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Oxygen therapy. methods of oxygenation

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this topic is on various methods of oxygenation. includes all the delivery systems as well as the procedure

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Oxygen therapy. methods of oxygenation

  1. 1. BY: MR. M. SHIVANANDHA REDDY
  2. 2. Oxygen Therapy Definition:  Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is essential for the body to function properly and to survive. Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen at a concentration of pressure greater than that found in the environmental atmosphere The air that we breathe contain approximately 21% oxygen. Oxygen therapy is a key treatment in respiratory care.
  3. 3. Purpose The body is constantly taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.  If this process is inadequate, oxygen levels in the blood decrease, and the patient may need supplemental oxygen. The purpose is to increase oxygen saturation in tissues where the saturation levels are too low due to illness or injury.
  4. 4. INDICATIONS: • ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE • ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION • CARDIAC FAILURE • SHOCK • HYPERMETABOLIC STATE INDUCED BY TRAUMA, BURNS OR SEPSIS • ANAEMIA • CYANIDE POISONING • DURING CPR • DURING ANAESTHESIA FOR SURGERY
  5. 5. OXYGEN – A PRESCRIBED DRUG • MUST BE WRITTEN LEGIBLY BY THE DOCTOR • PRESCRIPTION SHOULD BE DATED BY THE DOCTOR • DOCTOR MUST INDICATE DURATION OF O2 THERAPY • THE O2 % CONCENTRATION MUST BE PRESCRIBED • THE FLOW RATE MUST BE PRESCRIBED
  6. 6. Sources of oxygen: 1. Oxygen cylinder. 2. Oxygen wall outlets.
  7. 7. Oxygen cylinder
  8. 8. 1- Using oxygen cylinders: The oxygen cylinder is delivered with a protective cap to prevent accidental force against the cylinder outlet. To release oxygen safety and at a desirable rate, a regulator is used.
  9. 9.  A reduction gauge that shows the amount of oxygen in the tank. A flow meter that regulates the control of oxygen in liters per minutes. Oxygen is moistened by passing it through a humidifier to prevent the mucous membranes of the respiratory tree from becoming dry.
  10. 10. Oxygen key
  11. 11. 2- Wall – outlet oxygen: • The oxygen is supplied from a central source through a pipeline. • Only a flow meter and a humidifier are required.
  12. 12. 2- Wall – outlet oxygen:
  13. 13. Methods of oxygen administration
  14. 14. Oxygen Delivery Systems: 1. Nasal Cannula 2. Simple Mask 3. Partial Re-Breather Mask 4. Non-Re Breather Mask (NRBM) 5. Venturi Mask 6. Oxygen Hood 7. Oxygen Tent 8. AMBU Bag 9. Tracheostomy Collar, 10. T-piece
  15. 15. Methods of oxygen administration: • Nasal cannula (prongs):  It is a disposable, plastic devise with two protruding prongs for insertion into the nostrils, connected to an oxygen source. Used for low-medium concentrations of Oxygen (24-44%).
  16. 16. Nasal cannula (prongs):
  17. 17. Nasal cannula (prongs): Amount Delivered Fio2 (Fraction Inspired Oxygen) Low flow- 24-44 % 1 Lmin=24% 2 Lmin=28% 3 Lmin=32% 4 Lmin=36% 5 Lmin=40% 6 Lmin=44%
  18. 18. Nasal cannula (prongs): Advantages • Client able to talk and eat with oxygen in place • Easily used in home setting • Safe and simple • Easily tolerated • Delivers low concentrations
  19. 19. Nasal cannula (prongs): • Disadvantages: • Unable to use with nasal obstruction • Drying to mucous membranes, so flow greater than 4 L/min needs to be humidified • Can dislodge from nares easily • Causes skin irritation or breakdown over ears or at nares • Not good for mouth breathers • Patient’s breathing pattern affects exact FIO2
  20. 20. Nasal cannula (prongs): NURSING interventions: Be alert for skin breakdown over the ears and in the nostrils from too tight an application Observe for mucosal dryness Check frequently that both prongs are in clients nares
  21. 21. FACE MASK The Simple Oxygen Mask The Partial Re-Breather Mask The Non Re- Breather Mask The Venturi Mask
  22. 22. The simple Oxygen mask Simple mask is made of clear, flexible , plastic or rubber that can be molded to fit the face.  It is held to the head with elastic bands. Some have a metal clip that can be bent over the bridge of the nose for a comfortable fit.
  23. 23. The simple Oxygen mask
  24. 24. The simple Oxygen mask It delivers 35% to 60% oxygen . A flow rate of 6 to 10 liters per minute.  It has vents on its sides which allow room air to leak in at many places, thereby diluting the source oxygen. Often it is used when an increased delivery of oxygen is needed for short periods (i.e., less than 12 hours).
  25. 25. The simple Oxygen mask Advantages: Can provide increased delivery of oxygen for short period of time
  26. 26. The simple Oxygen mask Disadvantages: Tight seal required to deliver higher concentration Difficult to keep mask in position over nose and mouth Potential for skin breakdown (pressure, moisture) Uncomfortable for pt while eating or talking Expensive with nasal tube
  27. 27. The simple Oxygen mask Nursing interventions: • Monitor client frequently to check placement of the mask. • Secure physician's order to replace mask with nasal cannula during meal time
  28. 28. The Partial Re Breather Mask: The mask is with a reservoir bag that must remain inflated during both inspiration & expiration  It collects of part of the patients' exhaled air. It is used to deliver oxygen concentrations up to 80%.
  29. 29. The Partial Re Breather Mask: The oxygen flow rate must be maintained at a minimum of 6 L/min to ensure that the patient does not re-breathe large amounts of exhaled air. The remaining exhaled air exits through vents.
  30. 30. The Partial Re Breather Mask: • Advantages • Client can inhale room air through openings in mask if oxygens supply is briefly interrupted • Disadvantages Requires tight seal (eating and talking difficult, uncomfortable)
  31. 31. The Partial Re Breather Mask: • Priority Nursing Interventions Set flow rate so mask remains two- thirds full during inspiration Keep reservoir bag free of twists or kinks
  32. 32. The Non Re- Breather Mask • This mask provides the highest concentration of oxygen (95-100%) at a flow rate6-15 L/min. • It is similar to the partial re-breather mask except two one-way valves prevent conservation of exhaled air. • The bag has an oxygen reservoir
  33. 33. …….The Non Re- Breather Mask When the patient exhales air the one-way valve closes and all of the expired air is deposited into the atmosphere, not the reservoir bag. In this way, the patient is not re-breathing any of the expired gas.
  34. 34. ……The Non Re- Breather Mask
  35. 35. …..The Non Re- Breather Mask • Advantages Delivers the highest possible oxygen concentration Suitable for pt breathing spontaneous with sever hypoxemia
  36. 36. …….The Non Re- Breather Mask • Disadvantages Impractical for long term Therapy Malfunction can cause CO2 buildup suffocation Expensive Uncomfortable
  37. 37. ……..The Non Re- Breather Mask Priority Nursing Interventions Maintain flow rate so reservoir bag collapses only slightly during inspiration Check that valves and rubber flaps are function properly (open during expiration ) Monitor SaO2 with pulse oximeter
  38. 38. Venturi Mask  It is high flow oxygen delivery device. Oxygen from 40 - 50% At liters flow of 4 to 15 L/min. The mask is constructed so that there is a constant flow of room air blended with a fixed concentration of oxygen
  39. 39. ………Venturi Mask
  40. 40. ………Venturi Mask Designed with wide- bore tubing and various color - coded jet adapters. Each color code corresponds to a precise oxygen concentration and a specific liter flow.
  41. 41. ………Venturi Mask It is used primarily for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  42. 42. ………Venturi Mask • Advantages Delivers most precise oxygen Concentration Doesn’t dry mucous membranes • Disadvantages uncomfortable Risk for skin irritation Produce respiratory depression in COPD patient with high oxygen concentration 50%
  43. 43. ………Venturi Mask •Priority Nursing Interventions • Requires careful monitoring to verify FiO2 at flow rate ordered • Check that air intake valves are not blocked
  44. 44. Oxygen Hood • An oxygen hood is used for babies who can breathe on their own but still need extra oxygen. • A hood is a plastic dome or box with warm, moist oxygen inside. • The hood is placed over the baby's head
  45. 45. ……..Oxygen Hood
  46. 46. Oxygen Tent • An oxygen tent consists of a canopy placed over the head and shoulders, or over the entire body of a patient to provide oxygen at a higher level than normal.
  47. 47. ………Oxygen Tent • Typically the tent is made of see-through plastic material. • It can envelop the patient’s bed with the end sections held in place by a mattress to ensure that the tent is airtight. • The enclosure often has a side opening with a zipper.
  48. 48. ……….Oxygen Tent
  49. 49. AMBU BAG • AMBU- Artificial Manual Breathing Unit (or) Bag Valve Mask Ventilation is a hand-held device commonly used to provide positive pressure ventilation to patients who are not breathing or not breathing adequately.
  50. 50. AMBU BAG
  51. 51. Tracheostomy Collar/ Mask Inserted directed into trachea Is indicated for chronic O2 therapy need O2 flow rate 8 to 10L Provides accurate FIO2 Provides good humidity. Comfortable ,more efficient
  52. 52. ………Tracheostomy Collar/ Mask
  53. 53. T-PIECE Used on end of ET tube when weaning from ventilator Provides accurate FIO2 Provides good humidity
  54. 54. …….T-PIECE
  55. 55. Side Effects & Complication Of Oxygen Therapy Oxygen toxicity Retro lental fibroplasia Absorption atelectasis
  56. 56. Oxygen Toxicity It is a condition which occurs due to inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen for aprolonged period of time. Oxygen concentration greater than 50% over 24 to 48 hours can cause pathological changes in the lungs.
  57. 57. Side Effects & Complication Of Oxygen Therapy Retrolental fibroplasia Blindness due to vasoconstriction & Ischemia ( premature infants )
  58. 58. Side Effects & Complication Of Oxygen Therapy Absorption Atelectasis : During 100% oxygen delivery, nitrogen in alveoli is washed out and replaced by oxygen. In contrast to nitrogen, oxygen is extremely soluble in blood and diffuses very quickly into the pulmonary vasculature, so that not enough gas is left in the alveoli to maintain patency, and the alveolus collapses; this is known as absorption atelectasis
  59. 59. Safety Precautions During Oxygen Therapy • Oxygen is a highly combustible gas. • Although it does not burn spontaneously or cause an explosion, it can easily cause a fire in a patient’s room if it contacts a spark from an open flame or electrical equipment
  60. 60. …….Safety Precautions • Oxygen is a therapeutic gas and must be prescribed and adjusted only with a health care provider’s order. • Place an “Oxygen in Use” sign on the patient’s door and in the patient’s room. • If using oxygen at home, place a sign on the door of the house. • No smoking should be allowed on the premises
  61. 61. …….Safety Precautions • Keep oxygen-delivery systems 10 feet from any open flames. • Determine that all electrical equipment in the room is functioning correctly. • When using oxygen cylinders, secure them so they do not fall over. Store them upright and either chained or secured in appropriate holders. • Check the oxygen level of portable tanks before transporting a patient to ensure that there is enough oxygen in the tank
  62. 62. RationalSteps provide a baseline data for future assessment Oxygen maybe depress the hypoxia drive ( decrease respiratory rate , alliterate mental states *If Paco2 is decrease or normal can use oxygen without fear •Assessment:  Check the physician order.  Assesses physical condition  Assess vital signs ,  Assess level of consciousness  Assess the laboratory results, especially the ABG analyses,  Assess risk of CO2retention with oxygen administration Technique of oxygen administration A-Administering oxygen by nasal cannula:
  63. 63. RationalSteps To prevent infection. *Planning: Wash hands. Prepare equipment Oxygen therapy plastic nasal cannula connection tube, Simple face mask The partial rebreather mask The non rebreather mask The venturi mask
  64. 64. RationalSteps Humidification maybe not be ordered if the flow rate is <4 /l/min Humidifier filled with distilled water . Flow meter No smoking signs
  65. 65. RationalSteps Low flow 1 Lmin=24% 2 Lmin=28% 3 Lmin=32% 4 Lmin=36% 5 Lmin=40% 6 Lmin=44% To facilitate oxygen administration and comfort the patient. To reduce irritation and pressure and protect the skin. Allow 3-5 L oxygen to flow through the tubing. Place the prongs in the patient's nostrils and adjust it comfortably. Use gauze pads both behind the head or the ears and under the chin and tighten to comfort.
  66. 66. RationalSteps To provide optimal delivery of oxygen to patient.. Oxygen dries the mucous membrane and cause irritation Adjust the flow rate to the ordered level. Encourage patient to breath through his nose with his mouth closed. Assess the patient nose and mouth and provide oronasal care at least every 8 hours.
  67. 67. RationalSteps Ensure pt receive flow sufficient to meet aspiratory demand & maintain accurate concentration oxygen face mask Produce the flow rate ( 10 -12 l/min ) Attach the oxygen supply tube to the mask . Regulate the oxygen flow. Position the mask over the patient's nose and mouth. And fit it securely, shaping the metal band on the mask to the bridge of the nose.
  68. 68. RationalSteps To ensure a tight fit. To reduce irritation and pressure and protect the skin.  Adjust the elastic band around the patient's head and tighten. Use gauze pads both behind the head or the ears. Adjust the flow rate to the ordered level.
  69. 69. RationalSteps There is danger of inhaling powder if it is placed on the mask. Remove the mask and dry the skin every 2-3 hours if the oxygen is running continuously.  Don't powder around the mask. Wash your hands.
  70. 70. RationalSteps to ensure correct air / oxygen mix The partial rebreather mask The non rebreather mask The venturi mask Attach tubing to flow meter  Show the mask to pt & explain procedure  Turn on oxygen flowmeter & prescribed rate ( usually indicated on mask )  Place mask over pt nose & mouth under chin
  71. 71. Evaluation: Breathing pattern regular and at normal rate.  pink color in nail beds, lips, conjunctiva of eyes.  No confusion, disorientation, difficulty with cognition. Arterial oxygen concentration or hemoglobin  Oxygen saturation within normal limits.
  72. 72. Documentation: Date and time oxygen started. Method of delivery. Oxygen concentration and flow rate. Patient observation. Add oronasal care to the nursing care plan

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