Six Blue Data State Of The Art Of mICT 20090630


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"State of the Art of mobile Information-Communication Technology" - presented at Save the Children Health conference at Norwalk, CT 30 June 2009 by David Isaak of Sixblue Data.

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Six Blue Data State Of The Art Of mICT 20090630

  1. 1. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Save the Children USA – June 2009
  2. 2. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Introduction - Personal • Began as volunteer with SC in El Salvador CO after 2003 Boeing lay-off. • Contracted as consultant since 2005. • Conducted assessments and implementations in 19 of our CO’s. (Last was Yemen and West Darfur in Feb. )
  3. 3. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Partnerships: Industry • Microsoft (Win Mobile, Unlimited Potential) • Google (Google Maps, Android) • Nokia (Community Involvement) • Global Relief Technologies. • Numerous cell phone and PDA technology groups.
  4. 4. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Partnerships: Academic Dartmouth College -Tuck School of Business, Center for Digital Strategies Penn State University - Information Sciences and Technology College University of Waterloo – Management of Technology, Dr. Peter Carr
  5. 5. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Partnerships: NGO/NPO • Nethope – member of I4D mobility working group • Save the Children UK/Myanmar PDA and data management project • Family Health International – Zambia PDA project (2008) • MobileActive • Non-Profit Technology Network • Open Source Consortium
  6. 6. Mobile Information-Communication Technology (mICT) 1. What is the current state of mICT? 2. What our donors say about mICT. 3. How has SC used mICT? 4. Choosing the Appropriate mICT 5. Recommendations
  7. 7. What is the Current State of mICT? ICT capabilities have moved to the mobile platform due to: • Rapid advances and availability of hardware and software. • Widespread connectivity options. • Cell phones are experiencing unprecedented adoption
  8. 8. What is the Current State of mICT? “Instead of bringing your work to the computer… take your computer to your work” “Mobile devices are the terminus of an information strategy”
  9. 9. What Is mICT? An UN document published in 20072, described 129 mICT projects in 34 countries. A May 2009 NetHope3 review of mICT in use by NGO’s for Agriculture and Health listed 37 different tools used in 34 separate projects.
  10. 10. What Is mICT?
  11. 11. What is the Current State of mICT? Devices Cell phone Smart Phone Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Netbook Laptop
  12. 12. What Is mICT? Cell Phone
  13. 13. Cell Phones Cheap, ubiquitous, dominated by Nokia and Vodafone Wide cost range from free cell phone (locked) to $500+ Multitude of devices/platform - “complex ecology” Voice-only (usually with SMS) Java-enabled Web-enabled Multitude of providers - constraints (“network access not allowed”). • Limited power (mitigate by solar, auxiliary power) • Limited “off-line” data storage.
  14. 14. Cell Phone Software • Rapidly emerging & competing software development. Immature/unstable. Poor support/documentation (typically user forum).
  15. 15. Cell Phone Software Server-side (desktop) Free/open source: user supported, poorly funded, risk of non-sustainability (FrontlineSMS). Mid-level: high IT skill level w/ assoc. costs (RapidResponse) Enterprise: high cost, confidence of support (few)
  16. 16. Cell Phones Cell Phone Interface Fixed-format SMS: (comma-delimited) - SMS-only. Java (J2ME) Forms: fixed field with defined data types - SMS or GPRS. Web Forms: web-based form optimized for displaying on browser of cell phone - GPRS-only.
  17. 17. Client-side (phone) Fixed Format Short Message System (SMS) • Data “bursts” (160 characters). • Requires manual data delimiters (prone to user error). • High cost. • Risk of provider applying high volume fees. • “Free form”. simple linear data structure. lacks pre-defined data types, field lengths).
  18. 18. Client-side (phone) Java (J2ME, JavaRosa, OpenRosa) Supports pre-defined field types/field lengths and low complexity survey structure. Programmable, uses SMS or GPRS. May require dedicated provider for static cell phone address. Can use GPRS (lowest data transfer cost). Dependable, can integrates with backend web apps (xml).
  19. 19. Client-side (phone) Web Back-end functionality. GPRS data packet costs varies by provider. May require dedicated provider for static web address. Can integrates with enterprise.
  20. 20. What Is mICT? Cell Phone
  21. 21. What Is mICT? Cell Phone
  22. 22. PDA Dominated by Windows Mobile (O/S), and HTC (device). PDA’s will converge with cell phone platform; price will remain stable as functionality increases. Mid-cost ($300- $5,000) - high functionality. O/S integrates with MS tools (SQL CE, .NET). Modular – add GPS, GSM, Camera. Enterprise extensible. Can be ruggedized for severe environments. No longer processor/memory/power limited
  23. 23. PDA Software • Wide range of free to high cost off-the-shelf software. scalable to enterprise (web), network or local client. Good support/documentation (Pendragon).
  24. 24. What Is mICT? PDA
  25. 25. What is the Current State of mICT? Geographic Information Systems (GIS) • GIS are the spatial (maps) integrated with data (database). • Our work is spatially-distributed. • Emerging as one of most significant information systems across a broad range of users.
  26. 26. What is the Current State of mICT? Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Historically dominated by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). ESRI products are: Mature costly (software/training) slow user/project adoption broad user/support base challenging to IT support Wide range of interrelated software modules many smaller GIS groups emerging (Google Maps)
  27. 27. What is the Current State of mICT? Google Maps • Server/mobile client GIS products. • Free and low cost API’s customize for user/agency customization. • Partially open sourced. • Broad developer/user community. • Rapidly customizable (Georgia CO).
  28. 28. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) What are our Donors saying about mICT? Mr. Adam Slote, MD, MPH USAID Senior Health Advisor – June 6th 20095
  29. 29. What are our Donors saying about mICT? ICT Parameters Must have measurable impact on USAID’s health objectives. Must demonstrate superior cost-effectiveness compared to other interventions. Must be sustainable
  30. 30. What are our Donors saying about mICT? Recommended Best Practices: Use technology that is simple, relevant, local. Build on what is already being used. Involve end-users in the design of the solution. Strengthen local capacity to develop, use and maintain the solution. Strengthen ICT monitoring and evaluation [M&E]. Learn from what works and [what] doesn’t, and share those lessons.
  31. 31. mICT in Health How Has SC Used mICT? Early deployments were limited by: Technical issues: hardware - power/memory/processor. software - complex, required high levels of support needs. Non-technical issues: • funding was often mis-directed in the “glitter and exuberance” of new technology. • Lack of prudent project management principles.
  32. 32. mICT in Health How Has SC Used mICT? El Salvador Vietnam Bangladesh Haiti Guatemala Mali Bolivia Guinea Tajikistan Armenia Philippines Malawi Egypt Myanmar Uganda Jordan Pakistan Yemen Sudan
  33. 33. Bangladesh McAid Food Distribution Center
  34. 34. Bangladesh McAid
  35. 35. Bangladesh McAid
  36. 36. Bangladesh McAid
  37. 37. Sahel CO Guinea Field Training – Child Trafficking
  38. 38. Bolivia – Maternal Health Clinic - Village of Milo in Bolivia
  39. 39. How Has SC Used mICT? Challenges Few technical issues – they can be solved/mitigated. • Transfer from paper-based to mobile information systems. Survey form structure and logic definition and agreement - “We are building mobile databases”. • Information management strategy – resource poor (DB vs. spreadsheet culture – Myanmar case study). • Field-level cultural/human context of mobile technology use.
  40. 40. Survey Instrument Logic
  41. 41. Sponsorship Primary Education Program (SPEP) Teacher Interview Form Save the Children Sponsorship Primary Education Program 2007 Standard 4 Data Collection Headteacher Interview School:___________________________ Name of Interviewer: _____________________________ Head’s Name: ________________ __________Sex: 0__Male /1 __Female: School Code: 19/__ __ Standard(s) teaching _____________ What is your highest academic qualification? 1) JCE/ 2) MSCE/ 3) "A” levels/ 4) Other (Specify): ___ What is your professional qualification? 0) TT/ 1) T4/ 2) T3/ 3) T2 /) Other (Specify): ___________ How many teachers are in this school? 1) Male_________2) Female_______ 3) Total_________ How many pupils are in this school? 1) Boys ________ 2) Girls _______ 3) Total__________ Out of the total enrolment that you have, how many of these are orphans vulnerable children (OVC)? 1) Boys________ 2) Girls_______ 3)Total_______ (Allow the teacher to verify). 7. How many in-service training sessions have you attended this school session? 8. List the organizer and the month of each in-service session you have attended 9. How many school based in-service courses have you conducted this school year? ______ 10.How many times has the PEA supervised your school this school session? _____ 11. In the past month, have you observed any teachers’ lessons? 1) ___YES 0) __NO 12. How many times this year have you held staff meetings at this school? _______
  42. 42. SPEP Teacher Interview Form
  43. 43. SPEP Teacher Interview Form
  44. 44. SPEP Teacher Interview Form
  45. 45. SPEP Teacher Interview Form
  46. 46. SPEP Teacher Interview Form
  47. 47. SPEP Teacher Interview Form if answer == Y then goto [ProfQual] Else show [OtherQual] goto [OtherQual] endif
  48. 48. Data Management vs.Spreadsheets
  49. 49. Cultural
  50. 50. Usability
  51. 51. Usability
  52. 52. Usability
  53. 53. Usability
  54. 54. Usability
  55. 55. Technical
  56. 56. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Choosing the Appropriate mICT Choose the “tool” last… "A vendor came to me and showed me a really neat mICT tool that I want to use!"... Do the hard work (requirements) first, or else you will HAVE to do the hard work later. If you do choose the tool first, then: Best scenario: added cost, delay and poor quality to program Worst scenario: resulting failure costing beneficiary lives.
  57. 57. Guatemala Results Framework Indicator Definition – Database Development
  58. 58. Data Management Alternative Alternative Publication Subscription Publication Subscription NOTE: All DB Servers are Publishers. NOTE: PDAs are not Publishers. NOTE: Servers are the Publishers for next Lower level DB locations. NOTE: Subscriptions should be conducted to the immediate higher level DB Servers. Database Central MIS Server District DB Server Upazilla DB Server PDA
  59. 59. Which mICT should I use for my program? This is Difficult! mICT “Tool” Determinants
  60. 60. Choosing the Appropriate mICT mICT “Tool” Determinants This is more Difficult!
  61. 61. Choosing the Appropriate mICT Helping our customers choose the appropriate mICT mICT “Tool” Determinants Evaluate the Terms and factors (zero -> 10) for program needs. (T1f1) + (T2f2) + (T3f3) + (T4f4) + (T5f5) +…. = Solution
  62. 62. Choosing the Appropriate mICT mICT “Tool” Determinants T1 data quality X f1: not important  important T2 survey structure X f2: simple  complex (branching) T3 Information complexity X f3: text-only  data/spatial/image T4 data security X f4: low  high T5 data transfer method X f5: USB  GPRS  SMS VPN T6 power availability X f6: low (car battery/solar)  high
  63. 63. Choosing the Appropriate mICT mICT “Tool” Determinants - Others T7 connectivity X f7: not important  important T8 environmental X f8: mild  severe T9 technical support X f9: low risk  high risk
  64. 64. Choosing the Appropriate mICT mICT “Tool” Determinants Terms and factors define the “tools” (T1f1) + (T2f2) + …. + (T10f10) = Device/Software/Connectivity
  65. 65. Choosing the Appropriate mICT Solution Providers Internal (Westport IT) • High quality • Stable Replicable as common standard across sector/agency. Extended development cycle. Significant Risk: CO level development: contextually valid, but dilutes CO mission.
  66. 66. Choosing the Appropriate mICT Solution Providers External • "turn key" solution. • rapid deployment. • support and development costs transferred to vendor. • prone to not being adaptable to program/sector/CO context. • Evaluate on cost/"fit".
  67. 67. What Is mICT?
  68. 68. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Recommendations 1. Build CO capacity with locally-sustainable solutions. 3. Don’t jump right in – assessment “need” & “fit” 5. Small scale pilots paralleling existing systems articulate value to customer. 7. “If it doesn’t work in the field, then it doesn’t work” 9. Develop common set of hardware/software and support tools 11. emphasize “tool last” design (M&E indicators, data management)
  69. 69. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Recommendations 1. Collaborate with partners; donors (USAID), other NGO’s (seed into Nethope), service providers. Develop a presence -listen/respond. 3. Align/ lead alliance mICT strategies and efforts. 5. Include CO stakeholders – program mangers, IT, M&E, field personnel. 7. Incorporate mICT strategy into sector/CO program "birth" culture (proposal-> on). 9. Develop/integrate information management strategy agency-wide.
  70. 70. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Recommendations Discourage local software development by CO’s - distracts energy/funds from prime mission. Evaluate "best value" business model, agency-wide enterprise- scalable (e.g. M&E common indicators). Evaluate our own “Barriers to Innovation” – address in respect to our mission/ business plan. Evaluate/Adopt Social Media as an element of our business strategy. • watch for the paradigm shift. • listen/learn/participate/change/adapt. • Facebook, Twitter, Second Life (Permits Dept. exp.)
  71. 71. State of the Art of Mobile Technology (mICT) Questions…