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Recent Trends in Ship Design - 2013


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Recent Trends in Ship Design - 2013

  1. 1. Recent Trends in Ship Design – 2013 Presented By -S. Siva Chidambaram Naval Architect / Marine Engineer
  2. 2. The Trends in Ship design mainly undergoes the following phases:  Conversion  Rebuilding  Modernization  Repair  Software Utilization  Necessity of the customer  Change in Design with regard to Cost
  3. 3. Waste Heat Management  There are new ways to recover wa-sted heat in ships, either as electrical power or use it to heat up cargo areas.  Installation of Waste Heat Recovery/Utilization systems while re-taining the ship’s basic design would lead to the above.  Fuel, accounts for a very large part of a ship’s operating costs. Reusing the waste heat from engines to heat up cargo areas, can save up to 20 % of a ship’s total annual fuel consumption, thereby reducing CO2 emissions and saving fuel costs.  In tests, emissions were re-duced up to 14 % by recovering, otherwise wasted heat as electrical power.
  4. 4. Scrubber Systems  Scrubbers are a significant option in the fore coming years.  When the global sulphur limit is enforced in the near future, Ships would be required to run on low sulphur fuel or clean the exhaust continuously.  This will have a significant impact on the scrubbers.  A scrubber system that reduces Particulate matter mainly soot by up to 80% and Sox emis-sions by up to 98 % is available in market which would be more environmental friendly.
  5. 5. LNG  More than 1 in 10 new ship buildings would be delivered with gas fuelled engines in the next 8 years.  The number of liquefied natural gas fuelled ship through 2020 depends heavily on fuel prices.  With LNG prices 10% above HFO, 7-8% of the new buildings will be able to run on LNG.  If LNG prices goes down to 30% below HFO, the uptake of LNG increases to 13%  In extreme case if LNG prices, 70% below HFO, the LNG share on ship building is 30%  The global sulphur limit, if effective beginning in 2020, combined with 20% EEDI reduction requirement will have a significant impact on the implementation of gas fuelled engines.
  6. 6. Exhaust Gas Recirculation IMO Nox  The TIER III compliant engine in ECAs (Emission control Areas) is the main challenge for Nox.  By 2016 approximately 40% of ships built by 2017 will have implemented an Exhaust gas recirculation system(EGR) or selective catalytic reactors system(SCR)  Without a TIER III compliant engine, a ship built after 2016 will not be able to enter the ECA’s
  7. 7. Ballast Water management  The key issue likely to have significant impact on this decade is the implementation of new IMO Ballast water convention.  There have been many cases of alien species being introduced into new environments, with ballast water being a major transfer mechanism in the world today.  Organisms carried away with ballast water can establish themselves in new environments causing dramatic shifts in food webs, chemical cycling, disease outbreaks and indigenous species extinction rates.  The cost of these invasions has been estimated to be in excess of $8 Billion annually in U.S alone. In response to this IMO adopted the ballast water management convention  The convention is unique, that most ships dealing with international trade must have ballast water treatment systems, installed by end of this decade.
  8. 8. The Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention requires:  A ship-specific Ballast Water Management Plan approved by the Administration on board.  A Ballast Water Record Book on board.  Ballast water exchange (Regulation D-1)  An approved ballast water treatment system (Regulation D-2)  An International Ballast Water Management Certificate. Many treatment systems are now available in the market. Physical Treatments  Cavitation and Ultrasound Systems  Thermal Systems  Inert Gas De-oxygenation Systems  Ultraviolet Irradiation (UV) Systems Available are some Chemical treatment plants too……
  9. 9.  Indian - Ministry of Shipping deals with a Project titled ‘Ballast Free Ships’, where the process is as follows. Two huge pipes running throughout the ship’s hull, where water can be pumped in Stored, until the loading is over. Once loading is finished the water is discharged by opening the ends of Pipes.  The minimum treatment efficiency required by IMO is outlined in the D-2 standard and type approval is necessary to demonstrate compliance.  However, such approval is no guarantee that the treatment system will perform well in the areas where the ship will trade. A treatment system that is optimal for one vessel may not be the best solution for another.  Several countries have also established local restrictions on ships calling into their ports or sailing in waters under their jurisdiction - causing confusion and concern in the market.  The careful selection of a treatment system is also important in order to ensure that the system meets the ship-specific requirements, such as ballast water capacity, power limitations, the integration of control systems, etc.
  10. 10. World’s First Zero Emission vessel  The shipping industry is leaning toward the eco-trend with several green ships being made each year.  One such idea that has stood out among these ideas is the one to produce the world’s first ever zero emission vessel- the E/S Orcelle.  Conceptualized by Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, the vessel is to rely on wind, sun and wave energy to run itself, not releasing any emissions into the environment, the highly advanced design of the Orcelle is said to provide optimum cargo space to transport cars and goods round the world.  In design, the Orcelle combines sustainable forms of energy captured through sails, solar panels and wave energy converters to generate the energy required by the vessel.  This is then used to extract hydrogen from water with the aid of fuel cell technology. The resultant fuel is a clean fuel that can then be made use of.
  11. 11.  In this manner, there are zero emissions from the vessel as such. The subsequent electricity generated, can also be used immediately or stored for times of no wind, sun or waves. The only byproduct of this is heat and water.  The vessel is slated to launch in the next 10 years, with the advent of renewable energy resources taking over – around 2025.
  12. 12. Fouling • NOISY SHIPS ARE ATTRACTING MORE HULL-FOULING.  Ships in port running generators are attracting more hull-fouling sea creatures because of the noises they make. Marine fouling, where barnacles, mussels, sponges and algae attach to a ship’s hull, is a huge cost to the shipping industry through increased drag.  Millions of dollars are spent each year controlling fouling on commercial vessels and a lot of it involves applying toxic anti-fouling paint.  Trials with underwater speakers and recording of cruise ships, logging and container ships, and mussel larvae showed the larvae settled on the noisy hulls about 40 percent quicker than the silent hulls.  The scientists are hoping to suggest ways of reducing the underwater noise produced by ships, such as dampening or eliminating sound or switching to shore-based electrical supply when berthed.
  13. 13.  Scientists from the Biomimetics-Innovation-Centre (B-I-C) in Germany have developed a promising new anti-fouling surface that is toxin-free.  The new surface is based on a seed from a species of palm tree that is dispersed by ocean currents.  Suspecting that certain seeds may have specialized surfaces that gave them the ability to remain free of fouling to allow them to disperse further, the researchers floated seeds from 50 species in the North Sea for 12 weeks. At the end of the 12-week period, the seeds of 12 species showed no fouling at all.  They then began, by examining the micro-structure of the seeds’ surfaces, to see if they could translate them into an artificial surface. The seeds they chose to mimic had a hairy- like structure  To create an artificial surface similar to the seeds, the researchers used a silicone base with fibers covering the surface.  This structure might be especially good at preventing fouling because the fibers constantly move, preventing marine organisms from finding a place to settle.
  14. 14. Special Vessel  The special vessel equipped with this topside lifting system (TLS) known as ‘Pieter Schelte’, can lift and transport topsides of offshore platforms with a weight of up to 48,000 tons, all in one piece.  Pieter Schelte is currently being built in South Korea and will be ready for use in early 2014.  To disassemble topsides of offshore platforms, workers would traditionally have to manually disassemble the structure into individual parts whilst at sea – work that is both time consuming and hazardous.  This new vessel will completely lift the platforms from their steel ‘jacket’ and transport them onto land, making disassembly much safer and cost-effective.
  15. 15. Nanotechnology-Lotus Effect  The lotus effect refers to the very high water repellence exhibited by the leaves of the lotus flower. Because these plants have a natural cleaning mechanism and raindrops have almost no contact with the surface.  Water droplets roll off the leaf and take dirt, insects, contaminants, water based adhesives, honey, oil and other substances with them.  This phenomenon has been researched by scientist and can now be reproduced for use as nano coatings.  Time and money can be saved, and cleaning agents become almost redundant.
  16. 16. X-Bow • X -bow is a unique bow design which was introduced by the Ulstein Group of Norway in 2006. Since then the design has received great positive reviews from around the world and is now – 2013, used on several vessels. So how is X-bow design different from a conventional hull design? X Bow Hull Design: X-bow is a “backward sloping bow” or an inverted ship bow design which is used for increasing the fuel efficiency and safety of the vessel at sea. As the name suggests, the inverted bow design has its farthest point at the extreme point of the vessel (towards the waterline) which gives a continuous sharp bow shape to the hull. The sharp design at the extreme front helps the vessel to cut through the waves and improve overall stability, especially in heavy waves.
  17. 17. • The X bow design with its sharp hull does not generate a spray as it cuts through the waves. • As the ship parts the waves efficiently, the wave energy transfer is less and the loss in vessel speed is negligible. • Moreover, as the X bow cuts through the waves instead of pitching over them, there is considerable less amount of green water on the ship’s deck as compared to the ships with conventional hulls. • This also implies that there is almost negligible bow flare and slamming resulting from the same in the front part of the ship.
  18. 18. Software s application in Ship Design  Ship designing is an aspect of ship building that has to be carried out perfectly without any compromise.  There are several ship designing software that have come up in the market to help marine engineers and naval architects to create ships that can be used in any type of water and weather conditions.  The main technology that is used for the purpose of ship designs is CAD – Computer-Aided Design.  CAD software's are used to create virtual ship models first and from them actual ships are manufactured.  NAPA 2011, Maxsurf -16 , Ship constructor, NAVCAD, PROPCAD, AVEVA Marine-12, AUTOSHIP, Autohydro, ORCA3D, Rhino, Multisurf, FastShip, Delftship, Nupas cadmatic, Tribon M3, GHS 13 are software's which provides immense growth in Ship building.
  19. 19. Robotic CNC machines
  20. 20. Green Ships  In International shipping “Green Ship” is mainly associated with the Green Ship Award Program. This design which is environment friendly in ship building is awarded or termed as Green Ship.  Green Ship Initiative, begun in 1999, successfully converting the entire diesel-powered vessel fleet to biofuels and bio-lubricants  Green ships are the answer to fight and control sea and environmental pollution in future  The term would be provided, only when there is  Less hazardous material  Less CO2 Demand  Less Engine Exhaust gas  Low CO2 index (GHG Exhaust)  Prevent oil, noxious liquid pollution  Less sewage and garbage exhaust
  21. 21. Conclusion  A consistent trend change could be always observed for a period of every 8 years in Shipping. But it would be better for our future, if Ship owners and Shipping companies would prefer on eco-friendly trend.  Eco-friendly vessels are projected to see increased demand in 2013, as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has strengthened regulations on CO2 emissions and other environmental issues.  However, the global recession, a hike in fuel prices, and a tightening of the IMOEs Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) should boost demand for eco-friendly vessels.  On the other hand, Ship-owners and shipping companies are not rushing their investments in eco-friendly vessels because of tight financing.  With global merchant ship demand depressed overall, eco-friendly vessels offer little incentive for shipbuilders. As investment paybacks could be delayed given the sluggish market conditions, a large-scale investment does not appear to be an easy decision to make.
  22. 22. Thank You