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Biofuel with particular focus on Jatropha curcas as biodiesel

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  • hi! im justin narisma from tagum city,philippines. im a real estate agent from tagum city,philippines. im offering you a 10,000acres land in kabanglasan,bukidnon. suitable for jatropha oil plantation. im looking forward working with you! thanks & have a great day!
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  1. 1. Biofuel with particular focus on Jatropha curcas as biodiesel <ul><li>Dr. Nandita Singh </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>National Botanical Research Institute (Council for Scientific & Industrial Research) Lucknow (India) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Increase in worldwide energy consumption
  3. 3. Biofuel <ul><li>obtained from agricultural feed stocks </li></ul><ul><li>form of energy that can be easily transported and stored, thus tradable </li></ul><ul><li>environmentally friendly products </li></ul>
  4. 4. Three pillars for Biofuel production
  5. 5. Liquid biofuels <ul><li>Alcohol fuels : Ethanol and Methanol </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable oils: Derived from plant seeds </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>India ranks sixth in terms of energy demands (3.5% of world’s commercial energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for energy: growing by 4.8 % </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel consumption: 40 % of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for diesel: 40 million tons </li></ul><ul><li>Road transport : 75 % </li></ul>Biodiesel in India National Scenario
  7. 7. “ Bio-Diesel” refers to the neat ethyl or methyl esters of vegetable oils Biodiesel is a domestically produced renewable liquid fuel that can be manufactured from the oils and fats of plants. It contains no petroleum and can be blended at any level
  8. 8. BIODIESEL vs OTHER ALTERNATE FUELS DIESEL CNG LNG METHANOL ETHANOL BIODIESEL ___________________________________________________________________________ Vehicle cost 10 5 5 5 5 10 Infrastructure 10 2 5 5 5 10 Safety 7 4 3 1 3 8 Operating range 10 5 10 10 10 10 Operating cost 10 5 7 5 5 7 Reliability 10 7 5 3 3 10 Customer acceptance 5 8 8 8 9 8 Funding assistance 1 10 2 0 2 2 Training cost 10 5 5 5 5 10 Fuel availability 10 10 5 5 5 6 Fuel quality 9 5 10 8 8 9 Fuel price stability 6 8 8 6 6 6 TOTAL 98 74 73 61 66 96 __
  9. 9. Motivation for Research Since the introduction of diesel engine, Rudolph Diesel (1895) intended to burn modified vegetable oil for development of agriculture . It is only now that we are developing biodiesel for this purpose.
  10. 10. Biodiesel for Energy Vegetable Oil Degummification Esterification Removal of water Separation of Glycerine Filter Washings BIO OIL BIO DIESEL
  11. 11. Concern for biodiesel ? <ul><li>The world over there is a quest for looking for fossil fuel alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing fossil fuel reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous production </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Environmental Motivations No Sulphur or aromatic compounds Safer to breathe Reduced emissions in 3 of the 4 regulated categories: total unburned HC, CO, SPM Promotes more vegetation (C fix) Non toxic and biodegradable
  13. 13. Economical Motivations Provides investment in innovations Reduces subsidies New job creation: production, manufacturing, processing, construction, distribution, marketing Import substitution Protects over-dependence on limited sources of fuels
  14. 14. Industrial Motivations Increased use will decrease deficit by reducing imports Scope for cleaner technologies Operators use clean fuel with less health problems Links agriculture to energy Storage and transport need little or no modification
  15. 15. Government Motivations Energy independence gives strength to countries Biodiesel meets international standards for clean S free diesel Fuel standards for use of renewable energy Incentives for alternate and clean fuel
  16. 16. Scientific Motivations Challenge to develop biodiesel at competitive price Develop alternative protocols and tools Develop clean catalysts Reduce cost of lipase technology Achieve environment standards
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions by up to 80%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel produces 100% less SOx than petroleum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel reduces exhaust smoke (particulates) emissions by up to 75% so the usual black cloud associated with a diesel engine can be eliminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The smell of the biodiesel exhaust is far more pleasant . </li></ul></ul>Why biodiesel?
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is much easier to handle and does not cause cracking or redness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is much less dangerous to put in vehicle fuel tank as its flash point is ± 150°C (300°F) as opposed to petroleum diesel ± 70°C (150°F). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel degrades about 4 times faster than petroleum diesel after spillage, with most of a spill broken down after just 28 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel provides significant lubricity improvement over petroleum diesel fuel so engines last longer, with the right additives engine performance can also be enhanced </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Various countries have set their targets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA to use B20 to B100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India to start with B5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil to go for B2 to B3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines look for B10 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Indian Initiatives <ul><li>National Mission on Biodiesel has been launched by GOI </li></ul><ul><li>State Governments designated special authorities/bodies to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas notified biodiesel purchase policy </li></ul><ul><li>Government Institutes are working on technology and promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Public and private sectors are working on processing and end use </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Proposed Biodiesel Program in India </li></ul><ul><li>2005-2007: Demonstration phase </li></ul><ul><li>2007-2010: Expansion – Self sustaining </li></ul><ul><li>2011-2012: Meeting requirement </li></ul>
  22. 22. Biodiesel feedstock Palm oil Rs. 23 Soybean oil Coconut oil Castor oil Rs. 37 Rs. 73/76 Rs. 41/47 Cotton seed Rs. 32 Rubber oil Rs. 25 Peanut oil Rs. 32 Sunflower oil Rs. 57 Rice bran oil Rs. 19/22/25 Neem oil Rs. 26 Karanj oil Rs. 37 Malaysia Philippines USA Brazil EU India
  23. 23. Non edible oil tree species: Neem ( Azadirachta indica ), Karanj ( Pongamia pinnata ) Meswak ( Salvadora species) Mahua ( Madhuca indica ) Rubber ( Hevea species) Castor ( Ricinus communis ) Palm oil / Rice bran oil Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas ) Others: Diploknema butracea , Garcinia , Tung etc.
  24. 24. Fatty acid composition Pongamia pinnata Biodiesel in India
  25. 25. Fatty acid composition Madhuca indica Biodiesel in India
  26. 26. Diploknema butyracea Fatty acid composition Biodiesel in India
  27. 27. Salvadora oleoides Fatty acid composition Biodiesel in India
  28. 28. Salvadora species Biodiesel in India
  29. 30. Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India
  30. 31. <ul><li>It is an exotic plant for India and is species native to Mexico and Central America. In India, it is believed to have been introduced by Portugues navigators in the 16 th century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Names: Ratanjyot, Purging net, physic nut. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Botanical Name : Jatropha curcas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family : Euphorbiaceae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability : Throughout India (mostly in dry/tropical areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features : Small tree or shrub, (3-5 m in height), smooth greasy bark which exudes whitish colored, watery latex when cut and large green to pale green leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (deciduous), alternative but apically crowded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestation period : Less than one year (minimum amongst all the tree borne oilseeds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive life : 30-35 years. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Why Jatropha ? <ul><li>India cannot afford edible vegetable oils </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t have waste vegetable oil </li></ul><ul><li>Jatropha can grow in wastelands </li></ul><ul><li>This is not grazed or browsed </li></ul><ul><li>It is a shrub and yields fruits in three to four years </li></ul>
  32. 33. - High yield of oil % -Least risks of failure -Least cultivation inputs -High acceptability of farmers -Suitability of oil for diesel-Wide adaptability to stress -Fast growing & short rotation -Availability of seed material -Least disease occurrence Selection of biofuel tree Jatropha curcas
  33. 35. The land to grow ? <ul><li>Country has nearly 63 million ha of wasteland. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 33 million ha committed for tree plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Current target is 1 million ha </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer land, Panchayat land, spoiled, mined sites, underutilized land. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Wasteland that can be available for Jatropha Plantation Source: Dr. J. Parikh, IRADE
  35. 37. Jatropha curcas Collection of good Germplasm
  36. 38. Biodiesel in India
  37. 39. Biodiesel in India
  38. 41. 2 Native collection of Jatropha curcas accessions 15 10 6 10 10 10 10 10 1 7 20 1 2 1 2 7 10 2 10 13 5 4 2 4 6 6
  39. 42. Statewise Jatropha collections under DBT Micro-mission project Over 1000 accessions collected, approx. 700 characterized
  40. 43. Statewise Jatropha accessions characterized under DBT Micro-mission project
  41. 44. Seed variability
  42. 45. Seed size variation Seed size: Small = 40.07 g per 100 seeds Large = 78.88 g per 100 seeds Average = 64.29 g per 100 seeds Seeds kg -1 : 1341 to 1806, (1564.34  113.9),
  44. 47. Technologies for mass production of Jatropha curcas <ul><li>Protocols for macro-propagation (from cuttings) and micropropagation (tissue culture) </li></ul>
  45. 48. CLONAL PROPAGATION OF JATROPHA <ul><li>Criteria for selection of elite germplasm: </li></ul><ul><li>Mother plant with annual yield of 3-4 kg fruits/plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants with 35% or more seed oil content. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy and disease free plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation by cuttings in Polybags/Root trainers/Open beds </li></ul><ul><li>Six to ten inch long cuttings of selected plants are planted in sterile medium ( vermiculite or sand). </li></ul><ul><li>Cuttings are raised in high-tech nurseries with controlled environmental conditions of temperature and humidity to initiate callus formation. </li></ul><ul><li>After development of sufficient roots the cuttings are transplanted in net houses in sand beds for hardening. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally the rooted mature cuttings are transferred in polybags with soil and sand mixture in the ratio of 2:1. </li></ul>
  46. 49. DEMONSTRATION PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS To create public awareness and unused and marginal land utilization demonstration plantation of J. curcas were carried out on total 290 hectares in collaboration with U.P. Government, Railways (NR & NER), Industries (Birla, Tata NTPC), CSIR labs (HRDC, Gaziabad, ITRC), MNRE (SEC, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon).
  47. 50. DEMONSTRATION PLANTATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS <ul><li>Total area under plantation - 290 hectare </li></ul><ul><li>Sodic land </li></ul><ul><li>Flyash (100%) </li></ul><ul><li>Fly ash mixed soil </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed soil </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated soil </li></ul>Flyash (100%) Fly ash mixed soil Sodic land
  48. 51. Plantation at difficult sites Highly sodic – pH>10
  49. 52. Demonstration Plantations of Jatropha curcas Northern Railways Girzapur,Baharaich Gazaria farm NTPC, Unchahar
  50. 53. Fruiting after 2 years of plantation at Gazaria farm
  51. 54. Technology issues
  52. 55. Bielenberg’s Press KEK Press Komet Press
  53. 56. Taby Press
  54. 57. Sundhara Press
  55. 58. Transesterification <ul><li>Diesel has a chain of 11-13 C </li></ul><ul><li>New vegetable oil has a chain of 18 C </li></ul><ul><li>Waste veg oil has chains of 32 C </li></ul><ul><li>To burn in an engine, the chain needs to be broken down to be similar in length to diesel </li></ul>
  56. 59. BASIC REACTION Diesel has a chain of 11-13 C Vegetable oil has a chain of 18 C CH 2 COOR’ | CHCOOR” | CH 2 COOR”’ 3 ROH Catalyst CH 2 OH | CHOH | CH 2 OH R'COOR + R''COOR + R'''COOR 60 Kg Oil 6.78 Kg Alcohol 0.60Kg NaOH 6.5 Kg Glycerin 58 Kg Biodiesel
  57. 61. Biodiesel Cake Wasteland utilization Glycerine
  58. 62. Alternatives: Petro agro sector Cakes constitute nearly 70 % of the feed stock. Application as bio fertilizers or for energy usage such as substitute of coal or as a feed for gasifiers Biodiesel in India
  59. 63. Jatropha biofertilizer 3.6 0.8 1.7 0.77 0.75 Biodiesel in India
  60. 65. Environmental aspects
  61. 66. Tailpipe emission pollutants after replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel
  62. 67. BIODIESEL-Why Lower Emissions ? <ul><li>In built Oxygen content </li></ul><ul><li>Burns fully </li></ul><ul><li>Has no Sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>No Aromatics </li></ul><ul><li>Complete CO2 cycle </li></ul>
  63. 68.
  64. 69. Life-cycle tree for biodiesel production
  65. 70. Exploration Refining Use in Cars and Trucks Fossil CO 2 Release to Atmosphere PETRO-DIESEL CO 2 CYCLE 13 pounds of fossil CO 2 released per gallon burned
  66. 71. BIODIESEL CO 2 CYCLE No fossil CO 2 Released ; No global warming Biodiesel Production Use in Cars and Trucks Oil Crops Renewable CO 2
  67. 72. BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA <ul><li>IF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 MILLION HECATRES OF WASTE LAND IS BROUGHT UNDER JATROPHA CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can yield 15 million tons of seed (@1.5 Tons / Hectare ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.0 million tons of oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An equivalent amount of biodiesel, almost one tenth requirement of diesel in the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous employment generation potential in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If only 1 person/family is employed per 5 hectares for jatropha cultivation, additional 2 million new jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200 new extraction units of 250 tpd capacity to crush the seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Million tons of excellent organic manure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.4 million tons of technical grade glycerol </li></ul></ul>
  68. 73. Biodiesel strategy <ul><li>Upscaling technology </li></ul><ul><li>Importing machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Importing technology </li></ul><ul><li>Trial runs </li></ul><ul><li>R&D for feedstocks </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitizing financial institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer oriented programs, </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations, </li></ul><ul><li>R&D for selections, </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery, </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul>  Cost effective diesel production Sufficient production The Road ahead
  69. 74. Farmers meet on Biodiesel at Rashtrapati Bhawan
  70. 76. Jatropha curcas plantations at Rashtrapati Bhawan (2004)
  71. 77. Jatropha curcas plantations at Rashtrapati Bhawan March 2007
  72. 79. The future diesel nut ? [email_address]