What is a Cannon and How does it work? The word ‖cannon‖ is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed. The plural of cannon is cannon, the same word, or more commonly in America, cannons. In modern times, cannon has fallen out of common usage, usually replaced by "guns" or "artillery", if not a more specific term, such as "mortar" or "howitzer". In aviation, cannon remains a common term for aircraft guns. CANNONS
A cannon is just a metal tube with a closed end and an open end.The closed end has a small fuse hole. Just the mechanism of acracker.To load the cannon, you pour in gunpowder (a mixture ofcharcoal, sulphur and potassium nitrate) and then drop in acannonball.The gunpowder and cannonball sit in the breech, the rear part ofthe bore (the open space in the cannon).To prepare for a shot, you run a fuse (a length of flammablematerial) through the hole so it reaches down to the gunpowder. Tofire the cannon, you light the fuse. The flame travels along the fuseand finally reaches the gunpowder.When you ignite gunpowder, it burns rapidly, producing a lot of hotgas in the process. The hot gas applies much greater pressure onthe powder side of the cannonball than the air in the atmosphereapplies on the other side. This propels the cannonball out of the gun
Hand Cannons: The first guns were essentially hand cannons -- small tubes that the user loaded with gunpowder and a ball and lit from the outside. Around 1400 AD, hand cannons were fairly common, and people were even using four-barrel hand cannons! You loaded each little cannon separately and lit each one when you needed it. HANDGUN
The hand cannon required two technological improvements to make it into a useful tool: First, it needed a shape that worked for the shooter -- the early hand cannons were essentially sticks that the shooter held in his or her hand. There had to be a good way to light the gunpowder quickly. Wouldnt it be nice if you could fire the gun at the touch of a button (trigger)?Now Came into form ―THE FLINTLOCK‖FLINTLOCK 1857 REVOLTMECHANISM
Flintlock Guns(17th Century) A PIECE OF FLINTLOCK – 17TH CENTURY The basic goal of the flintlock is simple: To create a spark that can light the gunpowder stored in the barrel of the gun. To create this spark, the flintlock uses the "flint and steel" approach. The idea behind flint and steel is straightforward. Flint is an amazingly hard form of rock. If you strike iron or steel with flint, the flint flakes off tiny particles of iron. The force of the blow and the friction it creates actually ignites the iron, and it burns rapidly to form Fe3O4. The sparks that you see are the hot specks of iron burning! If these sparks come near gunpowder, they will ignite it.
The flintlock needs One piece of flint, One piece of steel, One place for the sparks to touch gunpowder.The main parts of a flintlock are: The hammer, which holds and accelerates a piece of flint, The mainspring, which powers the hammer, The frizzen, which is the which is the place where a small piece of steel the flint strikes, The pan, Half-cock the hammer. Pour a measure of gunpowder quantity of gunpowder waits to receive the sparks. down the barrel. Wrap a lead ball (the bullet) in a small piece of cloth or paper and ram it down the barrel on top of the gunpowder. The bullet/cloth combination will have a nice, tight fit. Place a small amount of gunpowder in the flintlocks pan. Snap the frizzen in place over FLINTLOCK MECHANISM the pan. Fully cock the hammer. Pull the trigger to fire the gun.
Later several modifications were carried out on Flintlockmechanism, like protecting the Pan from the Weather. Flintlocks were eventually replaced by a lock and ignition systemcalled the percussion cap. The percussion cap was easier to load, more weather resistant andmore reliable, so by the time of Americas civil war, both Union andConfederate armies used percussion-cap guns exclusively.The percussion cap was made possible by the discovery of achemical compound called mercuric fulminate or fulminate ofmercury. Its chemical formula is Hg(ONC)2 - it is made frommercury, nitric acid and alcohol.The percussion lock did not last very long -- perhaps 50 years. Manufacturing processes were developing rapidly at the time and itbecame possible to integrate the cap, powder and projectile into asingle metal package at low cost. These bullets are what we usetoday!
Pistol - History Samuel Colt (1814 –1862) was an American inventor and industrialist. He was the founder of Colts Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company (now known as Colts Manufacturing Company), and is widely credited with popularizing the Revolver. In 1830, when he was only 16, Samuel Colt left home and took a job on a merchant ship bound for India. In his spare time, he toyed with designs for a new sort of gun -- one that could be fired repeatedly without reloading. Inspired by a capstan mechanism on the ship, Colt developed a simple revolving ammunition cylinder. Initially, people werent particularly impressed with the new weapon; but by the 1850s, Colts company was enjoying phenomenal success. In 1856, he had to churn out 150 guns a day just to keep up with the growing demand!!!!
How does a Pistolwork? very simplest ―pistol‖ would be a hand-held tube. One end of the The tube is capped. There is a small hole in the cap for a fuse. You put gunpowder and a lead ball in the tube and light the fuse to fire it. This is essentially a small hand cannon. The modern incarnation of the hand cannon uses a firecracker for the propellant. Most people prefer a pistol to shoot more than one shot before needing to reload, so the revolver was invented in the 1800s. It typically holds six bullets in a revolving cylinder. Each time you pull the trigger, the cylinder rotates one notch to position the next bullet. The semi-automatic pistol is the next step in pistol evolution. A spring-loaded bolt slides with each shot , ejecting the spent casing and loading a new bullet from the magazine in the handle. In larger handguns, the magazine may be able to hold 15 bullets, and the trigger action is lighter than with a revolver.
A pistol is fired by applying pressure to the trigger. The trigger releases a spring-driven hammer from a cocked position. The hammer, or a firing pin hit by the hammer, strikes the primer in the cartridge. The primer explodes and ignites the powder, which produces gases that propel the bullet through the barrel of the gun.There are three main types of pistols: Single-shot, Revolver Automatic. Single-shot pistols must be reloaded after each shot. These pistols are often used for target shooting and training.
Revolver: A revolver has a cylinder with several chambers, usually six, for cartridges. The cylinder revolves on an axis so that the cartridges can be discharged successively through the same barrel. In a single-action revolver, the hammer is cocked by hand, usually with the thumb. Cocking the hammer revolves the cylinder, bringing a new cartridge into position to be fired. In a double-action revolver, a pull on the trigger revolves the cylinder, cocks the hammer, and releases it to fire. This action requires a strong pull on the trigger and may disturb the aim; for accurate shooting, therefore, many shooters prefer to cock the hammer by hand. Most modern revolvers are of the double-action type.
Automatic Pistols: Automatic pistols are so designated for their automatic loading mechanism, but they are technically semiautomatic in terms of their firing mechanism. They do not fire continuously, but fire one shot each time the trigger is pulled. Automatic pistols have only one chamber. In a typical automatic pistol, the cartridges are held in a magazine, or clip, that fits into the handgrip. A moving part called a slide fits around the barrel and can move back and forth along it. When the slide is moved forward, it carries a cartridge from the magazine to the chamber. When the slide is moved backward, it ejects the empty cartridge case from the chamber and cocks the hammer. The first cartridge is loaded into the chamber by pulling the slide backward manually and releasing it. A spring pulls the slide forward. Thereafter, the recoil produced in firing the gun drives the slide backward automatically after each shot.
What is the use of Bullet Proof Glass An ordinary piece of glass shatters when struck by a single bullet. Bullet resistant glass is designed to withstand one or several rounds of bullets depending on the thickness of the glass and the weapon being fired at it. Bullet-resistant glass is basically made by layering a between pieces of ordinary glass in a process called lamination. polycarbonate material This process creates a glass-like material that is thicker than normal glass. Polycarbonate is a tough transparent plastic -- often known by the brand name Lexan, Tuffak or Cyrolon. Bullet-resistant glass is between 7 mm and 75 mm in thickness.
A bullet fired at a sheet of bullet-resistant glass will pierce the outside layer of the glass, but the layered polycarbonate-glass material is able to absorb the bullets energy and stop it before it exits the final layer. The ability of bullet-resistant glass to stop a bullet is determined by the thickness of the glass. A rifle bullet will collide with the glass with a lot more force than a bullet from a handgun, so a thicker piece of bullet-resistant glass would be needed to stop a rifle bullet as opposed to a handgun bullet.Machine Guns: One of the main differences between different machine gun models is the loading mechanism. The early manual machine guns, such as the Gatling gun, used a device called the ammunition hopper. Hoppers are just metal boxes containing loose individual cartridges that fit on top of the machine gun mechanism. One by one, the cartridges fall out of the hopper and into the breech.
The hopper system was replaced by the belt-fed system, whichhelps control the ammunitions movement into the gun. Ammunitionis contained on a long belt, which the operator holds, or is containedin a bag or box. After a round is fired, it moves out of the way, and anew round slips into place.Another system is the spring-operated magazine. In this system, aspring pushes cartridges in a magazine casing up into the breech.The main advantages of this mechanism are that itsreliable, lightweight and easy to use. The main disadvantage is thatit can only hold a relatively small amount of ammunition.
TorpedosTorpedo, an underwater, self-propelled, explosive weapon that canbe launched from a submarine, a surface ship, an airplane, or ahelicopter. It is a major naval weapon for use against warships, merchantvessels, and submarines. Torpedoes can also be used against fixedtargets, such as harbour installations. Like mines, torpedoes explode below the waterline.Torpedoes designed for use against surface ships generally traveljust below the surface of the water to avoid passing under the hull ofthe target.Those designed for use against submarines can follow and strike atarget at depths of up to 2,500 feet (760 m).Many torpedoes travel at speeds of 40 to 50 knots.Some conventional torpedoes have ranges of less than 2,000 yards(1,800 m); some rocket-assisted torpedoes are capable of strikingtargets more than 10 miles (16 km) away.
A Torpedo is a cigar-shaped device that contains an explosive with adetonating system, a guidance system, and a propulsion system.Torpedoes used by the U.S. Navy are generally from 8 to 21 feet(2.4 to 6.4 m) long and from 10 to 21 inches (25 to 53 cm) indiameter. Their weights range from about 265 pounds to 4,000pounds (120 to 1,800 kg).Most torpedoes contain conventional high explosives; a few carrynuclear warheads. The largest United States torpedoes carry about650 pounds (295 kg) of conventional explosive.
Torpedoes are detonated by contact detonators, which set off the explosive when the torpedo strikes the target, or by magnetic detonators, which set off the explosive when the torpedo enters the magnetic field of a steel ship.Torpedo Boat Destroyer
Torpedoes are guided by any of several systems. The simplest is usedin the straight-running torpedo, which is held on a straight course by agyrocompass and must be aimed in the correct direction at the time it islaunched.Acoustic, or homing, torpedoes guide themselves to their targets bysound. A passive acoustic torpedo follows sounds made by the targetship—usually propeller noises.Most torpedoes are propelled by jet turbines but some use battery-powered electric motors.An active acoustic torpedo is equipped with a sonar device that sendsout sound waves and homes in on the echoes from the target. Wire-guided torpedoes are electrically guided from the attacking vessel andcannot be jammed or driven off course by the target vessel.
Most modern torpedoes are built with more than one guidancesystem; most combine active and passive acoustic homingcapabilities.The United States Mk-48 heavy torpedo has not only active andpassive acoustic homing guidance but also provisions for wireguidance.On most new submarines torpedoes are launched through torpedotubes along the sides near the bow. Older submarines have tubeslocated in the bow and stern.Surface ships launch torpedoes from tubes on the deck.Compressed air is used to propel the torpedo free of the tubesbefore its own propulsion and guidance systems take over
Conclusion ―Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding. . . .‖ - December 14, 1930 – ALBERT EINSTEIN. The Aim of this Paper is to get attention on Personal safety, Quench your thirst on Knowledge.Please ensure safety when trying to create or operate any Gun.