AN IMPROVED FACE TRAVERSAL FOR GEOCASTING IN WIRESS ADHOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS By N.A.P.Sivasubramaniyan, ME-CSE, IInd Year...
Problem Definition <ul><li>GEOCASTING– a task to deliver a message from a source node to all nodes within a given geograph...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
Location Based Routing <ul><li>Every node in network knows its location and its neighbors.  </li></ul><ul><li>Routing made...
Greedy LBR <ul><li>Each node choses the neighbor closest to the destination as next forwarding node.  </li></ul>t s
Greedy LBR <ul><li>Fails when a message gets stuck in a dead end.  </li></ul>t ? s
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
Face Routing Derive a planar graph from the network topology
Face Routing Partition into set of faces……..
Face Routing t s
Face Routing s t
s t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
s t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
s t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
Disadvantage:  High transmission cost Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
Greedy Face Routing <ul><li>Combines greedy LBR and Face Routing.  </li></ul><ul><li>Generally uses greedy routing.  </li>...
Drawback in existing Face Routing
Though x is a direct neighbor of v, message is sent from v to w and then to x, introducing an extra transmission. In dense...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
Geocasting <ul><li>can be easily achieved by flooding the network.  </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Not energ...
Geocasting <ul><li>Class I: </li></ul><ul><li>limits the scope of flooding by creating a restricted forwarding zone. </li>...
Geocasting <ul><li>Class II: </li></ul><ul><li>reduces flooding costs.  </li></ul><ul><li>restricted forwarding zone is in...
Geocasting <ul><li>Class III:  </li></ul><ul><li>phase 1:  message sent from source node to a node in geocasting region.  ...
<ul><li>Some algorithms combine location based unicasting and restricted flooding with face traversal to guarantee message...
<ul><ul><li>RFIFT: Restricted Flooding with Intersected Face Traversal   </li></ul></ul>Phase 1:  Uses GFG to deliver a ge...
s <ul><li>Some concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Potential collision </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery speed </l...
Another Problem in RFIFT <ul><li>In some cases, RFIFT needs to be modified to guarantee message delivery  </li></ul>s Regi...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><...
Broadcasting <ul><li>It is a process to send a message to all nodes in a network.  </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient broadcastin...
Broadcasting <ul><li>based on domain set based algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>a connected domain set(CDS) is defined, such ...
Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Dominating Set - Example
Our Goals <ul><li>Guaranteed message delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Short delivery time </li></ul><ul><li>Low transmission cos...
Proposed Scheme…… Virtual Surrounding Face Geocasting (VSFG) Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Basic Idea of VSF: Virtual Surrounding Face For any two faces that share an edge, if t...
Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Virtual Surround Face (VSF) u v
Overview of VSFG <ul><li>VSFG algorithm based on VSF acheives geocasting with guaranteed message delivery.  </li></ul><ul>...
VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding  </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal  </li></ul><ul><li...
VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding  </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal  </li></ul><ul><li...
VSF Forwarding: A source node transmits a geocasting message containing the specification of the region to a node on the b...
VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding  </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal  </li></ul><ul><li...
VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding  </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal  </li></ul><ul><li...
VSF Traversal: Node which received the message starts double directional face traversal. Thus messages will never collide ...
VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding  </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal  </li></ul><ul><li...
VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding  </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal  </li></ul><ul><li...
VSF Restricted Flooding: Every node on the boundary of VSF performs  DS based Restricted flooding . Vitrual Surrounding Fa...
Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Example of VSF Geocasting s u w
QUERIES…??? Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
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VIRTUAL SURROUNDING FACE GEOCASTING IN WIRELESS AND ADHOC SENSOR NETWORKS

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describes a geocasting technique in wireless adhoc sensor networks. an ieee paper of 2009.

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VIRTUAL SURROUNDING FACE GEOCASTING IN WIRELESS AND ADHOC SENSOR NETWORKS

  1. 1. AN IMPROVED FACE TRAVERSAL FOR GEOCASTING IN WIRESS ADHOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS By N.A.P.Sivasubramaniyan, ME-CSE, IInd Year Guided By Dr. E.Baburaj
  2. 2. Problem Definition <ul><li>GEOCASTING– a task to deliver a message from a source node to all nodes within a given geographic region. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires ensured message delivery with low transmission cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited energy of sensors requires geocasting to consume a little energy as possible . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  4. 4. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  5. 5. Location Based Routing <ul><li>Every node in network knows its location and its neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>Routing made based on destination location and location of neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes don’t maintain routing tables. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Greedy LBR <ul><li>Each node choses the neighbor closest to the destination as next forwarding node. </li></ul>t s
  7. 7. Greedy LBR <ul><li>Fails when a message gets stuck in a dead end. </li></ul>t ? s
  8. 8. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  9. 9. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  10. 10. Face Routing Derive a planar graph from the network topology
  11. 11. Face Routing Partition into set of faces……..
  12. 12. Face Routing t s
  13. 13. Face Routing s t
  14. 14. s t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  15. 15. s t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  16. 16. t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  17. 17. s t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  18. 18. t Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  19. 19. Disadvantage: High transmission cost Face Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  20. 20. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  21. 21. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  22. 22. Greedy Face Routing <ul><li>Combines greedy LBR and Face Routing. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally uses greedy routing. </li></ul><ul><li>When a void is reached, uses Face Routing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Drawback in existing Face Routing
  24. 24. Though x is a direct neighbor of v, message is sent from v to w and then to x, introducing an extra transmission. In dense networks, this may be significant compared with the total number of transmissions for face traversal. Solution: We propose a SKIP method to allow skipping of such nodes. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  25. 25. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  26. 26. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  27. 27. Geocasting <ul><li>can be easily achieved by flooding the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Not energy efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires atleast ‘N’ transmissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Three classes of geocasting algorithms exist. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Geocasting <ul><li>Class I: </li></ul><ul><li>limits the scope of flooding by creating a restricted forwarding zone. </li></ul><ul><li>minimum rectangle containing source and geocasting region is chosen as forwarding zone. </li></ul><ul><li>restricted flooding is performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul><ul><li>forwarding zone larger than geocasting region. Flooding cost don’t go down. </li></ul><ul><li>message delivery not guaranteed. </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  29. 29. Geocasting <ul><li>Class II: </li></ul><ul><li>reduces flooding costs. </li></ul><ul><li>restricted forwarding zone is intelligently flooded. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul><ul><li>message delivery not guaranteed. </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  30. 30. Geocasting <ul><li>Class III: </li></ul><ul><li>phase 1: message sent from source node to a node in geocasting region. </li></ul><ul><li>phase 2: performs restricted flooding. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces transmission cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul><ul><li>message delivery not guaranteed. </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  31. 31. <ul><li>Some algorithms combine location based unicasting and restricted flooding with face traversal to guarantee message delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth First Face Tree Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted Flooding with Intersected Face Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance Zone Multicasting based Geocasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawbacks : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex, longer delivery time, high message cost, potentially series contention. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>RFIFT: Restricted Flooding with Intersected Face Traversal </li></ul></ul>Phase 1: Uses GFG to deliver a geocasting message to a node in geocasting region R. Phase 2: Performs restricted flooding within R and traverses all the faces intersecting R. Each face traversal determined by two nodes: an internal border node an external border node Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  33. 33. s <ul><li>Some concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Potential collision </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery speed </li></ul>RFIFT Basic Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  34. 34. Another Problem in RFIFT <ul><li>In some cases, RFIFT needs to be modified to guarantee message delivery </li></ul>s Region u y y z Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  35. 35. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  36. 36. <ul><li>Location Based Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Face Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Greedy Face Greedy Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Geocasting Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Algorithms </li></ul>Existing Approaches for Routing Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  37. 37. Broadcasting <ul><li>It is a process to send a message to all nodes in a network. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient broadcasting can be modified to reduce the cost of restricted flooding in geocasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><li>high cost, contention, message collision. </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  38. 38. Broadcasting <ul><li>based on domain set based algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>a connected domain set(CDS) is defined, such that for every node in the network, the node either belongs to CDS or has a direct neighbor in CDS. </li></ul><ul><li>flooding performed only by the nodes belonging to the CDS. </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  39. 39. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Dominating Set - Example
  40. 40. Our Goals <ul><li>Guaranteed message delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Short delivery time </li></ul><ul><li>Low transmission cost </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid potential message collisions </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing message complexity of RFIFT </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  41. 41. Proposed Scheme…… Virtual Surrounding Face Geocasting (VSFG) Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  42. 42. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Basic Idea of VSF: Virtual Surrounding Face For any two faces that share an edge, if the shared edge is ignored, the two faces can be merged into one face with a larger area.
  43. 43. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Virtual Surround Face (VSF) u v
  44. 44. Overview of VSFG <ul><li>VSFG algorithm based on VSF acheives geocasting with guaranteed message delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>SKIP algorithm let nodes skip some intermediate nodes during face traversal. </li></ul><ul><li>DS based restricted flooding reduces the number of transmissions. </li></ul><ul><li>RFIFT reduces the transmission cost. </li></ul><ul><li>We assume that all nodes donot change their locations during the geocasting task. </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  45. 45. VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Restricted Flooding </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  46. 46. VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Restricted Flooding </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  47. 47. VSF Forwarding: A source node transmits a geocasting message containing the specification of the region to a node on the boundary of the VSF by LBR or GFG. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  48. 48. VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Restricted Flooding </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  49. 49. VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Restricted Flooding </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  50. 50. VSF Traversal: Node which received the message starts double directional face traversal. Thus messages will never collide . Traversal is also aided by SKIP algorithm to reduce the number of transmissions. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  51. 51. VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Restricted Flooding </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  52. 52. VSFG <ul><li>composed of three tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Forwarding </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Traversal </li></ul><ul><li>VSF Restricted Flooding </li></ul>Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  53. 53. VSF Restricted Flooding: Every node on the boundary of VSF performs DS based Restricted flooding . Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting
  54. 54. Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting Example of VSF Geocasting s u w
  55. 55. QUERIES…??? Vitrual Surrounding Face Geocasting

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