Master of Business Administration [BM 771]Universiti Teknologi MARA, Bandaraya MelakaPROPOSAL FOR ABRSUPPLIER SELECTION: M...
Table of content PagesAbstract 4CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the industry 51.2 Statement of the problem 61.3...
3.5 The data analysis 16CHAPTER FOUR- OVERVIEW OF FUTURE APPLICATION 17REFERENCES 183
AbstractSupply chain management and supplier selection have become the fastest growingareas of management especially in th...
CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the industryMaxell Tohshin (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. or “MTM” in short was formed wi...
entails timeliness and cost, product and services quality. It is the ongoing process ofsearching and evaluating process to...
aspect is the selection of the best suppliers among the existing alternatives. In this work, weconsider this aspect of the...
Whether the 60 days or 30 days. Or even advance payment6) Rules and regulationCustoms exemption, documentation requirement...
1.4 Scope of StudyThe focused on effectiveness and efficiency of selecting supplier selection methoddetermination of quali...
CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE RIVIEW2.1 Background of the research areasThis chapter the principles and concepts that has been ...
2.3 Theoretical frameworkConsumers buy products based on a combination of cost, quality, availability, maintainability,and...
analysis where he discusses applications of each of these techniques. Degraeve et al usesthe Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)...
2.4 Summarize to concludeOne of the highly ranked supplier selection determinants from the available literature is thequal...
CHAPTER THREE- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.1 The research designThe sources used for study consisted of scientific re...
3.3 Sampling TechniqueSampling refers to the systematic selection of a limited number of elements out of atheoretically sp...
3.4 The field of work and data collection methodThe overall aim of the study is to establish the determinants of supplier ...
CHAPTER FOUR: OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE FUTURE APPLICATIONThe previous section has made clear that support in the phase of prob...
Bai, C. and Sarkis, J. (2009).Supplier selection and sustainability: A Grey RoughSet evaluation (Working paper 2009-05).Cl...
qualitative Approaches: Nairobi: ACTS Press.Omar, M.K.and Sim, H.K.(2010,December).A survey of supplier selection criteria...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Supplier selection (abr)

3,580 views

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,580
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
102
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Supplier selection (abr)

  1. 1. Master of Business Administration [BM 771]Universiti Teknologi MARA, Bandaraya MelakaPROPOSAL FOR ABRSUPPLIER SELECTION: Maxell Tohshin (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.PREPARED BY:Name : Siti Suryati Bt BahariName : Noorhafizah Bt Badalehshah
  2. 2. Table of content PagesAbstract 4CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the industry 51.2 Statement of the problem 61.3 Objective of the research 81.4 Scope of study 91.5 Significant of the study 91.6 Limitation of the study 9CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE RIVIEW2.1 Background of the research areas 102.2 Concept and definition of key components of the research area 102.3 Theoretical framework 112.4 Summarize to conclude 13CHAPTER THREE- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.1 The research design 143.2 The population sample 143.3 Sampling technique 153.4 The fieldwork and data collection method 162
  3. 3. 3.5 The data analysis 16CHAPTER FOUR- OVERVIEW OF FUTURE APPLICATION 17REFERENCES 183
  4. 4. AbstractSupply chain management and supplier selection have become the fastest growingareas of management especially in the last few years. Although study in the area started in1960s, it is in the 90s that scholars gained much interest in the area of supplier selection.The reason is that with heightened global competition that has reduced the profit margins ofmost companies, hence cost cutting has become the option and is being focused in logisticswhich has become the single largest and most important activity of most firms, both in the forprofit and not-for-profit sectors. As such, quite a significant portion of organizations’ budgetsis spent in these activities. Supplier selection in particular is crucial in management of asupply chain. The decision is one of the most fundamental and important decisions made bybuyers and organizations. This is because supplier selection and management can beapplied to a variety of suppliers throughout a products’ life cycle from initial raw materialsacquisition to end-of-life service providers (Bai and Sarkis, 2009).Supplier selection is the process by which firms identify, evaluate and contract withsuppliers. The supplier selection process deploys a tremendous amount of a firm’s financialresources. In return, firms expect significant benefits from contracting with suppliers offeringhigh value. This research is to identify selection process: Identifying suppliers, solicitinginformation from suppliers, setting contract terms, negotiating with suppliers and evaluatingsuppliers. The researchers want to highlights why each step is important, how the steps areinterrelated and how the resulting complexity provides fertile ground for research.4
  5. 5. CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the industryMaxell Tohshin (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. or “MTM” in short was formed with effective as at 1January 2006 (an integrated of company between Maxell Electronics (M) Sdn. Bhd. &Tohshin (M) Sdn). Subsidiary Hitachi Maxell Ltd., Japan a member of the Hitachi Group ofCompanies. MTM started with the Plastic Injection Molding of components for camera parts,Manufactures Optical Lenses, Processing Lens Coating and Assemblies of Micro-CameraLens Unit, Manufacturers the 3.5 inch Floppy Diskettes, Assembling and certifying DVD-RAMs under the renowned name of Maxell and in addition to this. MTM also punches DiskSheets (cookies) for the 3.5 inch Floppy Diskettes. Registered office at Lot 1, BatuBerendam free Trade Zone Phase III, Batu Berendam 75350 Melaka, Malaysia.1.1.1 The concept of supplier selection and procurementSupplier selection and evaluation have become one of the major topics in production andoperations management literature (Motwani et al., 1999).It is the process by which firmsidentify, evaluate and contract with suppliers. The supplier selection is one part of the valuechain that is now considered to deploy tremendous amount of an organization’s resourcesand for this reason, much is expected in terms of high value from suppliers (Beil,2009).These are part of what is today called supply management in the supply chainmanagement function in an organization. Supply management refers to “the process ofidentification, acquisition, access, positioning, and management of resources anorganization needs or potentially needs in the attainment of its strategic objectives” (Instituteof Supply Management). Weber et al. (1991) define supplier selection as the search forpotential providers where the providers are sorted (evaluated) into potential ad non potentialproviders. Typical criteria for supplier selection could be price structure, delivery which5
  6. 6. entails timeliness and cost, product and services quality. It is the ongoing process ofsearching and evaluating process to find a supplier of essential goods and services requiredin an organization for normal operations.The term procurement is used in the place of purchasing however, and encompassesactivities of specifications and development, expediting, supplier quality control and somelogistic activities (Wisner,Tan,and Leong,2008).Some scholars have postulated that supplymanagement is today a mainstream value adding process that is viewed as moststrategic(Cousins,2005). The main objective of supplier selection process is to reducepurchase risk, maximize overall value to the purchaser, and develop closeness and long-term relationships between buyers and suppliers (Li et al., 1997 as cited in Tahriri, Osman,Ali and Yusuff, 2008). According to Benyoucef et al (2003), supplier selection process iscontinuous in order to upgrade the existing variety and typology of their product range. It isnecessitated by the fact that most products generally have short lifecycle of 3 to 4 years.1.2 Statement of the problemTwo different aspects characterize the supplier selection problem:The first aspect is the determination of the number of the suppliers and the mode of relationswith them. Considering the characteristics of the company, product and market, its strategicplan can encourage a large number of suppliers or not. Today, we are involved in a “co-operative logistic” environment. The company seeks a strong co-operation with its principalsuppliers. Indeed, a strong co-operation with high number of suppliers is very difficult tomanage. An area of current research focuses on the classification of components or parts orprocess to externalise in order to establish a suitable relation with the suppliers of eachcategory. For example, the company can consider a relation of partnership or even astrategic alliance with a supplier who provides a part or a component and with which itwishes to have a durable co-operation. On the other hand, this company can have ahierarchical relation and a significant number of suppliers for the standard parts in order toestablish a competition between them and thus to reduce the cost of purchasing. Second6
  7. 7. aspect is the selection of the best suppliers among the existing alternatives. In this work, weconsider this aspect of the problem and thus we assume that the number of the suppliers tobe selected is already given.Issue in MTM under Procurement Department with the vender that influence the teamto search and find the alternative supplier and involve with the supplier selection.1) Lead time-Some of the supplier required the lead time more than 3 month. This is because theirmaterial incoming from the overseas take about 1-2 month and the production leadtime takes about 1 month (depends to the production plan from their side.2) Price-Prices based on the material itself and also the terms. Some of the prices based onthe exwork , DDU, FOB, CIF and others. Certain country the prices based on thecurrency and exchange rate. Sometimes, MTM facing the un-flexible prices,especially the commodity item.(wire, plastic, spare part and etc.)3) QualityThe quality must be meet the MTM requirement. If there is any quality issue, MTMwill request the supplier to send the replacement, or send the man power to dosorting at MTM. However, the supplier also request to return the lot, but due the MTMlocated at the FTZ area, any incoming or outgoing must be apply the customexemption. Normally to get the approval, it will take about 2-3 days. If there is nocustoms officer at the office, the application will drack until a week. The issue will behappen when the supplier do not have stock to send out the replacement andrequired the MTM to return ASAP, but due the requirement for the rules andregulation, MTM alternative plan to proceed the line sorting.4) Delivery/mode of transportThe delivery can divided with 3 normal types; by sea, air, courier, or land transport. Ifby sea, each country does have their lead time.5) Payment terms7
  8. 8. Whether the 60 days or 30 days. Or even advance payment6) Rules and regulationCustoms exemption, documentation requirement (K1, K2,K8 etc.)7) DocumentationInvoices and delivery order. According to the standard info8) Services and pic involvementThe service provided and the response of any comment or issue from the ‘window’.1.3 Objective of the researchThe first stream dominates the purchasing literature and identifies appropriate criteria andmethods supporting supplier evaluation. The primary goals are to help the buyer decide whatits objectives are, what dimensions to evaluate suppliers over, and how to evaluate suppliersusing these dimensions. The second stream assumes that the buyer knows what it wantsand has an existing methodology for evaluating suppliers. It focuses on decisions such aswhat types of negotiation formats or contracts to employ, and how to elicit information thatsuppliers may be reluctant to reveal.1.3.1 Research questionsThe research questions for the study shall be:What are some of the factors that determine supplier selection in the procurement process inMaxell Tohshin? Is the supplier size a criterion for selection as a supplier in the procurementprocess by Maxell Tohshin? To what extent does quality of supplies determine the supplierselection in the procurement process in the Maxell Tohshin? Is cost a factor in the selectionof suppliers by the Maxell Tohshin? What is the overall effect of bribery and connections inthe supplier selection decision Maxell Tohshin?8
  9. 9. 1.4 Scope of StudyThe focused on effectiveness and efficiency of selecting supplier selection methoddetermination of quality performance supplier selection criteria and the between supplierselection techniques and quality performance of organization.1.4.1 Geographical ScopeThe study was conducted in Maxell Tohshin industries located on plot industries area BatuBerendam, Melaka.1.5 Significance of the Study1. To contribute to the field of knowledge about supplier selection and qualityperformance.2. The research will benefit organization recognize the importance of supplier selectionin enhancing quality performance.3. The study will provide organization with the various tools of supplier selection thatcan enhance quality performance.1.6 Limitations of the studyThe researcher envisages a number of limitations such as the inability of the respondents toadequately fill the questionnaires as required, the inadequacy of the research instrument tocapture all the required information, and failure of some respondents to fill the questionnaire,and the inherent weakness in the research design.Also,the study is limited in that it onlyfocuses on Maxell Tohshin supplier selection determinants, yet there are many othercompany that also rely on local suppliers. The findings in this study might not be adequaterepresentation of the supplier selection determinants in the Maxell Tohshin; hence theresults cannot be generalized to all.9
  10. 10. CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE RIVIEW2.1 Background of the research areasThis chapter the principles and concepts that has been explore and brought out by variousauthors in an existing literature on suppler selection and quality performance of organizationin Maxell Tohshin industries.The literature is reviewed under the following sub headings. Thesupplier selection process, determinants of quality performance of organization, and therelationship between suppliers selection technique and quality performance in MaxellTohshin industries.2.2 Concept and definition of key components of the research areaSupplier selection criteria for a particular product or service category should bedefined by a “cross-functional” team of representatives from different sectors of yourorganization. In a manufacturing company, for example, members of the team typicallywould include representatives from purchasing, quality, engineering and production. Teammembers should include personnel with technical/applications knowledge of the product orservice to be purchased, as well as members of the department that uses the purchaseditem. With increasing significance of the purchasing function, purchasing decisions becomemore important. As organisations become more dependent on suppliers the direct andindirect consequences of poor decision-making become more severe. For example, inindustrial companies, purchasing’s share in the total turnover typically ranges between 50-90% (Telgen, 1994), making decisions about purchasing strategies and operations primarydeterminants of probability. In addition, several developments further complicate purchasingdecision-making. Globalisation of trade and the Internet enlarge a purchaser’s choice set.Changing customer preferences require a broader and faster supplier selection. Publicprocurement Public Procurement regulations demand more transparency in decision-making. New organisational forms lead to the involvement of more decision-makers..10
  11. 11. 2.3 Theoretical frameworkConsumers buy products based on a combination of cost, quality, availability, maintainability,and reputation factors. The companies along with their supply chains, which can providethese desired things, will ultimately be successful (Wisner, J.et al, 2008).But whenconfronted with risky purchase decisions, most firms consider first and foremost, sellers orsuppliers with proven track record with the firm are favoured as familiar suppliers helpreduce perceived risks (Hutt and Speh, 2009).Quantitative approaches used in supplier selection range from simple linear weightingmodels to complex mathematical programming models. Linear weighting models areessentially scoring models which place a weight on subjectively a determined criterion andprovide a total score for each supplier. Mathematical programming models use linearprogramming, mixed-integer programming and goal programming to determine supplierselection (Chaundry et al. as cited in Wissenschaftsverlag, 2007).According to Beil (2009) supplier selection assists organizations in identifying, evaluatingand contract with suppliers for strategic partnership. Organizations will only achieve theirsourcing objectives once they get the right suppliers who will deliver goods and services ontime. Weber et al (1993) considered supplier selection to be long term process and suggeststhat suppliers should be evaluated based on core competences and strategic needs.2.3.1 Empirical ReviewLiterature review shows that from empirical front, comprehensive efforts have been made todevelop decision methods and techniques for supplier selection. Weber et al(1991) reviewedand classified 74 articles that appeared since 1966 with regard to particular criteria used insupplier selection ( as cited in Mendoza, 2007).In these papers, what comes out as themajor supplier selection determinants include price, delivery, quality, and production capacityand location. Holt presented a review of contractor evaluation and supplier sectionmethodologies such as multi-attribute analysis, multi-attribute utility theory, and cluster11
  12. 12. analysis where he discusses applications of each of these techniques. Degraeve et al usesthe Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as the framework for comparing supplier selectionmodels. But it is De Boer et al study that is comprehensive enough as it looks at supplierselection literature by even classifying the existing literature in a framework. The frameworkenumerates steps preceding supplier selection decision. These steps are, problem definition,formulation of selection criteria, pre-qualification, and final selection. The other unique thingabout their analysis is the classification of supplier selection literature according to differentpurchasing situations namely first time buys, modified re-buys, and straightrebuys(Mendoza,2007).Yet, this analysis though comprehensive leaves crucial gaps as itdoes not clearly state the supplier selection determinants, but instead dwells on the selectionprocedures.Dickinson (1966) in his pioneering work on supplier selection identified and ranked 23supplier selection criteria as collected from a questionnaire given to purchasing agents.Quality, delivery, and performance history rank top with net price ranking a distant sixth. Thisseems to concur with previous studies, but one notable discrepancy is that price curiouslyranks lower than quality. Again, net price is deceptive as other related costs such aspackaging and freight cost could raise the total cost. Total cost covers everything henceshould be the one listed and not net cost. Ellram (1990) proposed three criteria for supplierselection. These are: the financial statement of the supplier, organizational culture andstrategy of supplier, and the technological state of supplier.Omar & Sim (2010) in a study on supplier selection criteria conducted on MalaysianManufacturing firms found that cost followed by quality ranked higher than any otherdeterminants. Delivery ranks third based on their analysis.12
  13. 13. 2.4 Summarize to concludeOne of the highly ranked supplier selection determinants from the available literature is thequality of supplies. Pioneering works of Dickinson (1966) which surveyed 300 commercialorganizations ranked quality as the highest determinant for supplier selection. Quality refersto conformance to requirements or fit to use. Conformance quality is also viewed as absenceof defects (APICs, 1999).Since the early studies of 60s on supplier selection all through to90s, quality has consistently ranked top among the various supplier selection determinants.Purchasers would like to buy only those goods and services that are of high quality. Theother critical factor for supplier selection beside quality is delivery. Meeting deliverydeadlines is critical so as to avoid operations disruptions for lack of supplies. hoi(19960 ascited in Cheraghi et al. delivery together with quality constitute what might be considered thethreshold criteria for supplier selection.Performance history of a supplier is also a critical determinant in supplier selection asliterature adduces. In particular, for those goods and services that are of great value orinvolving huge cost outlay, then the purchaser tends to go for that supplier whom they aresure about their past performance. This is basically to reduce risks associated with failure ofunknown suppliers to deliver goods or execute their part of contract.According to Weber et al. (1991) cost is one of the key determinants for supplier selection.Cost of supplies like delivery and quality constitutes the traditional determinants of supplierselection, also known as order qualifiers. Most organizations both in business and Non-governmental organization world consider the lowest cost offer since the purchaser aims tominimize on cost of procurement while trying to maximize on the quality and quantity ofpurchases. Service factors such as after sales service, repairs capacities, change andsupply of parts, easy assessable, customer service, technical capacity, and warranty of theproduct (Omar & Sim, 2010).For this reason, most purchasers tend to consider these servicefactors capacity in a potential supplier. Any supplier with the capacities to provide theseservices ultimately gets selected as a supplier to most organizations.13
  14. 14. CHAPTER THREE- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.1 The research designThe sources used for study consisted of scientific refereed journals, textbooks and doctoraldissertations. Publications in languages other than English and non-refereed professionalpublications were not included. The search keys used were supplier selection, vendorselection, purchasing decision-making.Qualitative methods may include tools for visualising and analysing the decision-maker’sperception of a problem situation and tools for brainstorming about possible (alternative)solutions. The collection of quantitative methods comprises a wide variety of approaches.Data mining techniques can be used to analyse similar decisions made in the past in orderto derive general patterns and decision rules that may subsequently be used to improve theefficiency and effectiveness of future decisions.Furthermore, we only included articles that report on a method or technique that specificallyaims at supporting a decision-maker in one or more of the four steps of the supplierselection process. This implies that articles merely describing the supplier selection processo the relevant criteria have not been included. Also, articles reporting on methods formonitoring an existing supplier relationship were excluded.3.2 The population sampleA population is the total collection of elements about which inferences are made and refersto all possible cases which are of interest for a study (Sekaran, 2003).The target populationfor the study is the 10 Maxell Tohshin department based in Batu Berendam, Melaka. Thestudy will target the chief procurement and logistics officers in these agencies as the unit ofanalysis. These are selected because they are the ones tasked with the responsibility ofsourcing for suppliers of goods and services to their organizations.14
  15. 15. 3.3 Sampling TechniqueSampling refers to the systematic selection of a limited number of elements out of atheoretically specified population of elements. The rationale is to draw conclusions about theentire population. According to Kothari (2004), the ultimate test of a sample design is howwell it represents the characteristics of the population it purports to. The reason for samplingin this study is to lower cost, accessibility of study population and the greater speed of datacollection.A sample size of 50% of the population will be taken to give a total sample of 9 MaxellTohshin department. This is informed by the principle that if the elements of a population arequite similar, only a small sample is necessary to accurately portray the characteristics ofinterest Stratified random sampling will be used where the sample size of 50% shall be takenfrom each of the three categories (strata) of the population. Stratified random sampling willbe used because it ensures a greater statistical efficiency, and reduce samplingerror.Kothari(2003) supports random sampling as it satisfies the law of statistical regularity ‘ifa sample is chosen at random, on average it has the same characteristics and compositionas the population’.Table 3.2: Sample SizeTarget Population Sample Percentage Sample UnitsHeadquartered 2 50 1Regional Offices 14 50 7Others 2 50 1Total 18 9Source: Author (2012)15
  16. 16. 3.4 The field of work and data collection methodThe overall aim of the study is to establish the determinants of supplier selection amonginternational organizations, specifically the Maxell Tohshin in Batu Berendam Melaka. Thebulk of data collected will therefore be primary in nature. The questionnaire will be the maininstrument, alongside face to face interviews. The use of questionnaires for primary datacollection has been supported by many scholars among them; Mugenda (1999),and Peil(1995).A questionnaire is easier to administer, less costly, and ensures greater depth ofresponse, according to Mugenda (1999).A questionnaire also helps capture factualinformation effectively. For the purpose of this study, the questionnaire will be used for themainly economical, and appropriateness reasons. A pilot study shall be conducted usingquestionnaires to be administered to respondents from four Maxell Tohshin departments.Those questions that will not be clear or are ambiguous will be revised so as to collect thedesired information. A senior academic from the school of Business of UniversityTechnology MARA will assess the validity and reliability of the instrument.Research ProcedureThe researcher will first obtain a letter of introduction from Universiti Teknologi Mara. Theletter will help in identification in the various Maxell Tohshin premises while approachingrespondents. The questionnaires shall be personally administered through drop and pickmethod.3.5 Data Analysis and PresentationThe statistical method used in this study is descriptive and inferential statistics. Data analysiswill be done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences computer software(SPSS).Tables, pie charts and graphs will be used to present the results on variousvariables in the study. Descriptive statistics such as mode, mean and median shall be usedto present the various characteristics for data sets after the descriptive analysis. For this kindof study, descriptive analysis is the best and has been supported by such scholars asSchindler (2001), and Crawford (1995).16
  17. 17. CHAPTER FOUR: OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE FUTURE APPLICATIONThe previous section has made clear that support in the phase of problem definition is anunderdeveloped area in supplier selection since we did not come across any model in thepurchasing literature that pays attention to this important phase. Some approaches in theoperations research literature deal explicitly with problem definition but have thus far notbeen used in the purchasing literature. We also identified three additional methods thatseem particularly suitable for supplier qualification phase. These three models are elucidatedin Table 4.Table 4Methods for supporting pre-qualification of supplierMethod Typical featureConjunctive screening(Hwang and Yoon, 1981)A supplier is acceptable if the supplier equalor exceeds a minimum score on eachcriterionDisjunctive screening(Hwang and Yoon, 1981)A supplier is acceptable if the supplier atleast equals or exceeds a minimum score onone criterion.Lexicographical screening(Hwang and Yoon, 1981)Criteria are ranked in order of importance.Suppliers are first evaluated on the mostimportant criterion. Suppliers that pass thiscriterion are then evaluated on the secondcriterion and so on.REFERENCES17
  18. 18. Bai, C. and Sarkis, J. (2009).Supplier selection and sustainability: A Grey RoughSet evaluation (Working paper 2009-05).Clark University, George Perkins Marsh Institute.Beil, D. (2009).Supplier selection (unpublished research paper).Stephen M. Ross School ofBusiness. University of Michigan, Michigan, USA. Available atwww.personal.umich.edu/.../Supplier Selection_...Bonhestaut, A. (Ed.). (2008).Procurement and supply in Kenya: The market for Small andMedium Enterprises. Nairobi: Strategic Business Advisors (Africa Ltd).Cheraghi, S.H.et al. (n.d).critical success factors for supplier selection. Journal ofApplied Business Research, 20, 2Crawford, I. (1995).Marketing research and information systems. Rome: FAO.Creswell, J.W. (2003).Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixedMethodapproaches.Carlifornia: Sage Publishers.Delfmann, W. and Wissing-horsten, K. (2007).Strategic supply chain design: Theory,concepts and applications.Ellram (1990).The supplier selection decisions in strategic partnerships. Journalof Purchasing and Materials Management.8-14Hutt, M.D., and Speh, T.W. (2009).Business marketing management: B2B(10thed.).Mason,OH: Cengage Learning South-Western.http://www.un.orgMendoza, A. (2007).Effective methodologies for supplier selection and order Quantityallocation (PHD thesis, The University of Michigan, Michigan.Motwani, J. and Youssef, M. (1999). Supplier selection in developing countries: a modeldevelopment. Emerald, 10(13):154-162.Mugenda, O.M & Mugenda, A.G. (1999).Research methods: Quantitative and18
  19. 19. qualitative Approaches: Nairobi: ACTS Press.Omar, M.K.and Sim, H.K.(2010,December).A survey of supplier selection criteria in themanufacturing industry in Malysia.The 11thAsia Pacific IndustrialEngineering and Management systems conference, Melaka, Malysia.Orodho, J.A. (2004).Techniques of writing research proposals and reports ineducation andsocial sciences. Nairobi: Masola Publishers.Peil, M. (1995).Social science research methods handbook for Africa. Nairobi: East AfricanEducational Publishers.Tahriri,F.,Osman,M.R.,Ali,A.,&Yussuff,R.M.,(2008).A review of supplier election methods inmanufacturing industries.Suranaree Journal of Scienceand Technology, 15(3),201208.Weber, et al. (1991).Vendor selection criteria and methods.European Journal Of OperationalResearch, 50, 2-18.19

×