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Solar cells

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A presentation on Solar Cell Technology And Few of its applications with a few interactive animations.

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Solar cells

  1. 1. PV Cells Siva Karthik R I st Semester RV College OF Engineering CSE
  2. 2.  According to Encyclopaedia Britannica the first genuine solar cell was built around 1883 by Charles Fritts, who used junctions formed by coating selenium (a semiconductor ) with an extremely thin layer of gold.  Russell Ohl - Silicon Solar Cell Light-sensitive electric device US 2402662 A  In 1954, The first modern solar cell was invented at Bell Laboratories
  3. 3. Solar Energy  Solar is the prime free source of inexhaustible energy available to all  India is one of the sun's most favored nations, blessed with about 5,000 TWh of solar insolation every year.  Even if a tenth of this potential was utilized, it could mark the end of India's power problems
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  A photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.  It works on the principal of photoelectric effect  The figure shows a PV Cell made from mono crystalline silicon wafer.
  5. 5. Third Generation PV Cell • Ultra-High Efficiency concepts (>80%) • Ultra-low Cost • Polymer cells with quantum dots or nanostru ctures First Generation PV Cell: • Single crystalline silicon • Multi-junction cell (different band-gap materials) Types Of PV Cells Second Generation PV Cell: • Thin film silicon (amorphous silicon) • CdTe (Cadmium Telluride) • CuInSe2 (Copper Indium Diselenide) First Generation Second Generation Third Generation
  6. 6. ELECTRONICS COMPONENT  Equivalent circuit models define the entire I-V curve of a cell, module, or array as a continuous function for a given set of operating conditions  The following represents the Diode Equivalent Circuit of a Photo Voltaic Cell.  A number of these circuits form a Solar Panel
  7. 7.  Concentrating solar power plants also create electricity using sunlight.  In these plants, there is an intermediate energy carrier: special thermal collectors  They use the heat from the sun to warm a fluid and create steam.  The steam then powers the prime mover of an electric generator, which makes electricity via electromagnetic induction.
  8. 8. • MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) • It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the solar cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions • The Controller for this system is programmed in C language
  9. 9. • Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight Solar cell efficiency ( ) depends on - The total power light power density (JV) on the cell - The actual potential difference of the system - The actual current density of the system - The “fill factor” Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of Open Circuit Voltage Voc and Short-Circuit Current Isc
  10. 10. THE FUTURE  Recently the technology of 3D printable Solar Cells has been developed  You can even fold it up to slip into a pocket, then unfold it and watch it generating electricity again in the sunlight.  Solar energy and 3D printed solar cells are still in the future but closer to being a reality than you originally thought.
  11. 11. References • Direct Monolithic Integration of Organic Photovoltaic Circuits on Unmodified Paper--DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101263 • From Space to Earth: The Story of Solar Electricity By John Perlin • Solarcellinfo.com

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