Flu vaccination & vaccine safety for knowledge sharing


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I think this vaccine should be known for the people who are not familier for the health.
What is Vaccine.?
How many type of Influrenza flu.?
I will be happy for the knowledge....Neon Mg Mg

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Flu vaccination & vaccine safety for knowledge sharing

  1. 1. Flu Vaccination & Vaccine Safety
  2. 2. Information • The flu is a respiratory disease that spreads easily. It is caused by an influenza virus. Thousands of people die each year of the flu or its complications. Most of those who die are the elderly, young children, or people with a weakened immune system. How do flu vaccines work? • Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with the viruses that are in the vaccine. • The seasonal flu vaccine protects against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the upcoming season. Traditional flu vaccines (called trivalent vaccines) are made to protect against three flu viruses; an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and an influenza B virus. In addition there are another flu vaccines made to protect against four flu viruses (called “quadrivalent” vaccines). These vaccines protect against the same viruses in the trivalent vaccine as well as an additional B virus.
  3. 3. Availability • 2013-2014 VACCINE • The trivalent vaccine and the quadrivalent vaccine, • The flu vaccine comes in two forms. • THE FLU SHOT • The flu shot contains killed (inactive) viruses. So you cannot get the flu from this type of vaccine. Some people do get a low-grade fever for a day or two after the shot. The flu shot is approved for people age 6 months and older. • A high-dose version of the flu shot can be given to people 65 and older. Flu shots may be injected into the muscle or just below the skin. • THE FLU NASAL SPRAY • The nasal spray flu vaccine uses live, weakened flu viruses. • The spray is approved for healthy people aged 2 through 49 years. • It should not be used in those who have asthma or children under age 5 who have repeated wheezing episodes. • It should not be used in pregnant women. • Vaccines made without eggs are available for people who are allergic to eggs.
  4. 4. How long is my flu vaccination good for? • The flu vaccine will protect you for one flu season. Does the flu vaccine work right away? • It takes about two weeks after vaccination for antibodies to develop in the body and provide protection against influenza virus infection. • In the meantime, you are still at risk for getting the flu. • That's why it's better to get vaccinated early in the fall, before the flu season really gets under way.
  5. 5. How effective is the flu vaccine? • The flu vaccine is the best protection against the flu this season. If you get the flu vaccine, you are 60% less likely to need treatment for the flu by a healthcare provider. Getting the vaccine has been shown to offer substantial benefits including reducing illness, antibiotic use, time lost from work, hospitalizations, and deaths. When should I get the vaccine? • Get the vaccine as soon as it is available in your area. • Flu season usually peaks in January or February, but it can occur as late as May. • Early immunization is the most effective, but it is not too late to get the vaccine in December, January, or beyond.
  6. 6. WHO SHOULD GET THE FLU VACCINE • The flu vaccine should be received at the start of the flu season. • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone,6 months and older, should receive the flu vaccine. People at risk of more serious flu infections should always get a flu vaccine every year. The CDC recommends making an extra effort to vaccinate: • Pregnant women or women who will be pregnant during the flu season. • Children 6 months to 5 years of age, especially those under 2 years of age. • Household contacts and caregivers of children under the age of 6 months, including breastfeeding women. • Health care workers and those who live with health care workers. • People who have chronic lung or heart disease. • People who have sickle cell anemia or other hemoglobinopathies. • People living in a nursing home or extended care facilities. • People living with someone who has chronic health problems. • People who have kidney disease, anemia, severe asthma, diabetes, or chronic liver disease. • People who have a weakened immune system (including those with cancer or HIV/AIDS). • People who take long-term treatment with steroids for any condition. • Persons 9 years and older need a single flu shot each year. Children 6 months to 8 years old should get two shots at least 1 month apart if they are getting the flu vaccine for the first time.
  7. 7. Why do I need a flu vaccine every year? • A flu vaccine is needed every season for two reasons. • First, the body’s immune response from vaccination declines over time, so an annual vaccine is needed for optimal protection. • Second, because flu viruses are constantly changing, the formulation of the flu vaccine is reviewed each year and sometimes updated to keep up with changing flu viruses. For the best protection, everyone 6 months and older should get vaccinated annually.
  8. 8. BENEFITS • Most people are protected from the flu about 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. . RISKS AND SIDE EFFECTS The flu shot • Most people have no side effects from the flu vaccine. Soreness at the injection site, minor aches, or a low grade fever may be present for several days. • As is the case with any drug or vaccine, there is a rare possibility of severe allergic reaction. • The regular seasonal flu shot has been shown to be safe for pregnant women and their babies. The flu nasal spray • Normal side effects of the nasal spray flu vaccine include fever, headache, runny nose, vomiting, and some wheezing. • Although these symptoms sound like symptoms of the flu, the side effects do not become a severe or life-threatening flu infection.
  9. 9. WHO SHOULD NOT GET THE VACCINE • The flu vaccine is not approved for people under 6 months of age. • Some people should not be vaccinated without first talking to their doctor. • In general, you should not get a flu shot if you: • Have a fever or illness that is more than "just a cold“. • Had a moderate to severe reaction like difficult breathing, hives and facial swelling after a previous flu vaccine. • Developed Guillain-Barre syndrome within 6 weeks after receiving a flu vaccine (severe paralysis). • If any of the above applies to you, ask your doctor if a flu vaccine is safe for you. • If you are allergic to chickens or egg protein, ask your doctor if you can safely receive the recombinant vaccine, which is not made from chicken eggs.
  10. 10. Should I get the flu vaccine if I’m not feeling well? • If you are sick with a fever, you should wait until your fever is gone before getting a flu shot. However, you can get a flu shot if you have a respiratory illness without a fever, or if you have another mild illness. • The nasal-spray flu vaccine can be given to people with minor illnesses, such as: • diarrhea • a mild upper respiratory tract infection, with or without a fever. • If you have nasal congestion, you should consider waiting to get the nasal-spray flu vaccine. Nasal congestion may limit the vaccine's ability to reach the nasal lining.
  11. 11. Vaccine Match Will this season's vaccine be a good match for circulating viruses? • It's not possible to predict with certainty which flu viruses will predominate during a given season. Over the course of a flu season, CDC studies samples of flu viruses circulating during that season to evaluate how close a match there is between viruses used to make the vaccine and circulating viruses. In addition, CDC conducts studies each year to determine how well the vaccine protects against illness during that season. • Flu viruses are constantly changing (called “antigenic drift”) – they can change from one season to the next or they can even change within the course of one flu season. Experts must pick which viruses to include in the vaccine many months in advance in order for vaccine to be produced and delivered on time. Because of these factors, there is always the possibility of a less than optimal match between circulating viruses and the viruses in the vaccine.
  12. 12. Can the vaccine provide protection even if the vaccine is not a "good" match? • Yes, antibodies made in response to vaccination with one flu virus can sometimes provide protection against different but related viruses. A less than ideal match may result in reduced vaccine effectiveness against the virus that is different from what is in the vaccine, but it can still provide some protection against influenza illness. • In addition, even when there is a less than ideal match or lower effectiveness against one virus, it's important to remember that the flu vaccine may protect against the other flu viruses included in the vaccine. • For these reasons, even during seasons when there is a less than ideal match, CDC continues to recommend flu vaccination. This is particularly important for people at high risk for serious flu complications, and their close contacts.
  13. 13. How can I report a serious reaction to the vaccine? • Contact your health care provider immediately if you have a serious reaction to the flu vaccine. Your health care provider should report your reaction to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). You can also file a report yourself. All serious reactions should be reported, even if you aren’t sure it was caused by the flu vaccine. VAERS uses this data to help identify serious reactions that may need further investigation.
  14. 14. What role does the Department of Health and Human Services play in the supply and distribution of the seasonal influenza vaccine? • Influenza vaccine production and distribution are primarily private sector endeavors. The Department of Health and Human Services and CDC do not have the authority to control influenza vaccine distribution nor the resources to manage such an effort. However, the Department has made significant efforts to enhance production capacity of seasonal influenza vaccines, including supporting manufacturers as they invest in processes to stabilize and increase their production capacity.
  15. 15. THANK YOU.