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Dr.T.Sivakami
Assistant Professor
PG & Research Department of Management Studies
Bon Secours CollegeFor Women
Thanjavur
Operations Research
• Definition
• Models
• Scope
• Phases
• Advantages
• Limitations
• Tools/Techniques in OR
• Characteristics
Operations Research
Definition
• “Operations Research is the art of giving bad answers to problems which otherwise
have worse answers” -T.L.Satty
• “Operations Research is applied decision theory. It uses any scientific, mathematical
or logical means to attempt to cope with the problems that confront thw executive,
when he tries to achieve a thorough- going rationality in dealinig with his decision
problems” -D.W.Miller & M.K.Starr
MODELS OF OPERATION RESEARCH
• Eg: A Child’s toy, A photograph
• A histogram, A schedule of operationsIconic Models
• Graphs and maps in various colours
• Demand curves and flow charts in
production control
Analogue Models
• To represent the components and
relationship between the real system
Mathematical
(Symbolic)Models
Iconic Models
• Iconic models are pictorial representation of real systems and have the
appearance of thereal thing.
• They are “look- like” items to understand and interpret.
• Easy to observe , build and describe, and difficultto manipulate.
Analogue Models
• Analogue models are more abstract than the iconic models.
• Theyare built by utilizing one set of properties to represent another set of properties.
• These models areeasy to manipulate and can represent dynamic situations
• Moreuseful than iconic because to representthe characteristics of the real system under
investigation.
Mathematical( Symbolic) Models
• Most abstract in nature.
• Most general and precise.
• It is notalways possible to depict the real system.
Other Types of Models
Combined
Analogue and
mathematical
Models
Allocation
Models
Function
Models
Sequencing
Models
Quantitative
Models
Network Models
Qualitative
Models
Inventory Models
Simulation
Models
Replacement
Models
Scope of Operation Research
Defence Services
R&D and Engineering
National Planning &
Budgeting
Education & Training
Industrial Sector
Agriculture & Irrigation
Transportation
Home Management & Budgeting
Business Management & Competition
Useful to Financial Controller
Useful to Production
Specialist
Phases of Operations Research
First Phase
Formulating the Problem
Second Phase
Constructing the Model
Third Phase
Deriving the Solution
FourthPhase
Updatingthe Model
Fifth Phase
Controlling the Solution
Sixth Phase
Implementing the Findings
Advantages
Optimum Use of ProductionFactors Preparationof FutureManagers
ImprovedQuality ofDecision
ModificationMathematical
Solutions
AlternativeSolutions
LIMITATIONS
1
• MoneyandTime Cost
• Practical Applications
2
• Not-Realistic
• Reliabilityof the proposedsolution
3
• Implementation
• Complex
• Non-quantifiableFactors
Money andTime Cost:
Operations Research (OR) is very costly. The Basic data is subject to frequent
changes , thecost ofchanging programme manuallyis a costlyaffair.
•Practical Applications:
FormulationofanIndustrialproblem toanOR programme is a difficulttask.
• Not Realistic :
OR experts make very complex models for solving problems. These models may not
be realistic. Hence, theymay not be useful for real-life situations.
• Reliability of the proposedSolution:
A Non-Linear relationship is changed to linear for fitting the problem to linear
programming pattern. This may disturb thesolution.
•Implementation:
Implementation of decisions is a delicate task. It must take into account the
complexitiesof humanrelationsand behaviour.
•Complex :
OR is very complex concept. It is very difficult for an average manager to
understandit.Therefore, most managers donotuse OR techniques.
Tools / Techniques in OR
• Linear Programming:
This is a constrained optimization technique, which optimize some
criterion within some constraints. In Linear programming the
objective function (profit, loss or return on investment) and
constraints are linear.
• Decision Theory:
Decision theory is concerned with making decisions under
conditions of complete certainty about the future outcomes and
under conditions such that we can make some probability about
what will happen in future.
Tools / Techniques in OR
• Game Theory:
This is used for making decisions under conflicting situations where there are one or
more players/opponents. In this the motive of the players are dichotomized. The success
of one player tends to be at the cost of other players and hence they are in conflict.
• Inventory Models:
Inventory model make a decisions that minimize total inventory cost. This model
successfully reduces the total cost of purchasing, carrying, and out of stock inventory.
• Simulation:
Simulation is a procedure that studies a problem by creating a model of the process
involved in the problem and then through a series of organized trials and error solutions
attempt to determine the best solution.
Tools / Techniques in OR
• Non-linear Programming:
This is used when the objective function and the constraints are not
linear in nature. Linear relationships may be applied to approximate
non-linear constraints but limited to some range, because approximation
becomes poorer as the range is extended. Thus, the non-linear
programming is used to determine the approximation in which a solution
lies and then the solution is obtained using linear methods.
• Dynamic Programming:
Dynamic programming is a method of analyzing multistage decision
processes. In this each elementary decision depends on those preceding
decisions and as well as external factors.
Tools / Techniques in OR
• Network Scheduling:
This technique is used extensively to plan, schedule, and monitor large
projects . The aim of this technique is minimize trouble spots (such as
delays, interruption, production bottlenecks, etc.) by identifying the
critical factors. The different activities and their relationships of the
entire project are represented diagrammatically with the help of
networks and arrows, which is used for identifying critical activities and
path. There are two main types of technique in network scheduling, they
are:
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – is used when activities time
is not known accurately/ only probabilistic estimate of time is available.
• Critical Path Method (CPM) – is used when activities time is know accurately.
Tools / Techniques in OR
• Markov Process:
Markov process permits to predict changes over time information about the
behavior of a system is known. This is used in decision making in situations
where the various states are defined. The probability from one state to another
state is known and depends on the current state and is independent of how we
have arrived at that particular state.
• Information Theory:
This analytical process is transferred from the electrical communication field to
O.R. field. The objective of this theory is to evaluate the effectiveness of flow
of information with a given system. This is used mainly in communication
networks but also has indirect influence in simulating the examination of
business organizational structure with a view of enhancing flow of information.
Characteristics of OR
• Inter-disciplinary Team Approach:
Basically the industrial problems are of complex nature and therefore require a
team effort to handle it. This team comprises of scientist/mathematician and
technocrates. Who jointly use the OR tools to obtain a optimal solution of the
problem. The tries to analyse the cause and effect relationship between various
parameters of the problem and evaluates the outcome of various alternative
strategies.
• System Approach:
The main aim of the system approach is to trace for each proposal all
significant and indirect effects on all sub-system on a system and to evaluate
each action in terms of effects for the system as a whole. The interrelationship
and interaction of each sub-system can be handled with the help of
mathematical/analytical models of OR to obtain acceptable solution.
• Use of Computers:
The models of OR need lot of computation and therefore, the use of
computers becomes necessary. With the use of computers it is possible
to handle complex problems requiring large amount of calculations.
• Decision-making:
Every industrial organisation faces multifacet problems to identify best
possible solution to their problems. OR aims to help the executives to
obtain optimal solution with the use of OR techniques. It also helps the
decision maker to improve his creative and judicious capabilities,
analyse and understand the problem situation leading to better control,
better co-ordination, better systems and finally better decisions.
• Scientific Approach:
OR applies scientific methods, techniques and tools for the purpose of
analysis and solution of the complex problems. In this approach there is
no place for guess work and the person bias of the decision maker.
THANK U

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Operations Research

  • 1. Dr.T.Sivakami Assistant Professor PG & Research Department of Management Studies Bon Secours CollegeFor Women Thanjavur Operations Research
  • 2. • Definition • Models • Scope • Phases • Advantages • Limitations • Tools/Techniques in OR • Characteristics Operations Research
  • 3. Definition • “Operations Research is the art of giving bad answers to problems which otherwise have worse answers” -T.L.Satty • “Operations Research is applied decision theory. It uses any scientific, mathematical or logical means to attempt to cope with the problems that confront thw executive, when he tries to achieve a thorough- going rationality in dealinig with his decision problems” -D.W.Miller & M.K.Starr
  • 4. MODELS OF OPERATION RESEARCH • Eg: A Child’s toy, A photograph • A histogram, A schedule of operationsIconic Models • Graphs and maps in various colours • Demand curves and flow charts in production control Analogue Models • To represent the components and relationship between the real system Mathematical (Symbolic)Models
  • 5. Iconic Models • Iconic models are pictorial representation of real systems and have the appearance of thereal thing. • They are “look- like” items to understand and interpret. • Easy to observe , build and describe, and difficultto manipulate.
  • 6. Analogue Models • Analogue models are more abstract than the iconic models. • Theyare built by utilizing one set of properties to represent another set of properties. • These models areeasy to manipulate and can represent dynamic situations • Moreuseful than iconic because to representthe characteristics of the real system under investigation.
  • 7. Mathematical( Symbolic) Models • Most abstract in nature. • Most general and precise. • It is notalways possible to depict the real system.
  • 8. Other Types of Models Combined Analogue and mathematical Models Allocation Models Function Models Sequencing Models Quantitative Models Network Models Qualitative Models Inventory Models Simulation Models Replacement Models
  • 9. Scope of Operation Research Defence Services R&D and Engineering National Planning & Budgeting Education & Training Industrial Sector Agriculture & Irrigation Transportation Home Management & Budgeting Business Management & Competition Useful to Financial Controller Useful to Production Specialist
  • 10. Phases of Operations Research First Phase Formulating the Problem Second Phase Constructing the Model Third Phase Deriving the Solution FourthPhase Updatingthe Model Fifth Phase Controlling the Solution Sixth Phase Implementing the Findings
  • 11. Advantages Optimum Use of ProductionFactors Preparationof FutureManagers ImprovedQuality ofDecision ModificationMathematical Solutions AlternativeSolutions
  • 12. LIMITATIONS 1 • MoneyandTime Cost • Practical Applications 2 • Not-Realistic • Reliabilityof the proposedsolution 3 • Implementation • Complex • Non-quantifiableFactors
  • 13. Money andTime Cost: Operations Research (OR) is very costly. The Basic data is subject to frequent changes , thecost ofchanging programme manuallyis a costlyaffair. •Practical Applications: FormulationofanIndustrialproblem toanOR programme is a difficulttask.
  • 14. • Not Realistic : OR experts make very complex models for solving problems. These models may not be realistic. Hence, theymay not be useful for real-life situations. • Reliability of the proposedSolution: A Non-Linear relationship is changed to linear for fitting the problem to linear programming pattern. This may disturb thesolution.
  • 15. •Implementation: Implementation of decisions is a delicate task. It must take into account the complexitiesof humanrelationsand behaviour. •Complex : OR is very complex concept. It is very difficult for an average manager to understandit.Therefore, most managers donotuse OR techniques.
  • 16. Tools / Techniques in OR • Linear Programming: This is a constrained optimization technique, which optimize some criterion within some constraints. In Linear programming the objective function (profit, loss or return on investment) and constraints are linear. • Decision Theory: Decision theory is concerned with making decisions under conditions of complete certainty about the future outcomes and under conditions such that we can make some probability about what will happen in future.
  • 17. Tools / Techniques in OR • Game Theory: This is used for making decisions under conflicting situations where there are one or more players/opponents. In this the motive of the players are dichotomized. The success of one player tends to be at the cost of other players and hence they are in conflict. • Inventory Models: Inventory model make a decisions that minimize total inventory cost. This model successfully reduces the total cost of purchasing, carrying, and out of stock inventory. • Simulation: Simulation is a procedure that studies a problem by creating a model of the process involved in the problem and then through a series of organized trials and error solutions attempt to determine the best solution.
  • 18. Tools / Techniques in OR • Non-linear Programming: This is used when the objective function and the constraints are not linear in nature. Linear relationships may be applied to approximate non-linear constraints but limited to some range, because approximation becomes poorer as the range is extended. Thus, the non-linear programming is used to determine the approximation in which a solution lies and then the solution is obtained using linear methods. • Dynamic Programming: Dynamic programming is a method of analyzing multistage decision processes. In this each elementary decision depends on those preceding decisions and as well as external factors.
  • 19. Tools / Techniques in OR • Network Scheduling: This technique is used extensively to plan, schedule, and monitor large projects . The aim of this technique is minimize trouble spots (such as delays, interruption, production bottlenecks, etc.) by identifying the critical factors. The different activities and their relationships of the entire project are represented diagrammatically with the help of networks and arrows, which is used for identifying critical activities and path. There are two main types of technique in network scheduling, they are: • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) – is used when activities time is not known accurately/ only probabilistic estimate of time is available. • Critical Path Method (CPM) – is used when activities time is know accurately.
  • 20. Tools / Techniques in OR • Markov Process: Markov process permits to predict changes over time information about the behavior of a system is known. This is used in decision making in situations where the various states are defined. The probability from one state to another state is known and depends on the current state and is independent of how we have arrived at that particular state. • Information Theory: This analytical process is transferred from the electrical communication field to O.R. field. The objective of this theory is to evaluate the effectiveness of flow of information with a given system. This is used mainly in communication networks but also has indirect influence in simulating the examination of business organizational structure with a view of enhancing flow of information.
  • 21. Characteristics of OR • Inter-disciplinary Team Approach: Basically the industrial problems are of complex nature and therefore require a team effort to handle it. This team comprises of scientist/mathematician and technocrates. Who jointly use the OR tools to obtain a optimal solution of the problem. The tries to analyse the cause and effect relationship between various parameters of the problem and evaluates the outcome of various alternative strategies. • System Approach: The main aim of the system approach is to trace for each proposal all significant and indirect effects on all sub-system on a system and to evaluate each action in terms of effects for the system as a whole. The interrelationship and interaction of each sub-system can be handled with the help of mathematical/analytical models of OR to obtain acceptable solution.
  • 22. • Use of Computers: The models of OR need lot of computation and therefore, the use of computers becomes necessary. With the use of computers it is possible to handle complex problems requiring large amount of calculations. • Decision-making: Every industrial organisation faces multifacet problems to identify best possible solution to their problems. OR aims to help the executives to obtain optimal solution with the use of OR techniques. It also helps the decision maker to improve his creative and judicious capabilities, analyse and understand the problem situation leading to better control, better co-ordination, better systems and finally better decisions. • Scientific Approach: OR applies scientific methods, techniques and tools for the purpose of analysis and solution of the complex problems. In this approach there is no place for guess work and the person bias of the decision maker.