English Grade 11


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English Grade 11

  1. 1.  Literal languageMeans exactly what it says, at the simplest level. For example:Sirius is the brightest star in the sky. Here a star is used literallyas a noun, which means a heavenly body in theuniverse, called a star. Figurative LanguageHas a more imaginative meaning. For an example: The starposed for photographs as she arrived at the Oscar.In the figurative language the word star does not refer to ashinning object in the sky. It is a metaphor. A film actor hasbeen given the qualities of a star as she is seen as being aglamorous celebrity. Her fame makes her stand out , or shinelike a star. This is an example of figurative language
  2. 2. A simile is a comparison between two things,using like or as to point out what is similar.Read the sentence below to see how it simileswork.Phindi’s eyes were shinning like stars because shewas so excited.Eyes and stars are b The same thing are beingcompared- Phindi’s eyes and stars – but wehave used as instead of like . The simile in thissentence is as brightly as stars being compared.
  3. 3.  A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is given the qualities of another. We don’t say the one thing is like another, but we say it is the thing to which it is being compared. Read this sentence: Phindi is the star of the soap opera. Personification is a special kind of metaphor in which an animal or a thing is given human qualities. For an example: The moon poured her friendly light on the sleeping earth. In this sentence, both moon and the earth are personified, because they are described as if they are people. The moon is said to be friendly, and the earth is compared to a sleeping person.
  4. 4. The World Is Too Much With UsBy William Wordsworth 1770–1850 William WordsworthThe world is too much with us; late and soon,Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;—Little we see in Nature that is ours;We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon;The winds that will be howling at all hours,And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers;For this, for everything, we are out of tune;It moves us not. Great God! I’d rather beA Pagan suckled in a creed outworn;So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn;Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea;Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.
  5. 5.  A fact is something that we can prove. There is evidence for it that is not based on how we personally think or feel. Facts are the result of research. However certain things that are accepted as part of our general knowledge , are accepted as facts, even if they have not been absolutely proven. For example. South Africas national road network is as extensive as any such system in the world, Without having any absolute proof of this, we can accept as fact, as a glance at a road atlas tells us that South Africa have an intensive network of roads. An opinion may seem true to us, but we cannot really prove it. It is based on our own thoughts and experiences. If we agree with an opinion, we often think that is fact!
  6. 6.  An emotion is another word for a feeling, and so emotive language is used to make us respond by feeling an emotion. It tells us how the writer is feeling. It makes the reader feel a certain motion in response to the words that have been used. Read this example I watched in horror as the child was swept away from the outstretched arms of her mother. The words in horror tells us how upset the writer was, and the words child, swept away, outstretched arms and mother, makes us feel pity for both the mother and the child.
  7. 7.  We call the main IDEA OR ideas in a text the message or the theme. T6he theme is what a passage is really about. However the themes of text differs, as each writer has a different attitude towards their writing. Writers may use stories to develop their themes . An example is a film such as the romantic comedy As Good As It Gets. The story tells us how two people , each with serious personal problem, falls in lone. However, the theme of the film goes much deeper than this is. It shows how love is powerful enough to alter our views on the world, and the way in which we behave. To recognize the theme of a passage, follow this method, First read the text so that you understand what the passage is about. Then ask yourselves these questions: -What are the issues that concern the writer of the passage? -What comment do the events or situations in the passage make about the subject matter. The answers to these questions are the main ideas, or themes of the passage.
  8. 8.  Implied meaning This is the meaning that is not clearly stated in the passage, but is hinted at, or suggested indirectly. Read the following example: If I lost my shoes at the beginning of the month , in the middle of winter, I would have to hop, skip and jump my way to school for more than 20 days over icy dew, barefoot because my parents could not do much about it until the end of the month. I was lucky. Many of my school mate would be freezing right through the winter. Although we are not specifically told so, we understand from this paragraph that most children owned only one pair of shoes.
  9. 9.  AdvertisementAdvertisement manipulate us into spending our money! They use words andpictures to send a strong message to persuade us to buy a service or a product.Learn the vocabulary below so that you will understand the questions onadvertisement: Copy – the writing in the advertisement Consumers – the people who buy the products or services for sale. Font – the type of lettering used Layout of design – the way in which the pictures and the words are arranged on the page, Slogans – easy to remember sayings, associated with certain products, such as MTN everywhere you go. Stereotypes – generalized images of people such as the sexy blon, the loving mother and untidy teenager. Target audience – people at whom the advertisement aimed Visuals – the picture in an advertisement
  10. 10.  An important news item may be presented as a cartoon. This is a picture, which is drawn sa that a great deal of information is given in a small space on the page. A cleverer cartoon can sum up the content of a long article. Comic strips are stories shown in pictures about characters, such as madam and eve, or animals, such as Garfield the cat. The public becomes familiar with these characters because the comic strips are printed regularly on newspapers and magazines. Cartoons often comment on a political or social event , so the provide satire; comic strips nay be satirical or merely amusing.
  11. 11.  A technique call caricature is used in cartoons to make important public figures. These drawings are not realistic. They exaggerate certain features of people being drawn, so that we recognise the people , but find them funny. A caption is the writing that explains the message of a cartoon. Sometimes the picture is so clear that a caption is unnecessary. Speech bubbles may be used for the words spoken by the cartoon character Straight or wavy lines are used to show movement Cartoons also use symbols, which are pictures that represent abstract qualities. For an example, a picture of a heart can be used to symbolize love. Symbols such as @#!!! Are used to show swearing. The meaning of words in a cartoon may be ambiguous, which means that the words can be interpreted more than one way. Cartoon may also use anticlimax to create humor. This happens when tension is created and we expecting something exciting or important to happen but instead, the ending is very ordinary.