Canada’s link to thailand


Published on

A grade 6 student's research project.

Published in: Travel, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Canada’s link to thailand

  1. 1. Canada’s link to Thailand
  2. 2. Maps <ul><li>Thailand is shaped like an elephant </li></ul><ul><li>lies in the south eastern corner of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Myanmar borders the country to the west and northwest </li></ul><ul><li>Laos lies to the east and northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The south-eastern border is shared with Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>a trunk like peninsula reaches southward between the Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia borders Thailand to the south </li></ul><ul><li>fertile farmland, plentiful rain, sunshine, and nice temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand is the 50th largest country in the world; most nearly equal in size to Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Located just 15 degrees north of the equator, Thailand has a tropical climate and temperatures typically range from 19 to 38 degrees C (66-100 F). </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand’s largest peak, Doi Inthanon, is 2,565 meters (8,415 ft) tall. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand covers 510,890 sq km of land and 2,230 sq km of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The coastline of Thailand is 3,219 km long. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand’s longest shared border is with Myanmar (Burma), stretching 1,800 km. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada and Thailand are 7173.32 miles or 11544.02 km apart </li></ul>
  3. 3. Population T hailand’s population is relatively homogeneous, however, this is changing due to immigration. More than 85% speak a Thai language and share a common culture. This core population includes the central Thai (33.7% of the population, including Bangkok’s population), Northeastern Thai or Lao (34.2%), northern Thai (18.8%), and southern Thai (13.3%).
  4. 4. Government Head of State: King Bhumibol Adulyadej Head of Government: Prime Minister, Yingluck Shinwatra Council of Ministries Ministry of Justice Ministry of Transportation and Communications Ministry of Public Health Independent Agencies Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare Ministry of Industry Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Ministry of Education Ministry of Defence Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Interior Office of Attorney General Ministry of University Environment Affairs Secretariats of National Assembly Type of State: Constitutional Monarch Type of Government: Parliamentary Democracy Main Political Parties: Pheu Thai Party, Democrat Party, Bhunjaithai Party, Thai Nation Development Party, National Development Party for the Homeland, Phalang Chon Party Elections: general elections are held every 4 years Last Election: July, 2011 Source: Statistics Canada, September, 2011
  5. 5. HISTORY OF THAILAND 10,000 BC Upper Palaeolithic (the Old Stone Age) period 5000 - 3000BC Neolithic (New Stone Age) period 3000BC - 1000BC Bronze age culture at Ban Chiang 600 B.C. Chinese Thai migration recorded 300 B.C. Indian settlements bringing the Hindu religion 1000 AD The Mons, from Burma, had established themselves in Central Thailand 1150 Suriyavarman II built Angkor Wat in today's Cambodia 1497 July 8 - Vasco da Gama set out on expedidition to India via Africa stopping at Mombasa, Mozambique, Malindi, Kenya, and Quilmana trading centres 1516 Portuguese send an envoy to Thai Court and sign a treaty 1529 - 1569 War with Burma 1571 The Spanish settle in Manila to trade and spread Christianity 1575 - 1650 The Dutch, French, Danish, Arabs, Chinese and British established trade agreements 1833 - 1847 Thai-Vietnam war 1833 - First American envoy to the Thai Court 1905 - Slavery was abolished 1909 - Great Britain establishes protectorates 1914 - 1918 WWI - Thailand joins the Allies 1932 - Revolution and the obsolete monarchy is abolished 1939 - 1945 WWII Thailand declares war on the Allies 1957 – Vietnam War starts 1984-1985 Major recession slow down 1985 – 1994 First place among world nations in economic growth 1991 – 1995 Exports doubled in value 1997 – Devaluing of the Thai currency meant inflation increased and markets became unstable (many people lost a lot of $) 2007 – Thailand’s boom helped rebuild the economy
  6. 6. HISTORY/GOVERNMENT <ul><li>founded in 1238 </li></ul><ul><li>recently a skull was found that dated back 500,000 years and proved the prehistoric creature walked on two legs </li></ul><ul><li>society existed in Thailand that made bronze tool beginning in 4000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Mon and Khmer people entered the region that is present-day Thailand from southern China in 800 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>the Khmer eventually controlled most of Thailand’s central plains and present-day Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>by the A.D. 1000’s, the Thai people began moving from present-day southern China into Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>many Thai settled in the Khmer Empire </li></ul><ul><li>foreigners called the region Syam, or Siam and called the people Siamese </li></ul><ul><li>in 1238, some Thai chieftains revolted against the Khmer rule and established the Sukhothai (soo-KOH-ty) kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>people of Sukhothai began to call themselves Thai or “free” </li></ul><ul><li>one of the chieftains became King Sri Intratit and then his son ruled from 1279-1317 (encouraging trade with other kingdoms and developed a writing system for the Thai language) </li></ul><ul><li>1350, the Thai Kingdom of Ayutthaya (ah-YOO-tah-yah) took c control of Sukhothai </li></ul><ul><li>Ayutthaya became very powerful and was at war with its neighbours many times </li></ul><ul><li>the Burmese conquered the kingdom in 1569 </li></ul>
  7. 7. HISTORY/GOVERNMENT EXPANDED <ul><li>Burmese ruled until 1584 </li></ul><ul><li>by 1584, Thais regained control of Ayutthaya </li></ul><ul><li>trade grew with foreign countries (Portugal, France, Spain, England, and the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Japan and China were allowed to establish settlements within the kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Thais thought the foreigners were gaining too much power within the kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>after 1688, Ayutthaya began to limit its relationship with the foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>in 1767, Burmese troops invaded Ayutthaya, destroyed the city and took control of the kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>in late 1767 Thai military leader Phya Taaksin defeated the Burmese and established a new Thai capital </li></ul><ul><li>King Taaksin rebuilt the country’s economy and defended Siam from further Burmese invasions </li></ul><ul><li>King Taaksin is known today as “King Taaksin the Great” </li></ul><ul><li>in 1782, King Taaksin was overthrown because he was acting strange (some thought he was mentally ill) </li></ul><ul><li>General Chao Phraya Chakri became king and took the name King Rama I, the first king of the Chakri Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama I established a new capital which is Bangkok today </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama II and III continued Siam’s culture and economic success and continued to keep foreign countries from becoming too powerful </li></ul><ul><li>1851, Prince Mongkut became King Rama IV and was a Buddhist monk who studied English, Latin, and science </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama IV signed many treaties that expanded trade and other relations with Western countries </li></ul><ul><li>His son became ruler from 1868-1910 and reorganized the government and established a cabinet to advise the king </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama V also put an end to slavery and introduced a modern school system, built railroads, and telegraphs </li></ul><ul><li>in 1917, under King Rama VI, Siam entered WWII (1914-1918) and sided with France, the UK, and other allies against Germany and Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama VII became king in 1925 when his brother King VI died </li></ul><ul><li>1932 a group of army officials and other seized control of the government and forced the king to change the government to a constitutional monarchy </li></ul>
  8. 8. HISTORY /GOVERNMENT EXPANDED <ul><li>government control passed to elected representatives in a legislature </li></ul><ul><li>a Prime Minister ran the government </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama VII didn’t believe he could successfully serve his country as king, so in 1935 gave up his throne to his 10 year old nephew, Prince Anandha Mahidol (Rama VIII) </li></ul><ul><li>government officials called the Council of Regents ruled the country for the young king </li></ul><ul><li>in 1938, military leader Plaak Phibum Songkhram took office as the Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>the economy suffered in WWII when Japan invaded Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand eventually cooperated with Japan and resented them </li></ul><ul><li>in 1942, a group of officials within Thailand gained the support of the allied countries and began working against the Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>In 1946, a gunshot wound killed King Rama VIII and his brother was crowned King Rama IX in 1950 and is still the king today </li></ul><ul><li>in 1948, Phibun Songkhram seized control and ran the government again as Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>a military dictatorship was formed giving government absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>a series of other military leaders followed Phibun Songkhram from 1948-1973 </li></ul><ul><li>in 1973, Thai university students revolted against the government and demanded democratic rights and an end to military dictatorship and people were able to elect government officials to make laws for the country </li></ul><ul><li>in 1976, the military again seized power and leaders continued to rule until 1991, but people could elect legislative representatives </li></ul><ul><li>in 1991, military leaders took complete control of the government and Thailand’s constitution was replaced with a new consititution and appointed an army general as Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Thai citizens protested, which led to an election in 1992 and a non-military leader was elected as Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>between 1932 and 1997 the military took over Thailand’s government 17 times </li></ul><ul><li>by 1997, the 16 th constitution was written, the first to include a bill of rights guaranteeing equality and basic human rights to all citizens. The constitution is intended to move the center of power away from the military and bureaucracy and toward the elected members of the legislature. It contains guarantees for social welfare and environmental protection and requires the government to report its activities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. BOARD OF INVESTMENTS <ul><li>falls under the Ministry of Industry </li></ul><ul><li>companies/people invest in businesses, which helps Thailand’s economy and relationships with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>foreign investment in Thailand is constantly expanding, supporting the strong economic growth of the country </li></ul>
  10. 10. language The official national language, spoken by almost 100 per cent of the population is, THAI , classified by linguists as belonging to a Chinese-Thai branch of the Sino-Tibetan family. It is a tonal language, uninflected, and predominantly monosyllabic. Most polysyllabic words in the vocabulary have been borrowed, mainly from Khmer, Pali or Sanskrit. Dialects are spoken in rural areas. Principal other languages are Chinese and Malay. English, a mandatory subject in public schools, is widely spoken and understood, particularly in Bangkok and other major cities. Language More than 92% of the population speaks Thai or one of it’s regional dialects. While the Thai language is the official language of Thailand, as a result of its cosmopolitan capital city and established tourism infrastructure, English is spoken and understood throughout much of Thailand
  11. 11. Religion Religion 94.6% of Thais are Buddhist, 4.6% of Thais are Muslim 0.7% of Thais are Christian
  12. 12. Education <ul><li>children attend school for nine years from age 6-14 </li></ul><ul><li>very important to all Thai parents </li></ul><ul><li>government provides free elementary education </li></ul><ul><li>private schools offer free education </li></ul><ul><li>there are more women graduating with college and university degrees than males </li></ul><ul><li>National Teacher’s Day is celebrated every year since 1957, on January 16, to recognize the importance of teachers and show gratitude to them </li></ul><ul><li>the king was given the title of the </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher of the Land </li></ul><ul><li>the king established a school called the </li></ul><ul><li>Chitralada School in 1955, where royal </li></ul><ul><li>children, children of courtiers, and </li></ul><ul><li>children from the general public could </li></ul><ul><li>study together </li></ul><ul><li>a security group developed the Traveling </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers project in 2010 to serve a large </li></ul><ul><li>population of Muslim children to reduce </li></ul><ul><li>suspicion of military officials </li></ul>
  13. 13. Architecture <ul><li>architecture has been traced through surviving stone </li></ul><ul><li>temples </li></ul><ul><li>most early Thai buildings were made of wood </li></ul><ul><li>sandstone was used during the Sukhothai period </li></ul><ul><li>brick replaced stone during the 12 th century (bound with vegetable </li></ul><ul><li>glue, the bricks were laid without mortar and sheathed in curved </li></ul><ul><li>stone) </li></ul><ul><li>later architects used stucco to cover brick walls </li></ul><ul><li>the north had a lot of forests, so wood was used by craftsmen and in temple construction </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese influence is shown in ornamental decoration </li></ul><ul><li>ornamental decoration during the first of the 19 th century, this art/craft reached it’s highest expression </li></ul><ul><li>around 1900, traditional Thai architecture slowed down when buildings were made more in a European style </li></ul><ul><li>recognized and respected globally now for modern, yet traditional designs </li></ul>
  14. 14. FOOD <ul><li>rice is eaten at every meal </li></ul><ul><li>people often eat meals of stir-fry, noodles, broiled fish with sauces, salads of meat, vegetables, and hot soups </li></ul><ul><li>food is seasoned with a range of spices and herbs (including chilli, pepper, lemon grass, ginger, and mint </li></ul><ul><li>hot spicy stewed curries are a favourite dish </li></ul><ul><li>food was influenced by Indian spices and flavours </li></ul><ul><li>urban food stands and mobile carts provide quick meals and snacks </li></ul><ul><li>food stands sell rice, noodle dishes and fruit </li></ul><ul><li>fruit is often served as dessert </li></ul><ul><li>eating alone is considered bad luck and food is not wasted because they think it enrages the God of Rice and famine will happen </li></ul><ul><li>food is artistically presented which is important to Thai culture </li></ul><ul><li>most food is boiled, fried, or stir-fried </li></ul><ul><li>a typical kitchen doesn’t have an oven </li></ul><ul><li>people traditionally sit on the floor to eat from a low table, but more Thais now use Western-style tables and chairs </li></ul><ul><li>generally they eat with a fork and large spoon (held in the right hand), but also use chopsticks which the Chinese introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Thai food is the best presented food in the world and chef’s use ice water to keep food from going brown (oxidizing) </li></ul><ul><li>a steel wok is used to cook food </li></ul><ul><li>there isn’t a starter meal like salad and there isn’t one dish per person (number of people = number of dishes ordered for everyone to share) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Music <ul><li>national anthem was written in 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>music is an important part of life in Thailand since ancient times </li></ul><ul><li>about 50 types of Thai instruments are used at festivals, weddings, funerals, and social gatherings </li></ul><ul><li>in 1982 the Bangkok Symphony Orchestra was established </li></ul><ul><li>popular songs have Thai lyrics played to music borrowed from Western rock </li></ul><ul><li>lyrics deal with romance and often problems of living in the city </li></ul><ul><li>King Bhumibol is internationally known as a fine jazz musician </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>ARTS </li></ul><ul><li>Thai crafts are traditionally done in people’s homes where parents teach their skills to their children at a young age </li></ul><ul><li>ornamental silverwork from Thailand is famous and Artisans cut and shape thin sheets of silver into bowls, boxes, jewellery, desks, tea sets (using nielloware – a system of engraving and treating a piece to emboss, raise or effect), </li></ul><ul><li>other types of art/crafts include painting, sculpturing, pottery, lacquer ware (shiny black sculptures), and silk </li></ul><ul><li>dance dramas are popular in Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>masks and costumes are elaborately decorated </li></ul><ul><li>shadow plays and marionette shows are not often performed today, but puppets are made and sold in craft markets </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>Kings of Thailand have been authors since the early kingdom of Sukhothai </li></ul><ul><li>Thai culture and folklore was written from 1888-1969 (Thai novelist during this century are known by their pen names) </li></ul><ul><li>from literature, Thai dance dramas are performed </li></ul>
  17. 17. SPORTS/ACTIVITIES/EVENTS <ul><li>part of all school programs </li></ul><ul><li>most children participate in table tennis, basketball, gymnastics, volleyball, and track and field </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer is the most popular sport in the nation </li></ul><ul><li>kick boxing </li></ul><ul><li>participate in the international Asian Games </li></ul><ul><li>Bangkok has several sports clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger Woods mother is Thai </li></ul><ul><li>sailing and yachting are popular </li></ul><ul><li>bullfighting (bulls fight one another and people make bets </li></ul><ul><li>Elephant Festival is held in June </li></ul><ul><li>rodeo held every year </li></ul><ul><li>kite flying is popular and a festival is held every year by the palace </li></ul><ul><li>surfing </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese New Year’s </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Day </li></ul><ul><li>Silver lake Music Festival </li></ul><ul><li>Hua Hin International Film Festival </li></ul>
  18. 18. JOBS/INDUSTRY <ul><li>women are an important part of Thailand’s workforce and traditionally are handed down property and make up 70% of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>average income per population is $4,716 </li></ul><ul><li>unemployment rate is 1.0% of the total labour force </li></ul><ul><li>natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture/products: rice, tapioca, rubber, corn, sugar can, coconuts, soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>Industry types: tourism, textiles, garments, agricultural processing, </li></ul><ul><li>cement, integrated circuits, jewellery, electronics, petrochemical, and auto assembly </li></ul><ul><li>jobs are hard to find </li></ul><ul><li>recruiters are not open to hiring foreigners </li></ul><ul><li>many foreigners teach English, but the salary is small </li></ul><ul><li>knowing English opens up more job opportunities (Thai and English for foreigners) </li></ul>
  19. 19. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS ECONOMIC DATA 2011, STATISTICS CANADA ` <ul><li>trade/merchandise exports: automobiles and parts, precious stones and jewellery, refined fuels, rubber and rubber products electronic integrated circuits, polymers of ethylene and propylene, rice, iron and steel and their products, and chemical products </li></ul>Canadian exports to country: $652,017,790 Canadian imports from country: $2,408,024,159 FDI in Canada: $2 million CDI in Thailand: $890 million Thailand Canada GDP: ($ billion) 328.46 1624.26 GDP per capita: ($) 5141.9 47688.92 GDP growth rate: (%) 7.78 3.22 Inflation: (%) 3.27 1.78 Unemployment: (%) 1.04 7.99
  20. 20. FOREIGN AFFAIRS <ul><li>Canada adopted the Anti-Protectionist Pledge at the World Trade Organization in support of free and open trade which will support and strengthen trade/economies </li></ul><ul><li>year 2011 marks the 50 th anniversary of formal diplomatic relations between Canada and Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Canada and Thailand have a healthy relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian efforts today focus on strengthening human rights and good governance </li></ul>Source: Statistics Canada, 2011/2012
  21. 21. Canada’s Merchandise Trade with Thailand, 2010   Canadian Imports from Thailand Canadian Exports to Thailand   Merchandise Classification % Merchandise Classification % 1 Electrical machinery and equipment 27.23 Wood pulp; paper or paperboard scraps 21.70 2 Boilers, mechanical appliances, etc. 14.21 Fertilizers 13.90 3 Prepared food: meat, fish, seafood 9.19 Electrical machinery and equipment 9.85 4 Rubber and rubber articles 7.33 Boilers, mechanical appliances, etc. 8.41 5 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs 5.40 Pearls, precious stones or metals 6.09 6 Pearls, precious stones or metals 4.53 Cereals 5.31 7 Cereals 3.94 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs 3.19 8 Optical, medical, scientific, technical instrumentation 3.18 Lead and lead articles 2.59 9 Iron or steel articles 2.32 Optical, medical, scientific, technical instrumentation 2.53 10 Prepared food: vegetable, fruit, nuts 2.28 Oil seeds and misc. fruit, grain, etc. 2.47             Top 10 as % of total from Thailand 79.60 Top 10 as % of total to Thailand 76.04   Thai imports as % of Cdn total 0.60 Thai exports as % of Cdn total 0.17
  22. 22. Tourism <ul><li>in 2011, Thailand’s tourist industry had a large growth (19 million) after serious flooding in the previous year </li></ul><ul><li>rainy season is June to October </li></ul><ul><li>tourism is a major economic factor </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand lost 310,000 tourists in 2010 due to serious flooding </li></ul><ul><li>tourism plays a key role in providing revenue and employment in the country (contributes 6 percent of the kingdom’s GDP and provides more than 2 million jobs) </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand compete with Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand plans on becoming the hub for Buddhist tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand has mostly a tropical wet and dry climate, while the South and the eastern tip of the East have a tropical monsoon climate </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) - group promoting and campaigning Thailand to attract visitors </li></ul>
  23. 23. Major issues/problems <ul><li>fixing things that were ruined in the tsunami of December 26, 2004, which affected fishing, tourism, business, trades (ultimately their economy) </li></ul><ul><li>transporting food which may be contaminated with E-coli bacteria or species that can be introduced to our environment (spiders, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>flu pandemics </li></ul><ul><li>drug, people, and gun trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>political corruption; political crisis (i.e. the Red Shirt movement) </li></ul><ul><li>terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>child labour </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>homelessness; begging </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding, which affected tourism, business, trades (ultimately their economy </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Tsunami The waves devastated the shores of parts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand and other countries with waves reported up to 15 m high, reaching as far as Somalia on the east coast of Africa, 4500 km west of the epicentre. Refraction and diffraction of the waves meant that the impact of the tsunami was noticed around the world and sea-level monitoring stations in places such as Brazil and Queensland also felt the effect of the tsunami. December 24 , 2004 Source: Department for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Ministry of Interior, Thailand (Figures as of 07 September 2005) Recovery Issues Source: Department for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Ministry of Interior, Thailand Description Figure No. people killed 5,395 No. people missing 2,817 1,972 Thai, 2,248 foreign nationals : 37 countries Bodies still unidentified 1,650 No. of affected people 58,550 Children orphaned (loss of one or both parents) 1,480 Lost livelihoods in fisheries 30,000 Fishing boats destroyed or damaged 7,500 Lost livelihoods in tourism 120,000+ Houses destroyed or badly damaged 4,806 Estimated value of damages (not. inc. housing) 353.4 million USD Thai Government assistance /compensation (as of 01 September 2005) 1.06 billion USD (inc. budget contributions, Prime Minister's Office, bank credit) Relief Fund for Disaster Victims 31.75 million USD UN emergency phase relief assistance 2.6 million USD UN recovery programming (till mid 2006) 38.3 million USD(Figures as of 07 September 2005) Recovery Issues
  25. 25. Sources/Bibliography . web . web web . web McNair, Sylvia. Thailand . New York: Children's, 1998. Print. Boraas, Tracey. Thailand . Mankato, MN: Bridgestone, 2003. Print. &quot;Thailand Tourism Surging Ahead.&quot; Jakarata Post . Web. . web .web . web . web . web web . web “ Foreign investment in Thailand is constantly expanding, supporting the strong economic growth of the country.” Thailand Business News. web Canada Economy 2011; 2011 CIA World Fact Book and other sources, 2012. web Canada. Statistics Canada. Foreign Affairs, 2011.Print. Thailand . 2007. DVD. Schiller, Bill. &quot;Analysis: Thailand's Problems Far from Being Resolved.&quot; The Star [Toronto] 21 May 2010. Print. Http:// . 16 Jan. 2012. web CANADA. Statistics Canada. Foreign Affairs. CANADA ADAPTS ANTI-PROTECTIONIST PLEDGE AT World Trade Organization . 2012. Print.
  26. 26. This was by: CELESTE WATERS