1-> Qualities Of a Tester1 -> Curiosity – Testers want to know how things work. They are experimental. Theywant to see what happens when they try different scenarios or experiments against what hasbeen presented to them.2 -> Other skills analytical, intelligent, fast learner.Creative & imaginative 2-> What is required to find a bug?1 -> Logic, Techniques to be used. 3-> What is cosmetic errors1-> Misspelling . Means which is incorrect. 4-> Why there can be errors in integration testing1-> because code and application interfaces with one another 5-> What is the primary attitude that a tester requires to find a bug1-> They are not trying to prove that software works but they are trying to prove that it does not. 6-> Who are stakekoldersStakeholders are the persons who have interest in. Test stakeholders they are internal stakeholders & externalstakeholdersInternal stakeholders are - Fellow Testers : The people doing the testing work2 -> Test Leads & Manager - The people who paln, manage the testing work & its results3-> Developers, Devt Mgr & Devt Leads - They receive our test results and respond to our findings and make necessarychnages and improvements4-> Project Managers - They are responsible for bringing the product to satisfactory conclusion 7-> Elegant testersElegance means achieving effectiveness & efficiency in a graceful,well executed fashion 7-> Effectiveness,Efficiency & EleganceEffectiveness means testers focus there efforts on imp areas and typical workflows and find whatever bug exist thereEfficient tester means covering critical & typical scenarios and finding imp bugs early in the projectElegant testers means clear reporting of results based on functional areas 8-> To find out effectiveness & eiificiency related to bugs1 -> We use defect detection percentage (DDP)1 - DDP = bugs detected / bugs present
2 - DDP = test bugs / (test bugs + production bugs) prior to UAT & deployment 9->What is COQ1- > Is a technique for measuring the cost of failures . There are 3 main cost associated with testing & quality.1. Cost Of Detection - The testing costs that we would incur even if we found no bugs. For example, performinga quality risk analysis, setting up the test environment, and creating test data are activities that incurs cost of detection2. Cost Of Internal Failure - The testing and development costs that we incur purely because we find bugs. Forexample, filing bug reports, fixing bugs, confirmation testing bug fixes, and regressiontesting changed builds are activities that incur costs of internal failure.3. Cost Of External Failure - The support, testing, development, and other costs that we incur because we don’t deliver100% bug-free, perfect products. For example, much of the costs for technical support orhelp desk organizations and sustaining engineering teams are costs of external failure. 10-> Role Of SQAThe main job of SQA is to define the quality standard of the organization and to ensure that every project follows thequality process 11-> PDCA1) Plan: Define the goal and the plan for achieving that goal.2) Do/Execute: Depending on the plan strategy decided during the planstage we do execution accordingly in this phase.3) Check: Check/Test to ensure that we are moving according to plan andare getting the desired results.4) Act: During the check cycle, if any issues are there, then we take appropriateaction accordingly and revise our plan again
In PDCA in which phase testing fits in -: "Checking" 11-> What is conducted in white box testing1 -> In white box testing we do code reviews, view the archietecture, remove bad code practices, component leveltesting 12-> Difference btwn defect & failureWhat is the difference between a defect and a failure?When a defect reaches the end customer it is called a failure and if the defect is detected internallyand resolved it’s called a defect. 13-> Categories of DefectWrong: The requirements have been implemented incorrectly. This defect is a variance from the given specificationsMissing: There was a requirement given by the customer and it was not done. This is a variance from the specificationsanindication that a specification was not implelemented or a req. of the customer was not noted properlyExtra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer 14 -> Are there more defects in the design phase or in coding phaseThe design phase is more error prone than the execution phase. 60% of defects occur during design and 40%during the execution phase. 15 -> Difference between latent & masked defectsA latent defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure because the exact set of conditions were never metE.g To print an invoice either by laser printer or dot matrix printer. In order to achieve it the application first searches folaser printer. If it finds laser printer it uses laser printer and if it does not find laser printer application will search for dotmatrix printer(DMP) the application prints using or an error is given.Now for whatsoever reason this application never searched for dot matrix printer.So application never got tested forDMPThat means exact conditions were never met for DMP. This is called as latent defectsMasked Defect - an existing defect that hasn’t yet caused a failure just because another defect has prevented that partof the code from being executed. Now the same application has two defects - One defect is in DMP search and other isinDMP print .But because search of DMP fails print of DMP defect is never detected. So print DMP defect is a maskeddefect
16-> Workbench conceptIs a way of documenting how a specific activity has to be performed. A workbench is referred to as phases, steps & taskThere are 5 tasks for every workbench-Input: Every task needs some defined input and entrancecriteria. So for every workbench we need defined inputs.Input forms the first steps of the workbench.Execute: This is the main task of the workbench which willtransform the input into the expected output.Check: Check steps assure that the output after executionmeets the desired result.Production output: If the check is right the productionoutput forms the exit criteria of the workbench.Rework: During the check step if the output is not as desiredthen we need to again start from the execute step.The following figure shows all the steps required for a workbench.
Requirement phase workbench - The input is the customer’s requirements; we execute the task of writing a requiremendocument we check if the requirement document addresses all the customer needs, and the output is the requirementdocument.Design phase workbench: The input is the requirement document, we execute the task of preparing a technicaldocument;review/check is done to see if the design document is technically correct. and addresses all the requirements mentionedin the requirement document and the output is the technical documentExecution phase workbench: This is the actual execution of the project. The input is the technical document; theexecution is nothing but implementation/ coding according to the technical document, and the output of this phase isthe source codeTesting phase workbench : This is the testing phase of the project. The input is the source code which needs to betested;the execution is executing test cases & output is the test resultsDeployment phase workbench: This is the deployment phase. There are two inputs for this phase:one is the source code which needs to be deployed and that is dependent on the test results. The output of this projectis thatthe customer gets the product which he can now start using.Maintenance phase workbench: The input to this phase is the deployment results, execution is implementing changerequests from the end customer, the check part is nothing but running regression testing after every change requestimplementationand the output is a new release after every change request execution. 17-> Defect CascadingDefect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. For instance, in the accounting application shown there ia defectwhich leads to negative taxation. So the negative taxation defect affects the ledger which in turn affects four othermodules.i.e Ledger,Balance Sheet 18-> Pilot
Pilot: The actual production system is installed at a single or limited number of users. Pilot basically means that theproduct is actually rolled out to limited users for real work Here we use real data 19-> Requirement Traceabilityrequirement traceability is one of the important reports that can detail what kind of test coverage the test cases have.RTM - Important functionality from the requirement document are aligned it on the left-hand side. On the other side atthe top, we have mapped the test cases with the requirement. With this we can ensure that all requirements arecovered by our test cases.We can have one or more test cases covering the req. This is called req. coverage 19-> On what basis acceptance test plan is preparedRequirement document: This document specifies what exactly is needed in the project from the customers perspectiveInput from customer: This can be discussions, informal talks, emails, etc. 20-> Difference between web application & client applicationApplication is loaded on server machine while application exe on every client machine.Web application - No exe is installed on client machine.
21-> Difference between regression testing & confirmation testingConfirmation Testing - If we fix a defect in an existing application we use confirmation testing to test if the defect isremoved.Regression Testing - It is very possible because of this defect or changes to the application that other sections of theapplication areaffected. So to ensure that no other section is affected we can use regression testing to confirm this. 22-> What is coverageCoverage is a measurement used in software testing to describe the degree to which the source code is tested 23-> CalibrationMapping of Inventory(Modules) to test cases is called calibration
Features Of Inventories - Add New Policy, Change Address,Delete a customerFeatures to be tested for - Policies,Error Checking,Error & SpeedSuppose we have written test cases for features - Add New Policy, Change Address,Delete a customerFrom the above diagram we come to know that "delete a customer" inventory is not mapped to any test case.In this wawe come to know whether all the aspects of the application in testing is covered. 24-> Which test cases are written first: white boxes or black boxes
Normally black box test cases are written first and white box test cases later. In order to write black box test caseswe need the requirement document and, design or project plan. All these documents are easily available at the initialstart of the project.White box test cases cannot be started in the initial phase of the project because they need more architecture clarity.So normally white box test cases are written after black box test cases are written. 25-> Cohabiting SoftwareWhen we install the application at the end client it is very possible that on the same PC other applications also existIt is also very possible that those applications share common DLLs, resources etc., with your application. There is ahuge chance in such situations that your changes can affect the cohabiting software. So the best practice is after youinstall your application or after any changes tell other application owners to run a test cycle on their application 26-> Test LogIt’s a detailed view of activity and events given in chronological manner. Test Log template consists of 3 things1. ID2.Time3.Activity & Event Entries
27-> Waterfall ModelTwo types - 1: Big Bang Waterfall Model2.Phased Waterfall ModelBig Bang Waterfall Model - It has several stages1. Requirement Stage 2.Design Stage 3. Build Stage 4. Test Stage 5.Deliever StagePhased Waterfall Model - In this model the project is divided into small chunks and delivered at intervals by differentteams. In short, chunks are developed in parallel by different teams and get integrated in the finalproject 28-> Iterative ModelTwo types - 1: Incremental Model2.Spiral Model1-: Incremental Model - In this model work is divided into chunks like the Phase Waterfall model but the differenceis that in the Incremental model one team can work on one or many chunks unlike in the Phase Waterfall model.Evolutionary Model - In the Incremental and Spiral model the main problem is for any changes done in betweenthe SDLC, we need to iterate a whole new cycle.For instance, during the final (deliever) stage if the customerdemands a change we have to iterate the whole cycle again which means we need to update all the previous(requirement, technical documents, source code & test plan) stages.In the Evolutionary model, we divide software into small units whichcan be delivered earlier to the customer’s end. In later stages we evolve the software with new customer needs. 29-> V ModelIn this model testers are involved from the requirement stage itself.
30-> Acceptance & System TestingSystem testing checks that the system that was specified has been deliveredAcceptance testing checks that the system will deliver what was requested. 31-> ECPWe have a scenario where values lie between 20 and 2000
Any values beyond 2000 and below 20 are invalid. In the following scenario the tester has made four test cases:Check below 20 (TC1)Check above 2000 (TC2)Check equal to 30 (TC3)Check equal to 1000 (TC4)Test cases 3 and 4 give the same outputs so they lie in the same partition. In short, we are doing redundant testingBoth TC3 and TC4 fall in one equivalence partitioning, so we can prepare one test case by testing one valuein between the boundary, thus eliminating redundancy testing in projects 32-> State Transition DiagramThe result of a previous input is called a state and transitions are actions which cause the state to change fromone state to another. The arrows signify the transition and the oval shapes signify the states. The first transitionin the diagram is the issue of the cheque that it is ready to be deposited. The second transition is the cheque isdeposited of which we can have two states: either the cheque cleared or it bounced.
32-> Random/Monkey TestingRandom testing is sometimes called monkey testing. In Random testing, data is generated randomly often using atool 33-> Exploratory TestingExploratory testing is simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution.Adhoc testing is unplanned & unstructured
34-> Semi Random Test CasesPerforming random test cases and equivalence partitioning to those test cases which in turnremoves redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases. 35-> Orthogonal Arrays or Pair Wise DefectOrthogonal array is a two-dimensional array in which if we choose any two columns in the array and all thecombinations of numbers will appear in those columns. Lets say we have a scenario in which we need to test a mobilehandset with different plan types, terms, and sizes . Below are the different situations - :Handset (Nokia, 3G and Orange).Plan type (4 x 400, 4 x 300, and 2 x 270).Term (Long-term, short-term, and mid-term).Size (3, 4, and 5 inch).We will also have the following testing combinations:Each handset should be tested with every plan type, term, and sizeEach plan type should be tested with every handset, term, and size.Each size should be tested with every handset, plan type, and term
36-> Decision TablesThey are tables that list all possible inputs and all possible outputs
37-> Difference between testing & debuggingTesting - The purpose of testing is to show that a program has bugsDebugging - The purpose of debugging is find the error or misconception that led to the program’s failure and to designand implement the program changes that correct the error.Debugging follows testing but they differ as to goals,methods, and most important, psychology.Testing can and should be planned, designed, and scheduled. The procedures for, and duration of, debugging cannot beso constrained. 38-> What is Software ProcessA software process is a series of steps used to solve a problem 40-> What is tailoring
Tailoring is changing an action to achieve an objective according to conditions .For example - In a organization there is a process defined that every contract should have a hard copy signed. Butthere can be scenarios in the organization when the person is not present physically, so for those scenarios the contractshould be signed through email. So in short, the process for signing a contract is not bypassed but the process approachis tailored 41-> Implementation & Institutionalization
Implementation - In implementation if the person who implemented the process, leaves the company the process isnot followedInstitutionalized - If the process is institutionalized then even if the person leaves the organization the processis still followed. 42-> Six SigmaThe main purpose is to reduce defects and variations in the processes. We say a process has achieved Six Sigma if thequality is 3.4 DPMO (Defect Per Million Opportunities)DMADV - Is the model for designing processes.DMAIC - Is used for improving the process
The DMADV model includes the following five steps - :1. Define: Determine the project goals and the requirements of customers (external and internal).2. Measure: Assess customer needs and specifications3. Analyze: Examine process options to meet customer requirements4. Design: Develop the process to meet the customer requirements.5. Verify: Check the design to ensure that it’s meeting customer requirementsThe DMAIC model includes the following five steps:1. Define the projects, goals, and deliverables to customers(internal and external).2. Measure the current performance of the process Validate data to make sure it is credible and set the baselines.3. Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects.4. Improve the process to eliminate defects5.Control the performance of the process 43-> Measure & MetricsMeasures are quantitatively unit defined elements, for instance, hours, km,etc.Metrics are basically comprised of more than one measure .For e.g km/hr, m/s etc.