrated Water Management – Challenges for Daily River Operations and Seasonal Planning• Meeting water orders, while conserving available dam water, taking into account: – Water orders may change – Catchment inflow contributions – River conditions (low and high flows produce variable travel times) – Potential losses and gains – Available storages and levels in weirs• Constraints: – Manual, daily operation relies on judgement and experience – Limited ability to use real time and forecast data (flows, rainfall, demands) – “Known unknowns” – tributary inflows, river seepage, evapotranspiration and evaporation losses – Lack of real river hydraulics – Aging operations technology
  14. 14. Approaches to Integrated Water Management – CARM Components• River hydraulics and catchment hydrology computer simulation tools• Real time information used to its maximum potential (“self correcting”)• Forecast of catchment inflows, river losses and gains• Optimisation of dam and weir releases Irrigation water demand (MIKE BASIN) River Catchment Losses/Gains Inflows (MIKE 11 (MIKE SHE) RR NAM) River dynamics and storage (MIKE 11) Real Time Data Optimized Assimilation releases (MIKE 11 DA) (MIKE AUTOCAL)
  15. 15. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –Real Time Data Usage and Optimisation Real time data assimilation to flow and level gauges Optimisation to calculate releases needed to meet future irrigation and environmental demands, considering river inflow and loss, river storage Model Self Forecast Period Correction
  16. 16. Approaches to Integrated Water Management – A web based tool for WFD Program of Measures analysis• Local authorities are faced with implementing cost effective WFD plans• Shared responsibility in catchments, need for shared data and methods• How best to spend tax payers money to maximise environmental benefits• Need for a transparent screening and overall assessment tool• The tool based on standard GIS layers Web-GIS tool Google Earth GIS
  17. 17. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –A web based tool for WFD Program of Measures analysis Simple concept 1. Selector query source locations (point sources or diffuse sources) 2. Assign a measure from a pre-defined (and expandable) list of measures (associated with e.g N, P and BOD effects, costs and cost-effectiveness) and a simplified physical index for rivers. 3. Repeat, checking for all relevant water bodies and reduction targets (upstream to downstream) to create a full catchment Program of Measures 4. Execute calculation considering river topology, GW and lake retention 5. Evaluate results, compliance, total cost estimates, cost effectiveness of applied measures (Excel outputs) Can be learned in 30 minutes and allows many possible scenarios to be evaluated (as opposed to more complex catchment models)
  18. 18. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –A web based tool for WFD Program of Measures analysis First generation DK water plans blamed for lack of focus, transparency and cost-effectiveness by agricultural sector. A more site specific assessment requested. A current PhD study supported by DHI using the POM tool demonstrates significant potential for higher cost-effectiveness in water plans (Roskilde Fjord case). The POM screening tool will be further developed to address net CO2- emission effects and highlight conflicts in minumum flow requirements versus abstraction
  19. 19. Approaches to Integrated Water Management –Basin scale load and water quality modeling toolsFollowing identification of feasible scenarios using the POM tool comprehensive effect models may be usedAn elaboration of MIKE SHE, MIKE11 and EcoLab to adress WFD requirments and diffuseloads Input : Nitrate leakage from root zone Basin WQ model Groundwater Shallow Groundwater Deep Groundwater Coastal waters Surface water Wetland Riparian zone Output Temp. flooding Cost-benefit calculations of management scenarios Lakes WQ modeling of the fjord
  20. 20. Approaches to Integrated Water Management – Conclusion• Increased need for Integration of modelling tools in Catchment Management• Tailoring of both model specifics and decision support systems for individual clients.• Move to extensive dynamic model couplings in catchment models• Improvements in sensor technologies allow improved data assimilation and optimisation• Clients are looking to base decisions for Integrated Catchment Management on tailored, user friendly, multi user platforms rather than by a traditional model interface …. or perhaps as games ( UNEP funded Serious IWRM game