Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Evaluating the Effectiveness of the
Travel Assistance Device on the Bus
Riding Behavior...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
• Independence for individuals with
disabilities
 Individuals face dangers in their ev...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Introduction
• Independence can be afforded to these
individuals across settings.
 In ...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
• Fischer and Sullivan (2002):
 Focused on understanding the barriers experienced
by p...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Travel Assistance Device (TAD)
 TAD is a transit navigation “app” for cell phones
 Ca...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
TADTAD
Cancel Select
Select Trip
(1) Home to Work
(2) Work to Home
(3) Home to Movie
Wo...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Behavior Analysis Study
• Purpose:
 To determine whether the prompts
given by the TAD ...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Method
 Participants
 Inclusion criteria: ambulatory & travel trained.
 3 individual...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Method
 Data Collection
 Trials:
 Each trial began at a local transit center.
 Once...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Method
• Participant Safety:
 The inconspicuous observer entered the bus
after the par...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Method
 Mobile Device:
 Sanyo 7050 phone on Sprint
 Travel Assistance Device (TAD)
m...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
 Procedure
 Baseline:
 Participants completed novel trips at different transit
cente...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
0
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
StepsCompleted
Trials
Baseline Post-Training Baseline Pos...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
0
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
StepsCompleted
Trials
Baseline Post-Training Baseline Pos...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
0
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
StepsCompleted
Trials
Baseline Post-Training Baseline Pos...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Results & Discussion
• Results provide supporting evidence that the
TAD is an effective...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Results & Discussion
• Limitations
 Generalization – small population in this study
• ...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Acknowledgements
• Arica Bolechala, Raymond Miltenberger, and Kimberly
Crosland, FMHI
•...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Questions?
Sean J. Barbeau, M.S. Comp.Sci.
Research Associate
Center for Urban Transpor...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
Cheslock, M. A., Barton-Hulsey, A., Romski, M., & Sevcik, R. A. (2008). Using a speech ...
Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007
References
Riffel, L. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Turnbull, A. P., Lattimore, J., Davies, D., ...
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2011 Transportation Research Board Conference - Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Travel Assistance Device on Bus Riding Behavior of Individuals with Disabilities

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The USF Florida Mental Health Institute performed the first research study which examined the actual impact of TAD on the bus riding behavior of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Master’s student Arica Bolechala’s thesis demonstrated that when the participants used TAD, they were always successful in exiting the bus at the correct location. When the participants did not use TAD, the individuals were not able to exit the bus at the correct bus stop. Bolechala’s work was presented at the 2011 TRB Conference in January in Washington, D.C. (this presentation) and the 2011 Applied Behavior Analysis International 37th Annual Conference in Denver, CO in May 2011.

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2011 Transportation Research Board Conference - Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Travel Assistance Device on Bus Riding Behavior of Individuals with Disabilities

  1. 1. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Travel Assistance Device on the Bus Riding Behavior of Individuals with Disabilities Arica Bolechala Raymond Miltenberger Sean Barbeau Marcy Gordon Florida Mental Health Institute & Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida
  2. 2. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 • Independence for individuals with disabilities  Individuals face dangers in their everyday lives  Lack of knowledge or ability  Safety skills in many settings • Technological devices can help afford independence  Pagers, virtual reality, hand held computer devices, and cellular phones » (Padgett, Stickland, & Coles, 2006; Riffel, Wehmeyer, Turnbull, Lattimore, Stock, & Fisher 2005; Self, Scudder, Weheba, & Crumrine, 2007; Taylor, Hughes, Richard, Hoch & Coelo, 2004). Introduction
  3. 3. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Introduction • Independence can be afforded to these individuals across settings.  In the home (Cheslock, Barton-Hulsey, Romski, &Sevcik, 2008; Hersh &Treadgold, 1994; Lancioni, Singh, O’Reilly, Sigafoos, Campodonico, & Oliva, 2008).  In the workplace (Davies, Stock, & Wehmeyer, 2001; Davies, Stock, & Wehmeyer, 2002a).  In the community (Taylor, Hughes, Richard, Hoch & Coello, 2004; Zaruba, Kamangar, & Huber; 2003). • Training individuals with disabilities to use public transportation is one of the least researched areas (Rosenkvist, Risser, Iwasson, Wendel, and Stahl 2009)
  4. 4. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 • Fischer and Sullivan (2002):  Focused on understanding the barriers experienced by people with cognitive disabilities, designing a user friendly model to reduce the cognitive load for individuals with cognitive disabilities within public transportation • Sohlberg, Todis, Fickas, Hung, and Lemoncello (2005):  Examined navigational patterns, focus groups • Sohlberg, Fickas, Hung, and Fortier (2007):  Developed and tested the effectiveness of using a PDA to deliver four different prompting methods and to see which prompting method was most effective  Focused on manually-triggered alerts for pedestrians  Audio was most successful and most preferred by users Introduction
  5. 5. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Travel Assistance Device (TAD)  TAD is a transit navigation “app” for cell phones  Caretakers or travel trainers can plan trips via website:
  6. 6. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 TADTAD Cancel Select Select Trip (1) Home to Work (2) Work to Home (3) Home to Movie Work to HomeWork to Home Back # Distance to Final Stop: 5.6 miles 18 Livingston West TADTAD OK Pull the Cord Now! (+Sound and Vibration) Travel Assistance Device (TAD)  TAD cell phone app tells the traveler to “Get Ready” and “Pull the Cord Now!” when it is time for them to exit the bus.  Prompts are visual, auditory, and tactile.
  7. 7. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Behavior Analysis Study • Purpose:  To determine whether the prompts given by the TAD would exhibit stimulus control over participants’ behavior of pulling the “stop” cord to: 1. Stop the bus at the appropriate time 2. Exit the bus at the appropriate stop.
  8. 8. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Method  Participants  Inclusion criteria: ambulatory & travel trained.  3 individuals with moderate mental retardation.  “Mark”, “Paige”, “Carl”  Setting  TAD training was done in a class room setting using Behavioral Skills Training (BST).  Baseline and post training tests were carried out on a city bus at Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (HART) in Tampa, Florida.  Target Behaviors 1. The participant must pull the bus cord signaling the appropriate stop 2. The participant must exit the bus at the appropriate stop.
  9. 9. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Method  Data Collection  Trials:  Each trial began at a local transit center.  Once the participant and inconspicuous observer board the bus the trial began.  Once the participant exited the bus the trial was considered complete.  Participant Directions:  Participants were told to take “X” bus to “Y” location.  Baseline: No prompts or feedback were given.  Post Training: Prompts were given by the TAD.
  10. 10. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Method • Participant Safety:  The inconspicuous observer entered the bus after the participant.  If the participant failed to pull the cord at the appropriate location the inconspicuous observer pulled the cord.  A familiar research assistant was waiting for the participant to exit the bus at the appropriate bus stop.  The primary researcher followed the bus during all trips.
  11. 11. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Method  Mobile Device:  Sanyo 7050 phone on Sprint  Travel Assistance Device (TAD) mobile application  Research Design:  Data was evaluated in an ABAB reversal design  Interobserver Agreement (IOA)  Assessed for 33% of all trials.  Baseline 1= 83%,  Post training 1, Baseline 2, & Post training 2 = 100%  Overall IOA was 95.8%
  12. 12. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007  Procedure  Baseline:  Participants completed novel trips at different transit centers  TAD:  Training to use TAD was done using Behavior Skills Training style training (Himle, Miltenberger, Flessner, & Gatheridge, 2004).  Post Training:  TAD was activated and trips selected for the participants  In-Situ Training:  In-Situ training would have taken place after 3 consecutive incorrect trials.  Never needed to be implemented during study Method
  13. 13. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 0 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 StepsCompleted Trials Baseline Post-Training Baseline Post-Training Results – Participant “Mark”
  14. 14. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 0 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 StepsCompleted Trials Baseline Post-Training Baseline Post-Training Results – Participant “Paige”
  15. 15. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 0 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 StepsCompleted Trials Baseline Post-Training Baseline Post-Training Results – Participant “Carl”
  16. 16. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Results & Discussion • Results provide supporting evidence that the TAD is an effective tool to prompt individuals to exit the bus at a desired location. • When no prompts were given, all subjects failed to pull the stop request cord and exit the bus at the correct location • When TAD was used, the subjects pulled the stop request cord and exited the bus at the correct location • One rider asked the bus driver for help  Driver gave the rider incorrect directions  Rider exited the bus at the wrong stop
  17. 17. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Results & Discussion • Limitations  Generalization – small population in this study • Future research  Other, and larger, populations  Individuals with visual, physical impairments, elderly  Longer trips  Multi-link trips with transfer present additional challenges  Training needed  Full user experience of application (e.g., User starting application, selecting options on phone, etc.)  How to “train the trainer”?
  18. 18. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Acknowledgements • Arica Bolechala, Raymond Miltenberger, and Kimberly Crosland, FMHI • Sean Barbeau, Phil Winters, and Nevine Georggi, CUTR, USF • Miguel Labrador and Rafael Perez, Computer Science & Engineering, USF • Mark Sheppard, HART Travel Trainer • Gigi Gonzalez, Special Education Facilitator for STAGES program at USF • Amy Datz, FDOT Project Manager • Harvey Berlin, TRB IDEA Project Manager • Sprint Application Developer Program for cell phones and service
  19. 19. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Questions? Sean J. Barbeau, M.S. Comp.Sci. Research Associate Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida 813.974.7208 barbeau@cutr.usf.edu
  20. 20. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 Cheslock, M. A., Barton-Hulsey, A., Romski, M., & Sevcik, R. A. (2008). Using a speech generated device to enhance communicative abilities for an adult with moderate intellectual disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 376-386. Davies, D. K., Stock, S. E., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2001). Enhancing independent internet access for individuals with mental retardation through use of a specialized web browser: A pilot study. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Development Disabilities, 36, 107-113. Davies, D. K., Stock, S. E., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2002a). Enhancing independent task performance for individuals with mental retardation through use of a handheld self-directed visual and audio prompting system. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Development Disabilities, 37, 209-218. Davies, D. K., Stock, S. E., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2002b). Enhancing independent time management skills of individuals with mental retardation using a palmtop personal computer. Mental Retardation, 40, 358-365. Fischer, G., & Sullivan, J. (2002). Human-centered public transportation systems for persons with cognitive disabilities—Challenges and insights for participatory design. In Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference (June) Malm¨o University, Sweden, T. Binder, J. Gregory, and I. Wagner Eds. Palo Alto, CA, 194–198. Hersh, N. & Treadgold, L. (1994). Neuropage: The rehabilitation of memory dysfunction by prosthetic memory aid cueing. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 4, 187-197. Himle, M. B., Miltenberger, R. G., Flessner, C., & Gatheridge, B. (2004). Teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 1-9. Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., O’Reilly, M. F., Sigafoos, J., Campodonico, F., & Oliva, D. (2008). Self- management of orientation technology and auditory cues for indoor travel by two persons with multiple disabilities. Journal of Developmental Physical Disabilities, 20, 129-138. Padgett, L. S., Strickland, D., & Coles, C. D. (2006). Case study: Using a virtual reality computer game to teach fire safety skills to children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 65-70. References
  21. 21. Copyright © Ray Miltenberger, 2007 References Riffel, L. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Turnbull, A. P., Lattimore, J., Davies, D., Stock, S., & Fisher, S. (2005). Prompting independent performance of transition-related tasks using a palmtop pc- based self-directed visual and auditory prompting system. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 5-14. Rosenkvist, J., Risser, R., Iwarsson, S., Wendel, K., & Stahl, A. (2009). The challenge of using public transportation: Descriptions by people with cognitive functional limitation. Journal of Transportation and Land Use, 2, 65-80. Self, T., Rosalind S. R., Weheba, G., & Crumrine, D. (2007). A virtual approach to teaching safety skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. Topics in Language Disorders, 27, 242-253. Sohlberg, M. M., Fickas, S., Hung, P., & Fortier, A. (2007). A comparison of four prompt modes for route finding for community travelers with severe cognitive impairments. Brain Injury, 21, 531- 538. Sohlberg, M. M., Todis, B., Fickas, S., Hung, P., & Lemoncello, R. (2005). A profile of community navigation in adults with chronic cognitive impairments. Brain Injury, 19, 1249-1259. Taylor, B. S., Hughes, C. E., Richard, E., Hoch, H. Coello, A. R. (2004). Teaching teenagers with autism to seek assistance when lost. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 79-82. Wade, T. K., Troy, J. C. (2001). Mobile phones as a new memory aid: A preliminary investigation using case studies. Brain Injury, 15, 305-320. Zaruba, G., Kamangar, F., Huber, M., Levine, D. (2005). Connect: A personal remote messaging and monitoring system to aid people with disabilities. IEEE Communications Magazine, 101-109.

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