I

Rules for Classification and Construction
Ship Technology

1

Seagoing Ships

1

Hull Structures

Edition 2013
The following Rules come into force on 1 May 2013.
Alterations to the preceding Edition are marked by beams at the text ma...
Rules
Part
Chapter

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Ship Technology
Seagoing Ships
Hull Structures

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
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Hull Structures

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0.85 × D

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forw...
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k =1

for R eH = 235 N / ...
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Material classes...
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Plates subje...
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If no heel stiffe...
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End attach...
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Gl i 1-1-e

  1. 1. I Rules for Classification and Construction Ship Technology 1 Seagoing Ships 1 Hull Structures Edition 2013
  2. 2. The following Rules come into force on 1 May 2013. Alterations to the preceding Edition are marked by beams at the text margin. Germanischer Lloyd SE Head Office Brooktorkai 18, 20457 Hamburg, Germany Phone: +49 40 36149-0 Fax: +49 40 36149-200 headoffice@gl-group.com www.gl-group.com "General Terms and Conditions" of the respective latest edition will be applicable (see Rules for Classification and Construction, I - Ship Technology, Part 0 - Classification and Surveys). Reproduction by printing or photostatic means is only permissible with the consent of Germanischer Lloyd SE. Published by: Germanischer Lloyd SE, Hamburg
  3. 3. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents Table of Contents Section 1 A B C D E F General, Definitions General .......................................................................................................................... Note for Vibrations and Noise ........................................................................................ Rounding-Off Tolerances ............................................................................................... Regulations of National Administrations ........................................................................ Direct Calculations ......................................................................................................... Specific Programs related to Rules ................................................................................ Section 2 A B C D E General .......................................................................................................................... Hull Structural Steel for Plates and Sections ................................................................. Forged Steel and Cast Steel .......................................................................................... Aluminium Alloys ............................................................................................................ Austenitic Steels ............................................................................................................. General .......................................................................................................................... Structural Members ........................................................................................................ Effective Breadth of Plating ............................................................................................ Proof of Buckling Strength ............................................................................................. Structural Details ............................................................................................................ Evaluation of Notch Stress ............................................................................................. Corrosion Additions ........................................................................................................ Testing of Watertight and Weathertight Compartments ................................................ 1 2 7 7 8 3- 1 3- 2 3- 11 3- 12 3- 24 3- 28 3- 30 3- 31 Design Loads General .......................................................................................................................... External Sea Loads ........................................................................................................ Loads on Inner Decks .................................................................................................... Loads on Tank Structures .............................................................................................. Design Values of Acceleration Components .................................................................. Section 5 A B C D E 22222- Design Principles Section 4 A B C D E 1 5 5 5 6 7 Materials Section 3 A B C D E F G H 111111- 4- 1 4- 4 4- 10 4- 12 4- 13 Longitudinal Strength General .......................................................................................................................... Design Loading Conditions ............................................................................................ Loading Guidance Information ....................................................................................... Global Loads on the Ship's Hull and Design Stresses ................................................... Design Verification ......................................................................................................... Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd 5- 1 5- 4 5- 6 5- 8 5- 18 Page 1–3
  4. 4. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents Section 6 A B C D E F G H I Shell Structures General ......................................................................................................................... Bottom Plating ............................................................................................................... Side Shell Plating .......................................................................................................... Strengthening of Bottom Forward ................................................................................. Strengthenings in Way of Propellers and Propeller Shaft Brackets, Bilge Keels .......... Openings in the Shell Plating ........................................................................................ Bow Doors and Inner Doors .......................................................................................... Side Shell Doors and Stern Doors ................................................................................ Bulwark ......................................................................................................................... Section 7 A B C D E Decks General ......................................................................................................................... Strength Deck ............................................................................................................... Lower Decks ................................................................................................................. Decks in way of superstructures ................................................................................... Helidecks and helicopter landing areas ........................................................................ Section 8 A B C D E F G General ......................................................................................................................... Single Bottom ................................................................................................................ Double Bottom .............................................................................................................. Bottom Structure in Machinery Spaces in Way of the Main Propulsion Plant ............... Sea chests .................................................................................................................... Transverse Thrusters .................................................................................................... Docking Calculation ...................................................................................................... General ......................................................................................................................... Transverse Framing ...................................................................................................... Bottom-, Side- and Deck Longitudinals, Side Transverses ........................................... 8- 1 8- 2 8- 4 8- 10 8- 12 8- 13 8- 14 1010101010- 1 2 4 5 6 11111111111111- 1 2 3 3 5 5 6 Watertight Bulkheads General ......................................................................................................................... Bulkhead plating ............................................................................................................ Stiffeners ....................................................................................................................... Primary supporting members ........................................................................................ Watertight longitudinal structures .................................................................................. Corrugated bulkheads ................................................................................................... Shaft Tunnels ................................................................................................................ Edition 2013 9- 1 9- 2 9- 7 Deck Beams and Supporting Deck Structures General ......................................................................................................................... Deck Beams and Girders .............................................................................................. Pillars ............................................................................................................................. Cantilevers .................................................................................................................... Hatchway Girders and Girders Forming Part of the Longitudinal Hull Structure ........... Section 11 A B C D E F G 1 1 6 8 9 Framing System Section 10 A B C D E 77777- Bottom Structures Section 9 A B C 6- 1 6- 2 6- 4 6- 6 6- 7 6- 9 6- 10 6- 19 6- 22 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–4
  5. 5. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents Section 12 A B C D E F G H I General .......................................................................................................................... Scantlings ....................................................................................................................... Tanks with Large Lengths or Breadths .......................................................................... Vegetable Oil Tanks ....................................................................................................... Detached Tanks ............................................................................................................. Potable Water Tanks ..................................................................................................... Swash Bulkheads ........................................................................................................... Fuel and Lubricating Oil Tanks in Double Bottom .......................................................... Tanks for heated liquids ................................................................................................. Section 13 A B C D E B C 1 2 3 8 8 14- 1 14- 4 14- 5 14- 6 14- 8 14- 13 14- 18 14- 23 14- 23 14- 23 14- 25 14- 25 Strengthening for Navigation in Ice Requirements for the Notations E1 - E4 ........................................................................ 15- 8 Requirements for the Notation E .................................................................................... 15- 20 Section 16 A B C D E F G H I J 1313131313- Rudder and Manoeuvring Arrangement General .......................................................................................................................... Structural details ............................................................................................................ Materials ......................................................................................................................... Rudder Force and Torque .............................................................................................. Scantlings of the Rudder Stock ...................................................................................... Rudder Couplings .......................................................................................................... Rudder Body, Rudder Bearings ..................................................................................... Design Yield Moment of Rudder Stock .......................................................................... Stopper, Locking Device ................................................................................................ Propeller Nozzles ........................................................................................................... Devices for Improving Propulsion Efficiency .................................................................. Fin Stabilizers ................................................................................................................. Section 15 12- 1 12- 2 12- 8 12- 9 12- 9 12- 10 12- 10 12- 10 12- 11 Stem and Sternframe Structures General .......................................................................................................................... Stem ............................................................................................................................... Sternframe ..................................................................................................................... Propeller Brackets .......................................................................................................... Elastic Stern Tube .......................................................................................................... Section 14 A B C D E F G H I J K L Tank Structures Superstructures and Deckhouses General .......................................................................................................................... Strengthenings at the ends of superstructures and deckhouses ................................... Transverse structure of superstructures and deckhouses ............................................. Side Plating and Decks of Superstructures ................................................................... Superstructure End Bulkheads and Deckhouse Walls .................................................. Decks of Short Deckhouses .......................................................................................... Elastic Mounting of Deckhouses .................................................................................... External Funnel Walls .................................................................................................... Breakwater ..................................................................................................................... Recommendations regarding deckhouse vibration ........................................................ Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd 16- 1 16- 2 16- 2 16- 3 16- 4 16- 4 16- 5 16- 9 16- 9 16- 11 Page 1–5
  6. 6. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents Section 17 A B C D General ......................................................................................................................... Hatch Covers ................................................................................................................ Hatch Coamings and Girders ........................................................................................ Weather tightness of hatch cover systems ................................................................... Section 18 A B C D E F G H A B C A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P 20- 1 20- 5 20- 11 Hull Outfit General ......................................................................................................................... Partition Bulkheads ....................................................................................................... Ceiling ........................................................................................................................... Side Scuttles, Windows and Skylights .......................................................................... Scuppers, Sanitary Discharges and Freeing Ports ....................................................... Air Pipes, Overflow Pipes, Sounding Pipes ................................................................... Ventilators ..................................................................................................................... Stowage of Containers .................................................................................................. Lashing Arrangements .................................................................................................. Car Decks ..................................................................................................................... Life Saving Appliances .................................................................................................. Signal and Radar Masts ................................................................................................ Loading and Lifting Gear ............................................................................................... Guard-Rails ................................................................................................................... Smaller Openings and Hatches .................................................................................... Engine and Boiler Room Hatchways ............................................................................. Edition 2013 19- 1 19- 2 19- 15 Fatigue Strength General ......................................................................................................................... Fatigue Strength Analysis for Free Plate Edges and for Welded Joints using Detail Classification ................................................................................................................. Fatigue Strength Analysis for Welded Joints Based on Local Stresses ....................... Section 21 18- 1 18- 2 18- 3 18- 5 18- 6 18- 7 18- 10 18- 13 Welded Joints General ......................................................................................................................... Design ........................................................................................................................... Stress Analysis .............................................................................................................. Section 20 17- 1 17- 4 17- 16 17- 19 Equipment General ......................................................................................................................... Equipment numeral ....................................................................................................... Anchors ......................................................................................................................... Chain Cables ................................................................................................................. Chain Locker ................................................................................................................. Mooring Equipment ....................................................................................................... Towing Equipment ........................................................................................................ Towing and Mooring Arrangement Plan ........................................................................ Section 19 A B C Cargo Hatchways Germanischer Lloyd 21- 1 21- 1 21- 2 21- 2 21- 5 21- 9 21- 12 21- 13 21- 14 21- 14 21- 16 21- 16 21- 19 21- 19 21- 20 21- 24 Page 1–6
  7. 7. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents Section 22 A B C D E F G General .......................................................................................................................... Passenger Ships carrying more than 36 Passengers .................................................... Passenger Ships carrying not more than 36 Passengers .............................................. Passenger Ships with 3 or more Main Vertical Zones or with a Load Line Length of 120 m and over .......................................................................................................... Cargo Ships of 500 GT and over ................................................................................... Oil Tankers of 500 GT and over .................................................................................... Helicopter Decks ............................................................................................................ Section 23 A B C D E F G H I J A B C D E 23- 1 23- 3 23- 4 23- 10 23- 11 23- 15 23- 26 23- 30 23- 31 23- 35 24- 1 24- 4 24- 9 24- 9 24- 12 24- 13 24- 14 24- 15 24- 17 24- 18 24- 18 24- 19 24- 19 24- 20 24- 22 24- 23 Tugs General .......................................................................................................................... Materials ......................................................................................................................... Hull Structures ................................................................................................................ Towing Gear / Towing Arrangement .............................................................................. Steering Gear / Steering Arrangement .......................................................................... Edition 2013 22- 38 22- 39 22- 50 22- 54 Tankers General .......................................................................................................................... Arrangement .................................................................................................................. Superstructures .............................................................................................................. Equipment ...................................................................................................................... Corrosion Protection ...................................................................................................... Access to Spaces in the Cargo Area ............................................................................. Minimum Plate Thicknesses in Cargo and Ballast Tanks within the Cargo Area .......... Strength of Girders and Transverses in the Cargo Tank Area ...................................... Oiltight Longitudinal and Transverse Bulkheads ............................................................ Wash Bulkheads ............................................................................................................ Hatches .......................................................................................................................... Structural Details at the Ship's End ................................................................................ Ships for the Carriage of Dry Cargo or Oil in Bulk ......................................................... Product List 1 ................................................................................................................. Product List 2 ................................................................................................................. Additional Requirements for Tankers in Shuttle Service ................................................ Section 25 22- 1 22- 2 22- 23 Bulk Carriers, Ore Carriers and Ships with Strengthenings for Bulk Cargo and Heavy Cargo General .......................................................................................................................... Strengthenings for Bulk Cargo and Heavy Cargo .......................................................... Bulk Carriers .................................................................................................................. Ore Carriers ................................................................................................................... Allowable hold loading, considering flooding ................................................................. Evaluation of Scantlings of Corrugated Transverse Watertight Bulkheads in Bulk Carriers Considering Hold Flooding ............................................................................... Harmonised Notations and Corresponding Design Loading Conditions for Bulk Carriers .......................................................................................................................... Fitting of a Forecastle for Bulk Carriers, Ore Carriers and Combination Carriers ......... Transport of Steel Coils in Multi-Purpose Dry Cargo Ships ........................................... Strengthening within the working range of grabs ........................................................... Section 24 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Structural Fire Protection Germanischer Lloyd 2525252525- 1 1 2 3 9 Page 1–7
  8. 8. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents F G H I Anchoring / Mooring Equipment .................................................................................... Weather tight integrity and stability ............................................................................... Escape routes and safety measures ............................................................................. Additional Requirements for Active Escort Tugs ........................................................... Section 26 A B C D E A B C D A B C D E F A B C D E F A B C D E F 292929292929- 1 1 1 2 2 3 303030303030- 1 1 1 2 2 3 313131313131- 1 1 2 2 3 3 Barges and Pontoons General ......................................................................................................................... Longitudinal Strength .................................................................................................... Watertight Bulkheads and Tank Bulkheads .................................................................. Structural Details at the Ends ........................................................................................ Pushing and Towing Devices, Connecting Elements .................................................... Equipment ..................................................................................................................... Edition 2013 28- 1 28- 4 28- 20 Ships for Sheltered Water Service General ......................................................................................................................... Deck Load ..................................................................................................................... Shell Plating .................................................................................................................. Watertight Bulkheads and Tank Bulkheads .................................................................. Deck Openings .............................................................................................................. Equipment ..................................................................................................................... Section 31 27- 1 27- 2 27- 11 27- 15 Work Ships General ......................................................................................................................... Shell Plating and Frames .............................................................................................. Weather Deck ............................................................................................................... Superstructures and Deckhouses ................................................................................. Access to Spaces .......................................................................................................... Equipment ..................................................................................................................... Section 30 1 1 1 2 2 Stability of Cargo Ships General ......................................................................................................................... Intact Stability ................................................................................................................ Damage Stability ........................................................................................................... Section 29 2626262626- General Arrangement General ......................................................................................................................... Subdivision .................................................................................................................... Arrangement ................................................................................................................. Accessibility ................................................................................................................... Section 28 A B C Passenger Ships General ......................................................................................................................... Superstructure ............................................................................................................... Materials for Closures of Openings ............................................................................... Pipe Lines ...................................................................................................................... Side Scuttles and Windows ........................................................................................... Section 27 25- 9 25- 10 25- 10 25- 11 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–8
  9. 9. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Table of Contents Section 32 A B C D E F G H I J K General .......................................................................................................................... Principal Dimensions ..................................................................................................... Longitudinal Strength ..................................................................................................... Shell Plating ................................................................................................................... Bottom Structure ............................................................................................................ Hopper and Well Construction ....................................................................................... Box Keel ......................................................................................................................... Stern Frame and Rudder ............................................................................................... Bulwark, Overflow Arrangements .................................................................................. Split Hopper Barges ....................................................................................................... Equipment ...................................................................................................................... Section 33 A B C Special Requirements for In-Water Surveys Corrosion Protection 353535353535353535- 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 Load Line Marks Load Line Marks of GL ................................................................................................... Annex B A Strengthening against Collisions General Instructions ....................................................................................................... Shop Primers ................................................................................................................. Hollow Spaces ............................................................................................................... Combination of Materials ............................................................................................... Fitting-Out and Berthing Periods .................................................................................... Corrosion Protection of Ballast Water Tanks ................................................................. Corrosion Protection of Cargo Holds ............................................................................. Corrosion Protection of the Underwater Hull ................................................................. Corrosion Protection of Crude Oil Cargo Tanks ............................................................ Annex A A 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 6 6 7 8 General .......................................................................................................................... 34- 1 Special Arrangements for In-Water Surveys ................................................................. 34- 1 Documents and Trials .................................................................................................... 34- 2 Section 35 A B C D E F G H I 3232323232323232323232- General .......................................................................................................................... 33- 1 Calculation of the Deformation Energy .......................................................................... 33- 2 Computation of the Critical Speed ................................................................................. 33- 4 Section 34 A B C Dredgers and Hopper Barges A- 1 Ice Class Draught Marking Ice Class Draught Marking of GL ................................................................................... Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd B- 1 Page 1–9
  10. 10. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions Section 1 A B C D E F General, Definitions General ....................................................................................................................... 1-1 Note for Vibrations and Noise..................................................................................... 1-5 Rounding-Off Tolerances............................................................................................ 1-6 Regulations of National Administrations ..................................................................... 1-6 Direct Calculations ...................................................................................................... 1-6 Specific Programs related to Rules ............................................................................ 1-7 A General A.1 Application A.1.1 Unless specially mentioned in specific Sections, the requirements of the Sections of this Chapter apply to all seagoing steel ships classed 100A5 whose breadth to depth ratio is within the range common for seagoing ships and the depth H of which is not less than: • L / 16 for unlimited range of service and RSA (200) (Restricted Service Area) • L / 18 for RSA (50), RSA (20) • L / 19 for RSA (SW) Smaller depths may be accepted if proof is submitted of equal strength, rigidity and safety of the ship. A.1.2 Ships deviating from the Construction Rules in their types, equipment or in some of their parts may be classed, provided that their structures or equipment is found to be equivalent to the Society's requirements for the respective class. A.1.3 Passages of this chapter printed in italics contain recommendations and notes which are not part of the Classification Rules. A.2 References A.2.1 Application, characters of classification and class notations For application, characters of classification and class notations see the GL Rules for Classification and Surveys (I-0), Section 2. A.2.2 International Conventions and Codes A.2.2.1 code(s): Paragraphs of this section are based on the following international convention(s) and / or IACS UR S2 Rev.1 IACS UR S21A ICLL containing all amendments up to 1st July 2010 MARPOL 73/78 containing all amendments up to 1st February 2012 IBC Code containing all amendments up to 1st January 2009 IGC Code containing all amendments up to 1st July 2008 At the end of each relevant paragraph of this section, the corresponding paragraphs of the international convention(s) and / or code(s) are given in brackets. A.2.2.2 lows: Where reference is made of international Conventions and Codes these are defined as fol- Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–1
  11. 11. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions ICLL International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, as amended. MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 including the 1978 Protocol as amended. SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended. IBC Code International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk as amended. IGC Code International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk as amended. IMSBC Code International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code. A.3 Definitions A.3.1 Parameters Considering the range of application, definitions of parameter are made at different locations of this chapter as follows: • parameters only used in one paragraph are defined in the specific paragraph • parameters used in more than one paragraph of the same section are defined at the beginning of the specific section • parameters used in more than one section are defined in the following paragraphs A.3.1.1 Principal dimensions Length L The length L [m] is the distance in metres on the summer load waterline from the fore side of the stem to the centre of the rudder stock. L is not to be less than 96 % and need not be greater than 97 % of the extreme length of the summer load waterline. In ships with unusual stern and bow arrangement, the length L will be specially considered. (IACS UR S2.1) Length Lc The length Lc [m] is to be taken as 96 % of the total length on a waterline at 85 % of the least moulded depth Hc measured from the top of the keel, or as the length from the fore side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline, if that be greater. For ships without a rudder stock, the length Lc is to be taken as 96 % of the waterline at 85 % of the least moulded depth. In ships designed with a rake of keel the waterline on which this length is measured is to be parallel to the designed waterline. Where the stem contour is concave above the waterline at 85 % of the least moulded depth, both the forward terminal of the total length and the fore side of the stem respectively shall be taken at the vertical projection to the waterline of the aftermost point of the stem contour (above that waterline) (see Fig. 1.1). (ICLL Annex I, I, 3(1); MARPOL 73/78 Annex 1, 1.19; IBC Code 1.3.19 and IGC Code 1.2.23) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–2
  12. 12. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions 0.85 × D Section 1 forward terminal of the total length (FP) Fig. 1.1 Length Lc in case of concave stern contour Forward perpendicular F.P. The forward perpendicular coincides with the foreside of the stem on the waterline on which the respective length L or Lc is measured. Breadth B The breadth B [m] is the greatest moulded breadth of the ship. Depth H The depth H [m] is the vertical distance, at the middle of the length L, from the base line to top of the deck beam at side on the uppermost continuous deck. In way of effective superstructures the depth is to be measured up to the superstructure deck for determining the ship's scantlings. Depth Hc The moulded depth Hc [m] is the vertical distance measured from the top of the keel to the top of the freeboard deck beam at side. In wood and composite ships the distance is measured from the lower edge of the keel rabbet. Where the form at the lower part of the midship section is of a hollow character, or where thick garboards are fitted, the distance is measured from the point where the line of the flat of the bottom continued inwards cuts the side of the keel. In ships having rounded gunwales, the moulded depth is to be measured to the point of intersection of the moulded lines of deck and sides, the lines extending as though the gunwale were of angular design. Where the freeboard deck is stepped and the raised part of the deck extends over the point at which the moulded depth is to be determined, the moulded depth is to be measured to a line of reference extending from the lower part of the deck along a line parallel with the raised part. (ICLL Annex I, I, 3(5)) Draught T The draught T [m] is the vertical distance at the middle of the length L from base line to freeboard marking for summer load waterline. For ships with timber load line the draught T is to be measured up to the freeboard mark for timber load waterline. Frame spacing a The frame spacing a [m] will be measured from moulding edge to moulding edge of frame. Block coefficient CB Moulded block coefficient at load draught T, based on length L. CB = moulded volume of displacement [m3 ] at T L⋅B⋅T (IACS UR S2.2) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–3
  13. 13. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions Ship's speed v0 Maximum service speed [kn], which the ship is designed to maintain at the summer load line draught and at the propeller RPM corresponding to MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating). In case of controllable pitch propellers the speed v0 is to be determined on the basis of maximum pitch. A.3.1.2 Material properties Yield strength ReH The yield strength ReH [N / mm2] of the material is defined as the nominal upper yield point. In case of materials without a marked yield point, the proof stress Rp is to be used instead. See also Section 2, D, Section 2, E and Principles and Test Procedures (II-1-1), Section 2, D. Tensile strength Rm Rm [N/mm2] is the minimum tensile strength of the material. See also Principles and Test Procedures (II1-1), Section 2, D. Proof stress Rp The proof stress Rp [N / mm2] is the stress that will cause a specified permanent extension of a specimen of a tensile test. The specified permanent extension is denoted in the index. • Rp0.2 = 0.2 % proof stress • Rp1.0 = 1.0 % proof stress See also Principles and Test Procedures (II-1-1), Section 2, D. Young's modulus E : Young's modulus [N / mm2], defined as: E E = 2.06 ⋅105 for mild and higher strength structural steels E = 0.69 ⋅105 A.3.2 N / mm 2 N / mm 2 for aluminium alloys Decks Bulkhead deck Bulkhead deck is the deck up to which the watertight bulkheads are carried. Freeboard deck 1. The freeboard deck is normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to weather and sea, which has permanent means of closing all openings in the weather part thereof, and below which all openings in the side of the ship are fitted with permanent means of watertight closing. 2. Lower deck as a freeboard deck At the option of the owner and subject to the approval of the Administration, a lower deck may be designated as the freeboard deck provided it is a complete and permanent deck continuous in a fore and aft direction at least between the machinery space and peak bulkheads and continuous athwartships. For details of the definition, see ICLL. (ICLL Annex I, I, 3(9)) Strength deck The strength deck is: • the uppermost continuous deck which is forming the upper flange of the hull structure • a superstructure deck which extends into 0.4 L amidships and the length of which exceeds 0.15 L • a quarter deck which extends into 0.4 L amidships Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–4
  14. 14. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions Weather deck All free decks and parts of decks exposed to the sea are defined as weather deck. Lower decks Starting from the first deck below the uppermost continuous deck, the decks are defined as 2nd, 3rd deck, etc. Superstructure decks The superstructure decks situated immediately above the uppermost continuous deck are termed forecastle deck, bridge deck and poop deck. Superstructure decks above the bridge deck are termed 2nd, 3rd superstructure deck, etc. A.3.3 Position of hatchways, doorways and ventilators For the arrangement of hatches, doors and ventilators the following areas are defined: • Position 1 ◦ on exposed freeboard decks ◦ on raised quarter decks ◦ on the first exposed superstructure deck above the freeboard deck within the forward quarter of Lc • Position 2 ◦ on exposed superstructure decks aft of the forward quarter of Lc located at least one standard height of superstructure above the freeboard deck ◦ on exposed superstructure decks within the forward quarter of Lc located at least two standard heights of superstructure above the freeboard deck (IACS UR S21A 1.2.2) B Note for Vibrations and Noise B.1 Mechanical vibrations Operating conditions which are encountered most frequently should be kept free as far as possible from resonance vibrations of the ship hull and individual structural components. Therefore, the exciting forces coming from the propulsion plant and pressure fluctuations should be limited as far as possible. Beside the selection of the propulsion units particular attention is to be given to the ship's lines including the stern post, as well as to the minimisation of possible cavitation. In the shaping of the bow it should be kept in mind that a large flare above the waterline will not only cause very high local slamming pressures, but will also excite increasingly whipping vibrations of the ship's hull. If critical excitation loads cannot be eliminated, appropriate measures are to be taken on the basis of theoretical investigations at an early design stage. For example, the risk of large global and local structural vibrations can be minimized by a global or local vibration analysis, respectively, to be conducted during the steel structures design phase. Limit values for vibrations aboard ships may be assessed under several aspects. If the application of other national or international rules or standards is not mandatory, the following guidelines and regulations are recommended: Vibration load to the crew: • measurement and analysis techniques according to ISO 6954, ed. 2000 • limit values according to ISO 6954, depending on ship type and location within the ship. (the GL Service Group Vibration is ready to provide support to this activity) • ships flying the German Flag according to the Guidelines of the Accident Prevention Regulations of BG Verkehr Dienststelle Schiffssicherheit (BG Verkehr Ship Safety Division) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–5
  15. 15. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions • inconvenience to passengers due to ship vibrations for the GL Class Notation Harmony Class according to the Harmony Class – Rules on Rating Noise and Vibration for Comfort, Cruise Ships (v ≤ 25 kn) (I-1-16) • vibrations of machinery, installations and other equipment according to Machinery Installations (I-12), Section 1 B.2 Noise Suitable precautions are to be taken to keep noises as low as possible particularly in the crew's quarters, working spaces, passengers' accommodation, etc. Attention is drawn to regulations concerning noise level limitations, if any, of the flag administration. C Rounding-Off Tolerances Where in determining plate thicknesses in accordance with the provisions of the following Sections the figures differ from full or half mm, they may be rounded off to full or half millimetres up to 0.2 or 0.7; above 0.2 or 0.7 mm they are to be rounded up. If plate thicknesses are not rounded the calculated required thicknesses is to be shown in the drawings. The section moduli of profiles usual in the trade and including the effective width according to Section 3, C and Section 3, D may be 3 % less than the required values according to the rules for dimensioning of this chapter. D Regulations of National Administrations For the convenience of the user of these Rules several Sections contain for guidance references to such regulations of national administrations, which deviate from the respective rule requirements of this Society but which may have effect on scantlings and construction. These references have been specially marked. Compliance with these regulations of national administrations is not conditional for class assignment. E Direct Calculations E.1 In order to increase the flexibility in the structural design of ships GL also accepts direct calculations with computer programs. The aim of such analyses should be the proof of equivalence of a design with the rule requirements. E.2 For such calculation the computer model, the boundary condition and load cases are to be agreed upon with GL. The calculation documents are to be submitted including input and output. During the examination it may prove necessary that GL perform independent comparative calculations. E.3 The choice of computer programs according to "State of the Art" is free. The programs may be checked by GL through comparative calculations with predefined test examples. A generally valid approval for a computer program is, however, not given by GL. E.4 services: GL is prepared to carry out the following calculations of this kind within the marine advisory E.4.1 Strength Linear and/or non-linear strength calculations with the FE-method: For an automated performance of these calculations, a number of effective pre- and post processing programmes is at disposal: Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–6
  16. 16. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures General, Definitions • calculation of seaway loads as per modified strip method or by 3D-panel method • calculation of resultant accelerations to ensure quasi-static equilibrium • calculation of composite structures • evaluation of deformations, stresses, buckling behaviour, ultimate strength and local stresses, assessment of fatigue strength E.4.2 Vibrations Calculation of free vibrations with the FE-method as well as forced vibrations due to harmonic or shock excitation: • global vibrations of hull, aft ship, deckhouse, etc. • vibrations of major local components, such as rudders, radar masts, etc. • local vibrations of plate fields, stiffeners and panels • vibrations of simply or double-elastically mounted aggregates A number of pre- and post processing programs is available here as well for effective analyses: ◦ ◦ calculation of propeller excitation (pressure fluctuations and shaft bearing reactions) ◦ calculation of hydrodynamic masses ◦ graphic evaluation of amplitude level as per ISO 6954 recommendations or as per any other standard ◦ E.4.3 calculation of engine excitation (forces and moments) noise predictions Collision resistance Calculation of the structure's resistance against collision for granting the additional class notation COLL according to Section 33. F Specific Programs related to Rules F.1 General GL has developed the computer program "POSEIDON" as an aid to fast and reliable dimensioning a hull's structural members according to GL Rules, and for direct strength calculations. F.2 POSEIDON POSEIDON includes both the traditional dimensioning as well as the automatic optimisation of scantlings by means of direct calculations according to the FE-method. POSEIDON is supported on PCs by Microsoft Windows , and a hotline has been set up to assist users. Further information is available via the GL-homepage, at inspection offices world-wide and at GL Head Office. F.3 GL RULES and Programs GLRP is available on CD-ROM. It includes the wording of GL-Rules and an elementary program for dimensioning the structural members of the hull. GLRP can be used together with POSEIDON. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 1–7
  17. 17. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials Section 2 A B C D E Materials General ....................................................................................................................... 2-1 Hull Structural Steel for Plates and Sections .............................................................. 2-2 Forged Steel and Cast Steel....................................................................................... 2-7 Aluminium Alloys......................................................................................................... 2-7 Austenitic Steels ......................................................................................................... 2-8 A General A.1 References International conventions and codes Paragraphs of this section are based on the following international convention(s) and / or code(s): IACS UR S4 Rev.3 IACS UR S6 Rev.6 At the end of each relevant paragraph of this section, the corresponding paragraphs of the international convention(s) and / or code(s) are given in brackets. A.2 Definitions Normal strength hull structural steel Normal strength hull structural steel is a hull structural steel with yield strength ReH of 235 N / mm2 and a tensile strength Rm of 400 – 520 N / mm2. Depending of their toughness properties, normal strength hull structural steel is grouped into the following grades: • GL–A • GL–B • GL–D • GL–E Higher strength hull structural steels Higher strength hull structural steel is a hull structural steel, the yield and tensile properties of which exceed those of normal strength hull structural steel. According to the GL Rules for Metallic Materials (II-1), for three groups of higher strength hull structural steels the yield strength ReH has been fixed at 315, 355 and 390 N / mm2 respectively. Depending of their toughness properties, higher strength hull structural steel is grouped into the following grades: • GL–A 32 / 36 / 40 • GL–D 32 / 36 / 40 • GL–E 32 / 36 / 40 • GL–F 32 / 36 / 40 In Table 2.1 – Table 2.7 the grades of the higher strength hull structural steels are marked by the letter "H". Material Factor k The material factor k is to be determined by the following formulae: Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–1
  18. 18. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials k =1 for R eH = 235 N / mm 2 k = 0.78 for R eH = 315 N / mm 2 k = 0.72 for R eH = 355 N / mm 2 k = 0.66 for R eH = 390 N / mm 2 k= 295 R eH + 60 for 235 < R eH < 390 N / mm 2 and ReH ≠ 315 or 355 N / mm2 (IACS UR S4) B Hull Structural Steel for Plates and Sections B.1 General B.1.1 All materials to be used for the structural members indicated in the Construction Rules are to be in accordance with the GL Rules for Metallic Materials (II-1). Materials the properties of which deviate from these Rule requirements may only be used upon special approval. B.1.2 In general ships are to be made out of normal and higher strength hull structural steels. According to B.1.1 higher strength hull structural steel with yield strength in the range of 235 < ReH < 390 N / mm2 and ReH ≠ 315 or 355 N / mm2 may be accepted upon special approval. B.1.3 Where structural members are completely or partly made from higher strength hull structural steel, a suitable Notation will be entered into the ship's certificate. B.1.4 In the drawings submitted for approval it is to be shown which structural members are made of higher strength hull structural steel. These drawings are to be placed on board in case any repairs are to be carried out. B.2 Material selection for the hull B.2.1 Material classes and grades For the material selection for hull structural members material classes and grades as given in Table 2.1 are defined. For structural members not specifically mentioned in Table 2.1, grade A / AH material may generally be used. However, GL may require also higher grades depending on the stress level. The steel grade is to correspond to the as-built plate thickness when this is greater than the rule requirement. (IACS UR S6.1) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–2
  19. 19. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 Table 2.1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials Material classes and grades for ships in general Structural member category Material class / grade Secondary: A1. Longitudinal bulkhead strakes, other than that belonging to the Primary category • Class I within 0.4 L amidships • Grade A / AH outside 0.4 L amidships A2. Deck plating exposed to weather, other than that belonging to the Primary or Special category A3. Side plating Primary: B1. Bottom plating, including keel plate • Class II within 0.4 L amidships B2. Strength deck plating, excluding that belonging to the Special category • Grade A / AH outside 0.4 L amidships B3. Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck, excluding hatch coamings B4. Uppermost strake in longitudinal bulkhead B5. Vertical strake (hatch side girder) and uppermost sloped strake in top wing tank Special: C1. Sheer strake at strength deck 1 • Class III within 0.4 L amidships C2. Stringer plate in strength deck 1 • Class II outside 0.4 L amidships C3. Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead, excluding deck plating in way of inner-skin bulkhead of double-hull ships 1 C4. Strength deck plating at outboard corners of cargo hatch openings in container carriers and other ships with similar hatch opening configurations • Class I outside 0.6 L amidships • Class III within 0.4 L amidships • Class II outside 0.4 L amidships • Class I outside 0.6 L amidships • Min. Class III within cargo region C5. Strength deck plating at corners of cargo hatch openings in bulk carriers, ore carriers, combination carriers and other ships with similar hatch opening configurations C6. Bilge strake in ships with double bottom over the full breadth and length less than 150 m 1 • Class III within 0.6 L amidships • Class II within rest of cargo region • Class II within 0.6 L amidships • Class I outside 0.6 L amidships • Class III within 0.4 L amidships C7. Bilge strake in other ships 1 • Class II outside 0.4 L amidships • Class I outside 0.6 L amidships C8. Longitudinal hatch coamings of length greater than 0.15 L C9. End brackets and deck house transition of longitudinal cargo hatch coamings 1 • Class III within 0.4 L amidships • Class II outside 0.4 L amidships • Class I outside 0.6 L amidships • Not to be less than grade D / DH Single strakes required to be of Class III within 0.4 L amidships are to have breadths not less than 800 + 5 · L [mm] need not be greater than 1 800 mm, unless limited by the geometry of the ship's design. (IACS UR S6 Table 1) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–3
  20. 20. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Section 2 B.2.2 Materials Material selection for longitudinal structural members Materials in the various strength members are not to be of lower grade than those corresponding to the material classes and grades specified in Table 2.1 – Table 2.7. General requirements are given in Table 2.1, while additional minimum requirements for ships with length exceeding 150 m and 250 m, bulk carriers subject to the requirements of SOLAS regulation XII/ 6.5.3, and ships with ice strengthening are given in Table 2.2 – Table 2.5. The material grade requirements for hull members of each class depending on the thickness are defined in Table 2.7. (IACS UR S6.1) Table 2.2 Minimum material grades for ships with length exceeding 150 m and single strength deck Structural member category Material grade Longitudinal strength members of strength deck plating Grade B / AH within 0.4 L amidships Continuous longitudinal strength members above strength deck Grade B / AH within 0.4 L amidships Single side strakes for ships without inner continuous longitudinal bulkhead(s) between bottom and the strength deck Grade B / AH within cargo region (IACS UR S6 Table 2) Table 2.3 Minimum material grades for ships with length exceeding 250 m Structural member category Material grade Shear strake at strength deck 1 Grade E / EH within 0.4 L amidships Stringer plate in strength deck 1 Grade E / EH within 0.4 L amidships Bilge strake 1 Grade D / DH within 0.4 L amidships 1 Single strakes required to be of Grade E / EH and within 0.4 L amidships are to have breadths not less than 800+5 · L [mm], need not be greater than 1 800 mm, unless limited by the geometry of the ship's design. (IACS UR S6 Table 3) Table 2.4 Minimum material grades for single-side skin bulk carriers subjected to SOLAS regulation XII/6.5.3 Structural member category Material grade Lower bracket of ordinary side frame 1, 2 Grade D / DH Side shell strakes included totally or partially between the two points located to 0.125 · l above and below the intersection of side shell and bilge hopper sloping plate or inner bottom plate 2 Grade D / DH 1 The term "lower bracket" means webs of lower brackets and webs of the lower part of side fram es up to the point of 0.125 · l above the intersection of side shell and bilge hopper sloping plate or inner bottom plate. 2 The span of the side frame l is defined as the distance between the supporting structures. (IACS UR S6 Table 4) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–4
  21. 21. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Section 2 Materials Table 2.5 Minimum material grades for ships with ice strengthening Structural member category Material grade Shell strakes in way of ice strengthening area for plates Grade B / AH (IACS UR S6 Table 5) Table 2.6 Minimum material grades in the area of crane columns and foundations > 12.5 > 25 ≤ 12.5 ≤ 25 ≤ 70 A / AH B / AH D / DH Thickness t [mm] Minimum material grade > 70 E / EH The requirements for material grades are valid for design temperatures up to 0 °C. For lower design temperatures the requirements for material grades defined in GL Rules for Loading Gear on Seagoing Ships and Offshore Installations (VI-2-2) are to be considered. Table 2.7 Steel grades to be used, depending on plate thickness and material class Thickness t [mm] 1 > 15 > 20 > 25 > 30 > 35 > 40 > 50 Material class ≤ 15 ≤ 20 ≤ 25 ≤ 30 ≤ 35 ≤ 40 ≤ 50 ≤ 100 3 I A / AH A / AH A / AH A / AH B / AH B / AH D/DH D / DH 2 II A / AH A / AH B / AH D / DH D / DH 4 D / DH 4 E/EH E / EH III A / AH B / AH D / DH D / DH 4 E / EH E / EH E/EH E / EH 1 Actual thickness of the structural member. 2 For thicknesses t > 60 mm E / EH. 3 For thicknesses t > 100 mm the steel grade is to be agreed with GL. 4 For nominal yield stresses ReH ≥ 390 N/mm2 EH. (IACS UR S6 Table 6) Table 2.8 Material selection for local structural members Structural member Material class hawse pipe, stern tube, pipe stanchion 3 I hatch covers I II 1 face plates and webs of girder systems rudder body 2, rudder horn, sole piece, stern frame, propeller bracket, trunk pipe II 1 Class I material sufficient, where rolled sections are used or the parts are machine cut from plates with condition on delivery of either "normalised", "rolled normalised" or "rolled thermo-mechanical". 2 Rudder body plates, which are subjected to stress concentrations (e.g. in way of lower support of semi-spade rudders), are to be of class III material. 3 For pipe stanchions for cargo reefer holds Table 2.10 is applicable. (IACS UR S6.1) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–5
  22. 22. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 B.2.3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials Material selection for local structural members B.2.3.1 The material selection for local structural members, which are not part of the longitudinal hull structure, may in general be effected according to Table 2.8. For parts made of forged steel or cast steel C is to be applied. B.2.3.2 For topplates of machinery foundations located outside 0.6 L amidships, grade A ordinary hull structural steel may also be used for thicknesses above 40 mm. B.2.4 Material selection for structural members which are exposed to low temperatures B.2.4.1 The material selection for structural members, which are continuously exposed to temperatures below 0 °C, e.g. in or adjacent to refrigerated cargo holds, is governed by the design temperature of the structural members. The design temperature is the temperature determined by means of a temperature distribution calculation taking into account the design environmental temperatures. The design environmental temperatures for unrestricted service are: • air: + 5 °C • sea water: 0 °C B.2.4.2 For ships intended to operate permanently in areas with low air temperatures (below and including –20 °C), e.g. regular service during winter seasons to Arctic or Antarctic waters, the materials in exposed structures are to be selected based on the design temperature tD, to be taken as defined in B.2.4.5. Materials in the various strength members above the lowest ballast water line (BWL) exposed to air are not to be of lower grades than those corresponding to classes I, II and III, as given in Table 2.9, depending on the categories of structural members (Secondary, Primary and Special). For non-exposed structures and structures below the lowest ballast water line, see B.2.2 and B.2.3. (IACS UR S6.2) B.2.4.3 The material grade requirements for hull members of each material class depending on thickness and design temperature are defined in Table 2.10. For design temperatures tD < -55 °C, materials are to be specially considered. (IACS UR S6.2) B.2.4.4 Single strakes required to be of class III or of grade E / EH or FH are to have breadths not less than 800 + 5 · L [mm], maximum 1 800 mm. Plating materials for stern frames, rudder horns, rudders and shaft brackets are not to be of lower grades than those corresponding to the material classes given in B.2.3. (IACS UR S6.2) B.2.4.5 The design temperature tD is to be taken as the lowest mean daily average air temperature in the area of operation, see Fig. 2.1 The following definitions apply: • Mean: statistical mean over an observation period of at least 20 years • Average: average during one day and night • Lowest: lowest during year For seasonally restricted service the lowest expected value within the period of operation applies. (IACS UR S6.3) B.3 Structural members which are stressed in direction of their thickness In case of high local stresses in the thickness direction, e.g. due to shrinkage stresses in single bevel or double bevel T-joints with a large volume of weld metal, steels with guaranteed material properties in the thickness direction according to the GL Rules for Steel and Iron Materials (II-1-2), Section 1, I. are to be used. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–6
  23. 23. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials Mean daily maximum temperature NOV DEC OCT JUL AUG SEP JUN APR MAY MAR JAN FEB Mean daily average temperature tD = design temperature Mean daily minimum temperature Fig. 2.1 C Commonly used definitions of temperatures Forged Steel and Cast Steel Forged steel and cast steel for stem, stern frame, rudder post as well as other structural components, which are subject of this Rule, are to comply with the GL Rules for Metallic Materials (II-1). The tensile strength of forged steel and of cast steel is not to be less than 400 N / mm2. While selecting forged steel and cast steel toughness requirements and weldability are to be considered beside the strength properties. D Aluminium Alloys D.1 Where aluminium alloys, suitable for seawater, as specified in the GL Rules for Materials and Welding (II), are used for the construction of superstructures, deckhouses, hatchway covers and similar parts, the conversion from steel to aluminium scantlings is to be carried out by using the material factor: k Al = 635 R p0,2 + R m For welded connections the respective values in welded condition are to be taken. Where these figures are not available, the respective values for the soft-annealed condition are to be used. Method of conversion: WAl = WSt ⋅ k Al for the section modulus t Al = t ST ⋅ k Al for the plate thickness D.2 The smaller Young's modulus E is to be taken into account when determining the buckling strength of structural elements subjected to compression. This is to be applied accordingly to structural elements for which maximum allowable deflections have to be adhered to. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–7
  24. 24. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials D.3 The conversion of the scantlings of the main hull structural elements from steel into aluminium alloy is to be specially considered taking into account the smaller Young's modulus E, as compared with steel, and the fatigue strength aspects, specifically those of the welded connections. E Austenitic Steels Where austenitic steels are applied having a ratio Rp0.2 / Rm ≤ 0.5, after special approval the 1 % proof stress Rp1.0 may be used for scantling purposes instead of the 0.2 % proof stress Rp0.2. Table 2.9 Material classes and grades for structures exposed to low temperatures Material class Structural member category Within 0.4 L amidships Outside 0.4 L amidships I I II I III II Secondary: Deck plating exposed to weather, in general Side plating above BWL 5 Transverse bulkheads above BWL 5 Primary: Strength deck plating 1 Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck, excluding longitudinal hatch coamings Longitudinal bulkhead above BWL 5 Top wing tank plating above BWL 5 Special: Sheer strake at strength deck 2 Stringer plate in strength deck 2 Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead 3 Continuous longitudinal hatch coamings 4 1 Plating at corners of large hatch openings to be specially considered. Class III or grade E / EH to be applied in positions where high local stresses may occur. 2 Not to be less than grade E / EH within 0.4 L amidships in ships with length exceeding 250 m. 3 In ships with breadth exceeding 70 m at least three deck strakes to be of class III. 4 Not to be less than grade D / DH 5 BWL = ballast water line. (IACS UR S6 Table 7) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–8
  25. 25. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Materials Table 2.10 Material grade requirements for classes I, II and III at low temperature Class I tD Plate thickness [mm] tD tD tD – 20 C to – 25 °C – 26 °C to – 35 °C – 36 °C to – 45 °C – 46 °C to – 55 °C normal higher normal higher normal higher normal higher strength strength strength strength strength strength strength strength t ≤ 10 A AH B AH D DH D DH 10 < t ≤ 15 B AH D DH D DH D DH 15 < t ≤ 20 B AH D DH D DH E EH 20 < t ≤ 25 D DH D DH D DH E EH 25 < t ≤ 30 D DH D DH E EH E EH 30 < t ≤ 35 D DH D DH E EH E EH 35 < t ≤ 45 D DH E EH E EH FH 45 < t ≤ 50 E EH E EH FH FH Class II tD Plate thickness [mm] tD tD tD – 20 C to – 25 °C – 26 °C to – 35 °C – 36 °C to – 45 °C – 46 °C to – 55 °C normal higher normal higher normal higher normal higher strength strength strength strength strength strength strength strength t ≤ 10 B AH D DH D DH E EH 10 < t ≤ 20 D DH D DH E EH E EH 20 < t ≤ 30 D DH E EH E EH FH 30 < t ≤ 40 E EH E EH FH FH 40 < t ≤ 45 E EH FH FH 45 < t ≤ 50 E EH FH FH Class III tD Plate thickness [mm] tD tD tD – 20 C to – 25 °C – 26 °C to – 35 °C – 36 °C to – 45 °C – 46 °C to – 55 °C normal higher normal higher normal higher normal higher strength strength strength strength strength strength strength strength t ≤ 10 D DH D DH E EH 10 < t ≤ 20 D DH E EH E EH FH 20 < t ≤ 25 E EH E EH FH FH 25 < t ≤ 30 E EH E EH FH FH 30 < t ≤ 35 E EH FH FH 35 < t ≤ 40 E EH FH FH FH FH 40 < t ≤ 50 E EH (IACS UR S6 Table 8) Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 2–9
  26. 26. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles Section 3 A B C D E F G H Design Principles General ....................................................................................................................... 3-1 Structural Members..................................................................................................... 3-2 Effective Breadth of Plating....................................................................................... 3-11 Proof of Buckling Strength ........................................................................................ 3-12 Structural Details....................................................................................................... 3-24 Evaluation of Notch Stress........................................................................................ 3-28 Corrosion Additions................................................................................................... 3-30 Testing of Watertight and Weathertight Compartments ........................................... 3-31 A General A.1 Application This Section contains definitions and general design criteria for hull structural elements as well as indications concerning structural details. A.2 References International conventions and codes Paragraphs of this section are based on the following international convention(s) and / or code(s): IACS UR S11 Rev.7 At the end of each relevant paragraph, the corresponding paragraphs of the international convention(s) and / or code(s) are given in brackets. A.3 Definitions Unsupported span In general the unsupported span is the true length of stiffenings between their two supporting structural members or else their length including end attachments (brackets). In case of corrugated bulkhead elements the unsupported span is their length between bottom or deck and their length between vertical or horizontal girders. Where corrugated bulkhead elements are connected to box type elements of comparatively low rigidity, their depth is to be included into the span unless otherwise proved by calculations. Frame spacings and spans The frame spacings and spans are normally assumed to be measured in a vertical plane parallel to the centreline of the ship. However, if the ship's side deviates more than 10 ° from this plane, the frame distances and spans are to be measured along the side of the ship. Instead of the true length of curved frames the length of the chord between the supporting points can be selected. Symbols k : material factor according Section 2, A.2 W : section modulus [cm3] of smaller section t : plate thickness [mm] ta : "as built" plate thickness [mm] Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–1
  27. 27. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles tK : corrosion addition [mm] according to G tn : nominal plate thickness [mm] tn = ta − tK A.4 Fatigue strength Where a fatigue strength analysis is required or will be carried out for structures or structural details this is to be in accordance with the requirements of Section 20. A.5 Permissible stresses and required sectional properties In the following Sections permissible stresses have been stated in addition to the formulae for calculating the section moduli and cross sectional areas of webs of frames, beams, girders, stiffeners etc. and may be used when determining the scantlings of those elements by means of direct strength calculations. B Structural Members B.1 Upper and lower hull flange B.1.1 All continuous longitudinal structural members up to zo below the strength deck at side and up to zu above base line are considered to be the upper and lower hull flange respectively. B.1.2 Where the upper and/or the lower hull flange are made from normal strength hull structural steel their vertical extent zo = zu equals 0.1 · H. On ships with continuous longitudinal structural members above the strength deck a fictitious depth H' = eB + e'D is to be applied. eB : distance [m] between neutral axis of the midship section and base line e'D : distance [m] from neutral axis of hull section to fictitious top of deck section according to Section 5, E.1.1.1 B.1.3 The vertical extent z of the upper and lower hull flange respectively made from higher tensile steel of one quality is not to be less than determined by the following formula: z = e ⋅ (1 − n ⋅ k) e : distance of deck at side or of the base line from the neutral axis of the midship section. For ships with continuous longitudinal structural members above the strength deck, see Section 5, E.1.1.1 n : ratio of section moduli, defined as: n= W( a ) W W(a) : actual deck or bottom section modulus W : rule deck or bottom section modulus Where two different steel grades are used it has to be observed that at no point the stresses are higher than the permissible stresses according to Section 5, E.1.2.1. B.2 Plating B.2.1 Tapering In general in case of different thicknesses of adjacent plates the plate thicknesses are to be tapered gradually. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–2
  28. 28. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 B.2.2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles Plates subjected to lateral pressure The formulae for plate panels subjected to lateral pressure as given in the following Sections are based on the assumption of an uncurved plate panel having an aspect ratio b / a ≥ 2.24. For curved plate panels and/or plate panels having aspect ratios smaller than b / a ≈ 2.24, the thickness may be reduced as follows: t = C ⋅ a ⋅ p ⋅ k ⋅ f1 ⋅ f 2 + t K [mm] C : constant, e.g. C = 1.1 for tank plating p : applicable design load f1 : curvature factor, defined as: f1 = 1 − f2 a 2⋅r with f1 ≥ 0.75 : aspect ratio factor, defined as: ⎛a⎞ f 2 = 1.1 − 0.5 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝b⎠ 2 a : smaller breadth of plate panel b : larger breadth of plate panel r with f 2 ≤ 1.0 : radius of curvature The above does not apply to plate panels subjected to ice pressure according to Section 15 and to longitudinally framed shell plating according to Section 6. B.2.3 Plates at sniped ends of stiffeners If a stiffener with a sniped end is attached to plate, the minimum thickness t of the plate is to be determined by the following formula: t = c⋅ c p ⋅ a ⋅ ( − 0.5 ⋅ a) Re H [mm] : coefficient , defined as: c = 15.8 for watertight bulkheads and for tank bulkheads when loaded by pT2 as defined in Section 4, D.1.2 c = 19.6 otherwise p : design load [kN / m2] a : spacing of stiffeners [m] : unsupported span of stiffener [m] B.3 Stiffener and primary supporting members B.3.1 Required sectional properties B.3.1.1 The required section moduli and web areas are related on principle to an axis which is parallel to the connected plating. B.3.1.2 For profiles usual in the trade and connected vertically to the plating in general the appertaining sectional properties are given in tables. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–3
  29. 29. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles B.3.1.3 Where webs of stiffeners and girders are not fitted vertically to the plating (e.g. frames on the shell in the flaring fore body) the sectional properties (moment of inertia, section modulus and shear area) have to be determined for an axis which is parallel to the plating. B.3.1.4 For bulb profiles and flat bars the section modulus of the inclined profile including plating can be calculated simply by multiplying the corresponding value for the vertically arranged profile by sinα where α is the smaller angle between web and attached plating. Note For bulb profiles and flat bars α in general needs only be taken into account where α is less than 75 °. B.3.1.5 Furthermore, with asymmetric profiles where additional stresses occur according to B.3.7 the required section modulus is to be increased by the factor ksp depending on the type of profile, see B.3.7. B.3.2 Stiffeners loaded by lateral pressure If stiffened plate panels are loaded by lateral pressure, the load is transmitted partly direct and partly by the stiffeners to the girders. The factor ma takes into account the corresponding load distribution on stiffeners and is to be determined by the following formula: a ⎡ ⎛a⎞ ma = 0.204 ⋅ ⋅ ⎢ 4 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ B.3.3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ with a ≤1 Unsupported span B.3.3.1 2⎤ Stiffeners and frames The factor mk1 takes into account shortening of the unsupported span ers and is to be determined by the following formula: m k1 = 1 − KI, KJ KI + due to brackets and heel stiffen- KJ 103 ⋅ : effective supporting length [mm] due to heel stiffeners and brackets at frame I and J (see Fig. 3.1) KI , KJ c1 ⎡ 1 = min ⎢ h s + 0.3 ⋅ h b + ; c1 ⎣ 1 c2 ( 1 + b − 0.3 ⋅ h b b 1 =0 c1 b, hb ⎤ + hs ⎥ ⎦ : coefficient [1 / mm], defined as: 1 = c1 hs b for b > 0.3 ⋅ h b for − 0.3 ⋅ h b ) b ≤ 0.3 ⋅ h b 2 he : height of the heel stiffener [mm] (see also Fig. 3.1) : dimensions of the brackets [mm] (see also Fig. 3.1) he : height of bracket [mm] in the distance of hs + 0.3 · hb of frame I or J respectively (see also Fig. 3.1) c1 : coefficient, defined as: c2 = 3 c2 = 1 Edition 2013 general for flanged brackets (see Fig. 3.1) Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–4
  30. 30. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles If no heel stiffeners or brackets are arranged the respective values are to be taken as (hs, hb, 1 / c1) = 0 (see Fig. 3.1). (a) (b) b b c c hb c tb A he c he B hp hb tb B A 0.3 × hb hs 0.3 × hb K K x x Frame I Frame J 2 × tb ³ c £ 25 mm b K 0.3 × hb K= A 0 A=B B A c tb he hb (c) Fig. 3.1 Edition 2013 (d) End attachment of stiffeners and frames Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–5
  31. 31. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 B.3.3.2 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles Transverses and girders The factor mk2 takes into account shortening of the unsupported span end attachments and is to be determined by the following formula: m k2 = a, b of transverses and girders due to a+b 4 : length’s according to Fig. 3.2, depending on the type of end attachment b' In special cases, the rigidity of the adjoining girders is to be taken into account when determining the span of girder. b b c c a a Fig. 3.2 B.3.3.3 a a' b = b' a' End attachment of transverses and girders Main frames The factor mk3 takes into account shortening of the unsupported length of main frames due to end at- tachments and is to be determined by the following formula: ⎛ m k3 = 1.0 − ⎜ ⎝ Ku, Ko Ku + 0.4 ⋅ Ko ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ with m k3 ≥ 0.6 : length of lower/upper bracket connection of main frames within the length [m], see Fig. 3.3 Ko Ko Ku Ku Fig. 3.3 B.3.4 End attachment of main frames Curved frames The capacity of a frame subjected to lateral pressure depends among others parameters on its curvature, if excisting. The factor mc to takes into account the influnece of a curvature and is to be determined by the following formula: mc = 1.0 − 2 ⋅ s s with cr ≥ 0.75 : maximum height of curve [m] Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–6
  32. 32. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Section 3 Design Principles B.3.5 End attachments B.3.5.1 Definitions For determining scantlings of beams, stiffeners and girders the terms "constraint" and "simple support" will be used. "Constraint" will be assumed where the stiffeners are rigidly connected to other members by means of brackets or are running throughout over supporting girders. "Simple support" will be assumed where the stiffener ends are sniped or the stiffeners are connected to plating only, see also B.2.3. B.3.5.2 Brackets B.3.5.2.1 For the scantlings of brackets the required section modulus of the section is decisive. Where sections of different section moduli are connected to each other, the scantlings of the brackets are generally governed by the smaller section. B.3.5.2.2 The thickness t of brackets is to be determined by the following formula: t = c⋅ 3 W + t K [mm] k1 with 5.0 + tk ≤ t ≤ web thickness of smaller section : coefficient [1 / mm], defined as: c c = 1.20 for non-flanged brackets c = 0.95 for flanged brackets : material factor k for the section, according to Section 2, A.2 k1 For minimum thicknesses in tanks and in cargo holds of bulk carriers see Section 12, B.1.3, Section 23, C.4.3 and Section 24, G.1. B.3.5.2.3 The arm length b of brackets is to be determined by the following formula: b b,min = 46.2 ⋅ 3 W ⋅ k 2 ⋅ c t [mm] k1 with b ≥ b,min : minimum arm length [mm], defined as: b,min = 100 mm k1 : material factor k for the section, according to Section 2, A.2 k2 : material factor k for the bracket, according to Section 2, A.2 ct : coefficient, defined as: ct = ta t ta : "as built" thickness of bracket [mm], with: ta ≥ t according to B.3.5.2.2 The arm length b is the length of the welded connection. Note For deviating arm length the thickness of brackets is to be estimated by direct calculations considering sufficient safety against buckling. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–7
  33. 33. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Section 3 Design Principles B.3.5.2.4 The throat thickness a of the welded connection is to be determined according to Section 19, C.2.7. B.3.5.2.5 Where flanged brackets are used the width of flange is to be determined by the following formula: b = 40 + B.3.6 W [mm] 30 with 50 mm ≤ b ≤ 90 mm Longitudinals and longitudinal beams in way of curved plates In way of curved plates (e.g. in the bilge area) the requirements regarding scantlings of longitudinals and longitudinal beams may be reduced by the following factor cR: 1 cR = 1+ a⋅ 4 ⋅t 0.006 ⋅ Ia ⋅ R 2 t : thickness [mm] of shell plating Ia : moment of inertia [cm4] of the longitudinal frame, including effective breadth R : bending radius [m] of the plate In way of straight plates the factor cR is to be set to zero. B.3.7 Asymmetric sections / profiles B.3.7.1 Additional stresses for fatigue strength analysis The additional stress σh occurring in asymmetric sections may be determined by the following formula: σh = Q Q ⋅ f ⋅ tf 2 ⋅ b1 − b2 2 c ⋅ Wy ⋅ Wz ( tf, b1, b2 [N / mm 2 ] : load [kN] on section parallel to its web within the unsupported span f, defined as: Q = p⋅a⋅ f ) f in case of uniformly distributed load p [kN / m2] [kN] : unsupported span [m] of flange : flange dimensions [mm] as shown in Fig. 3.4, with: b1 ≥ b 2 hw 2 b2 b1 hw tf sh z z y Fig. 3.4 Edition 2013 y Asymmetric profiles Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–8
  34. 34. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Section 3 Design Principles : factor depending on kind of load, stiffness of the section's web and length and kind of support of the profile. c For profiles clamped at both ends and constant area load c = 80 can be taken for approximation. A precise calculation may be required, e.g. for longitudinal frames. Wy : section modulus [cm3] of section related to the y-y axis including the effective breadth of plating Wz : section modulus [cm3] of the partial section consisting of flange and half of web area related to the z-z axis, (bulb sections may be converted into a similar L-section) This additional stress σh is to be added directly to other stresses such as those resulting from local and hull girder bending. B.3.7.2 Correction of section modulus In case of asymmetric sections the required section modulus is to be multiplied with the factor ksp according to Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Increase factor ksp ksp Type of Profile Flat bars and symmetric T-profiles 1.00 Bulb profiles 1.03 Asymmetric T-profiles with b2 ≈ 0.5 b1 Rolled angles (L-profiles) 1.05 1.15 B.3.8 Additional stresses due to local bending of stiffeners B.3.8.1 Additional stresses for fatigue strength analysis For fatigue strength calculations according to Section 20, Table 20.1 bending stresses due to local stiffener bending and longitudinal normal stresses due to global hull girder bending are to be combined. Bending stresses at the points A and B (see Fig. 3.1) from local stiffener bending due to lateral loads p can be determined by the following formulae: σA = ( ) 83 2 2 ⋅ mk1 − ma ⋅ a ⋅ ⋅ p + σh [N / mm2 ] Wa σB = cR ⋅σA ⋅ m1 [N / mm2 ] for 0 ≤ x ≤ for x = hs + k ( ) 2 with m2 − ma ≥ k1 m2 k1 2 b Wa : section modulus [cm3] of the profile including effective plate width according to D.3.2 mk1 : factor to take a shortened unsupported span into account according to B.3.3 ma : factor to take the load distribution into account according to B.3.2 p : design pressure [kN / m2] σh : additional stress occurring in asymmetric sections according to B.3.7.1 x : distance [mm] from transverse structure at I and J respectively, see Fig. 3.1 k : effective supporting length [mm] due to heel stiffeners and brackets according B.3.3.1 cR : factor to take curved plates (e.g. in the bilge area) inn way of longitudinals and longitudinal beams into account, according to B.3.6 m1 : factor, defined as: m1 = 1− 4 ⋅ c3 ⋅⎡1− 0.75 ⋅ c3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–9
  35. 35. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles : factor, defined as: c3 h + − c3 = sI bI kI ⋅ mk,1 ⋅103 h sJ + c3 = bJ − for position B at I KJ 3 for position B at J ⋅ m k,1 ⋅10 The stresses at point A is not to be less than the stresses in adjacent fields (aft of frame I and forward of frame J respectively). B.3.8.2 Additional stresses in longitudinals between transverse bulkheads and side transverses Where necessary, for longitudinals between transverse bulkheads and side transverses additional stresses resulting from the deformation of the side transverses are to be taken into account. If no special verification of stresses due to web frame deformations is carried out, the following minimum values are to be considered for fatigue strength verification of side longitudinals: hw −∑ b σDF = ±0.1⋅ ⎡ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ R ⋅ Cp ⋅ (1 − Cp ) ⎥ DF ⎣ ⎦ 2 [N / mm 2 ] hw : web height [mm] of profile i (see Fig. 3.7) Σ b : sum of supporting lengths of heel stiffeners and brackets (see Fig. 3.1), defined as: ∑ R b = ( h sI + lbI + h sJ + lbJ ) ⋅10−3 [m] : unsupported web frame length [m] (see Fig. 3.5) DF : height [m] of web frame (see Fig. 3.5) Cp : weighting factor regarding location of the profile, defined as: Cp = (z − z Ro ) / R + CT 1 + 2 ⋅ CT zRo : z-coordinate [m] of web frame outset above basis (see Fig. 3.5), zRo < T CT : correction regarding location of the profile i to the water line, defined as: CT = 1.1 − z T with 0 ≤ CT ≤ 0.1 DF DF i R Z Z ZRo ZRo Fig. 3.5 Edition 2013 i R Definitions Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–10
  36. 36. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles B.4 Corrugated bulkhead elements B.4.1 End attachment Care is to be taken that the forces acting at the supports of corrugated bulkheads are properly transmitted into the adjacent structure by fitting structural elements such as carlings, girders or floors in line with the corrugations. Note Where carlings or similar elements cannot be fitted in line with the web strips of corrugated bulkhead elements, these web strips cannot be included into the section modulus at the support point for transmitting the moment of constraint. Deviating from the formula stipulated in Section 11, F.3 the section modulus of a corrugated element is then to be determined by the following formula: W = t ⋅ b ⋅ ( d + t ) [cm3 ] C Effective Breadth of Plating C.1 Frames and stiffeners Generally, the spacing of frames and stiffeners may be taken as effective breadth of plating. C.2 Girders C.2.1 The effective breadth of plating em of frames and girders may be determined according to Table 3.2 considering the type of loading. Special calculations may be required for determining the effective breadth of one-sided or nonsymmetrical flanges. In Table 3.2 following definitions are used: e : width of plating supported, measured from centre to centre of the adjacent unsupported fields em : effective breadth of plating, defined as: em = em1 for girders which loaded by uniformly distributed loads or else by not less than 6 equally spaced single loads. em = em2 for girders which are loaded by 3 or less single loads. : length between zero-points of bending moment curve, i.e. unsupported span in case of simply supported girders and 0.6 x unsupported span in case of constraint of both ends of girder C.2.2 The effective cross sectional area of plates is not to be less than the cross sectional area of the face plate. Table 3.2 /e Effective breadth em of frames and girders 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ≥8 em1 / e 0 0.36 0.64 0.82 0.91 0.96 0.98 1.00 1.00 em2 / e 0 0.20 0.37 0.52 0.65 0.75 0.84 0.89 0.90 Intermediate values may be obtained by direct interpolation. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–11
  37. 37. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles C.2.3 The effective width of stiffeners and girders subjected to compressive stresses may be determined according to D.3.2, but is in no case to be taken greater than the effective breadth determined by C.2.1. C.3 Cantilevers Where cantilevers are fitted at every frame, the effective breadth of plating may be taken as the frame spacing. Where cantilevers are fitted at a greater spacing the effective breadth of plating at the respective cross section may approximately be taken as the distance of the cross section from the point on which the load is acting, however, not greater than the spacing of the cantilevers. D Proof of Buckling Strength The calculation method is based on DIN-standard 18 800. D.1 Application D.1.1 All structural members which are subjected to compressive and/or shear stresses are to be examined for sufficient resistance to buckling. For this purpose the design stresses according to Section 5, D.2 and the stresses due to local loads are to be considered. D.1.2 For structural members contributing to the longitudinal strength see also Section 5, E.4. D.2 Definitions a : length [mm] of single or partial plate field b : breadth [mm] of single plate field K : buckling factor according to Table 3.5 and Table 3.6 F1 : correction factor for boundary condition at the longitudinal stiffeners, defined as: F1 = 1.00 for stiffeners sniped at both ends Guidance values where both ends are effectively connected to adjacent structures: F1 = 1.05 for flat bars F1 = 1.10 for bulb sections F1 = 1.20 for angle and tee-sections F1 = 1.30 for girders of high rigidity (e.g. bottom transverses) Exact values may be determined by direct calculations n : number of single plate field breadths b within the partial or total plate field S : safety factor, defined as: S = 1.10 in general S = 1.20 for structures which are exclusively exposed to local loads S = 1.05 for combinations of statistically independent loads For constructions of aluminium alloys the safety factors are to be increased in each case by 0.1. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–12
  38. 38. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Section 3 Design Principles : aspect ratio of single plate field, defined as: α α= a b : reference degree of slenderness, defined as: λ λ= Re H K ⋅ σe : reference stress [N / mm2], defined as σe ⎛t ⎞ σe = 0.9 ⋅ E ⋅ ⎜ n ⎟ ⎝ b ⎠ 2 σx : membrane stress [N / mm2] in x-direction σy : membrane stress [N / mm2] in y-direction τ : shear stress [N / mm2] in the x-y plane Compressive and shear stresses are to be taken positive, tension stresses are to be taken negative. : edge stress ratio according to Table 3.5 single field n·b am partial field b b long. stiffener bm ψ y a y x transverse stiffener longitudinal : stiffener in the direction of the length a transverse : stiffener in the direction of the breath b Fig. 3.6 Definition of plate fields subject to buckling Note If the stresses σx* und σy* in the x- and y-direction contain already the Poisson effect, the modified stress values σx und σy according Table 3.3 may be used for the proof of buckling strength. Table 3.3 Poisson effect correction Both σx* and σy* are to be compressive stresses σx* ≥ 0.3 · σy* or σy* ≥ 0.3 · σx* σx* < 0.3 · σy σy* < 0.3 · σx* At least σx* or σy* is tension stress ( ) σx = 0 σx = σ* x σx = σ* x ( ) σy =σ* y σy =0 σy =σ* y σ x = σ * − 0.3 ⋅ σ * / 0.91 x y σ y = σ * − 0.3 ⋅ σ * / 0.91 y x Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–13
  39. 39. Rules Part Chapter I 1 1 Section 3 Ship Technology Seagoing Ships Hull Structures Design Principles D.3 Proof of single plate fields D.3.1 a · b: Proof is to be provided that the following condition is complied with for the single plate field e e 2 e ⎛ σ ⋅σ ⋅ S2 ⎞ ⎛ τ ⋅ S⋅ 3 ⎞ 3 ⎛ σx ⋅ S ⎞ 1 ⎛ σy ⋅ S ⎞ ⎟ − B⋅ ⎜ x y ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ≤ 1.0 +⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜κ ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ ReH ⎟ ⎜ κτ ⋅ R ⎟ ⎝ x ReH ⎠ ⎜ κy ⋅ ReH ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ eH ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Each term of the above condition is not to exceed 1.0. : reduction factor, defined as: κx κx = acc. to Table 3.5 and / or Table 3.6 for σ x > 0 κx = 1.0 for σ x ≤ 0 : reduction factor, defined as: κy κy = acc. to Table 3.5 and / or Table 3.6 for σ y > 0 κy = 1.0 for σ y ≤ 0 κτ : reduction factor according to Table 3.5 and / or Table 3.6 e1, e2, e3 : exponents according to Table 3.4 B : factor as according to Table 3.4 Exponents e1 - e3 and factor B Table 3.4 plate field Exponents e1 – e3 and factor B plane curved e1 1+ κ4 x 1.25 e2 1+ κ 4 y 1.25 e3 1 + κ x ⋅ κ y ⋅ κ2 τ 2.00 ( κx ⋅ κ y ) 0 1.00 - σx and σy positive (compression stress) 5 B σx or σy negative (tension stress) D.3.2 Effective width of plating The effective width of plating may be determined by the following formulae: bm = κx ⋅ b for longitudinal stiffeners am = κy ⋅ a for transverse stiffeners See also Fig. 3.6. The effective width of plating is not to be taken greater than the effective breadth em obtained from C.2.1. D.3.3 In general, the ratio plate field breadth to plate thickness is not to exceed b / t = 100. Edition 2013 Germanischer Lloyd Page 3–14

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