Geography for beginners


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This is just a general overview how wide the study of geography can be.

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Geography for beginners

  1. 1. GEOGRAPHY Just the basics Dr. Sivabala Naidu
  2. 2. Academic Traditions  1. 2. 3. 4. Consists of four academic traditions: Spatial Tradition – study of distribution. Area Studies Tradition –study of an area on Earth Human-Land Tradition – study of human interactions with the environment. Earth Science Tradition –study of natural phenomena from a spatial perspective.
  3. 3. History of Geography  Stretches over many centuries  Main purpose was to map locations and describe places and regions to explorers  According to historical records, the Greeks were the first to practice geography; one of the first Greek geographers was Herodotus
  4. 4. Elements of Geography There are six elements in the study of geography:  The World in Spatial Terms  Places and Regions.  Physical Systems.  Human Systems  Environment and Society  The uses (of Geography)
  5. 5. Branches of Geography     Human and Physical Geography Environmental Geography Geomatics Regional Geography
  6. 6. Components of Human Geography  Cultural geography  Political geography  Population geography  Urban geography  Economic geography  Behavioral geography  Social geography
  7. 7. Components of Physical Geography  Geomorphology: the study of the surface of the Earth and the process by which it is shaped  Pedology: the study of soils in its natural environment  Biogeography: the science that investigates the spatial relationships of plants and animals
  8. 8. Components of Physical Geography (continued)  Hydrology: the study of fresh water in all its forms  Climatology: the study of the climate  Oceanography: the study of the Earth’s seas and oceans  Glaciology: the study of glaciers and ice sheets  Palaeogeography: the study of the distribution of the continents through geologic time
  9. 9. Environmental Planning  Environment - refers to the physical and biological systems which provide our basic life support  The scientific study of the environment began around the seventeenth century  Came about from our awareness of the negative impact on the environment
  10. 10. Environmental Issues  Climate change  Overpopulation  Pollution  Environmental degradation  Resource depletion
  11. 11. Environmental Planning   Environmental planning is concerned with a society’s responsibility over resources Elements of Environmental Planning: sustainable development, equity, environmental justice, green building technologies, and preservation of environmentally sensitive areas
  12. 12. Environmental Planning Process  Legislative planning framework  Administrative planning framework  Environmental resource management planning  Landscape ecological planning  Ecological urban planning  Information dissemination  Decision making
  13. 13. Natural Resource Management  Activities that focus on improving human interaction with the natural environment  Congruent with the concept of sustainable development  Sustainable development: resource use which aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment
  14. 14. Elements of Sustainable Development
  15. 15. Natural Resource Management Implementation Strategies 1. 2. Environmental governance:institutional frameworks, laws, policies and incentive mechanisms that form a system of governance over natural resources Knowledge sharing and learning networks: a tool for disseminating best practices in resource management