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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM II(SUG554)Assoc. Prof. Sr. Zamani Bin IsmailRoom B501Contact: 03-55444528 or 019-3605218
Part 3Part 3
Recap - Choosing a GISRecap - Choosing a GIS►Involves 4 stagesInvolves 4 stages Analysis of requirement,Analysis of requi...
Recap - Steps in GIS acquisitionRecap - Steps in GIS acquisition
How canI use aGIS?Need to make a mapNeed to answer a queryNeed to saveimportant dataNeed to describean activityPrepare App...
Results of Needs AssessmentResults of Needs AssessmentExampleExampleApplicationDescriptionList ofImportantDataData FlowDia...
2. User requirements analysis/needs2. User requirements analysis/needsassessmentassessment► Clear articulation of user nee...
2. User requirements analysis/needs2. User requirements analysis/needsassessmentassessment► Clear articulation of user nee...
GIS applicationsGIS applications►GIS applicationsGIS applications - these will be- these will be taskstasks thatthatcan be...
LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic infor...
LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic infor...
BrowseBrowseThis function is equivalent to the human act ofThis function is equivalent to the human act ofreading a map to...
LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic infor...
Simple DisplaySimple DisplayThis GIS function is the generation of a mapThis GIS function is the generation of a mapor dia...
LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic infor...
Query And DisplayQuery And DisplayThis function supports the posing of specific questions to aThis function supports the p...
LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic infor...
Map Analysis (Map Overlay)Map Analysis (Map Overlay)This involves using the analytical capabilities ofThis involves using ...
Map Analysis (Map Overlay)Map Analysis (Map Overlay)The overlay function was developed to accomplish theThe overlay functi...
LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic infor...
Spatial ModelingSpatial ModelingThis application is the use of spatial models or otherThis application is the use of spati...
Documenting applicationDocumenting applicationrequirementsrequirementsName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequi...
Map DisplayMap DisplayName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisMap DisplayApplication Identific...
Table DisplayTable DisplayName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisTable DisplayApplication Ide...
Data Flow DiagramData Flow DiagramName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisData Flow DiagramApp...
Entity-Relationship DiagramEntity-Relationship DiagramName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements Analysis...
Chapter3 application requirements
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Chapter3 application requirements

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Chapter3 application requirements

  1. 1. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM II(SUG554)Assoc. Prof. Sr. Zamani Bin IsmailRoom B501Contact: 03-55444528 or 019-3605218
  2. 2. Part 3Part 3
  3. 3. Recap - Choosing a GISRecap - Choosing a GIS►Involves 4 stagesInvolves 4 stages Analysis of requirement,Analysis of requirement, Specification of requirements,Specification of requirements, Evaluation of alternativesEvaluation of alternatives Implementation of systemImplementation of system
  4. 4. Recap - Steps in GIS acquisitionRecap - Steps in GIS acquisition
  5. 5. How canI use aGIS?Need to make a mapNeed to answer a queryNeed to saveimportant dataNeed to describean activityPrepare ApplicationDescriptionAdd to Master Data ListPrepare DataFlow DiagramName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisData Flow DiagramApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Process Description: Data Flow Diagram or Flow ChartName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisGIS Application DescriptionApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Type of Application:Display Display/Map Scale:Query Query Key:Query & Display Response Time:Map Analysis Frequency:Spatial ModelData Required:Features (entities): Attributes:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Purpose and Description:Master Data ListEntity Attributes SpatialObjectStreet_segment name, address_range LineStreet_intersection street,_names LineParcel section_block_lot#, Polygonowner_name, owner_address,site_address, area, depth,front_footage, assessed_value,last_sale_date, last_sale_price,size (owner_name,owner_address,assessed_value as of previousJanuary 1st)Building building_ID, date_built, Footprintbuilding_material,building_assessed_valueOccupancy occupant_name, Noneoccupant_address,occupancy_type_codeStreet_segment name, type, width, length, Polygonpavement_typeStreet_intersection length, width, traffic_flow_conditions Polygonintersecting_streetsWater_main type, size, material, installation_date LineValve type, installation_date NodeHydrant type, installation_date, pressure Nodelast_pressure_test_dateService name, address, type, invalid_indicator NoneSoil Soil_code, area PolygonWetland wetland_code, area PolygonFloodplain flood_code, area PolygonTraffic_zone zone_ID#, area PolygonCensus_tract tract#, populationPolygonWater_district name, ID_number PolygonZoning zoning_code, area PolygonDocumenting Needs of aDocumenting Needs of aPotential GIS UserPotential GIS User
  6. 6. Results of Needs AssessmentResults of Needs AssessmentExampleExampleApplicationDescriptionList ofImportantDataData FlowDiagramName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisData Flow DiagramApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Process Description: Data Flow Diagram or Flow ChartName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisGIS Application DescriptionApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Type of Application:Display Display/Map Scale:Query Query Key:Query & Display Response Time:Map Analysis Frequency:Spatial ModelData Required:Features (entities): Attributes:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Purpose and Description:MasterData ListList of GISFunctionsMaster Data ListEntity Attributes SpatialObjectStreet_segment name, address_range LineStreet_intersection street,_names LineParcel section_block_lot#, Polygonowner_name, owner_address,site_address, area, depth,front_footage, assessed_value,last_sale_date, last_sale_price,size (owner_name,owner_address,assessed_value as of previousJanuary 1st)Building building_ID, date_built, Footprintbuilding_material,building_assessed_valueOccupancy occupant_name, Noneoccupant_address,occupancy_type_codeStreet_segment name, type, width, length, Polygonpavement_typeStreet_intersection length, width, traffic_flow_conditions Polygonintersecting_streetsWater_main type, size, material, installation_date LineValve type, installation_date NodeHydrant type, installation_date, pressure Nodelast_pressure_test_dateService name, address, type, invalid_indicator NoneSoil Soil_code, area PolygonWetland wetland_code, area PolygonFloodplain flood_code, area PolygonTraffic_zone zone_ID#, area PolygonCensus_tract tract#, populationPolygonWater_district name, ID_number PolygonZoning zoning_code, area Polygon
  7. 7. 2. User requirements analysis/needs2. User requirements analysis/needsassessmentassessment► Clear articulation of user needs is essential to assist the developmentClear articulation of user needs is essential to assist the developmentof an appropriate list of requirements for a GIS.of an appropriate list of requirements for a GIS.► Analysis focuses onAnalysis focuses on Who is using the systemWho is using the system What information is presently being usedWhat information is presently being used How the source is being collected, stored & maintainedHow the source is being collected, stored & maintained► the necessary info can be obtained throughthe necessary info can be obtained through InterviewsInterviews DocumentationDocumentation ReviewsReviews WorkshopsWorkshops► The report for this phase should be in the forms of workflows, lists ofThe report for this phase should be in the forms of workflows, lists ofinformation sources and current operation cost.information sources and current operation cost.
  8. 8. 2. User requirements analysis/needs2. User requirements analysis/needsassessmentassessment► Clear articulation of user needs is essential to assist the development of anClear articulation of user needs is essential to assist the development of anappropriate list of requirements for a GIS.appropriate list of requirements for a GIS.► Analysis focuses onAnalysis focuses on Who is using the systemWho is using the system What information is presently being usedWhat information is presently being used (Applications requirements)(Applications requirements) How the source is being collected, stored & maintainedHow the source is being collected, stored & maintained► the necessary info can be obtained throughthe necessary info can be obtained through InterviewsInterviews DocumentationDocumentation ReviewsReviews WorkshopsWorkshops► The report for this phase should be in the forms of workflows, lists ofThe report for this phase should be in the forms of workflows, lists ofinformation sources and current operation cost.information sources and current operation cost.
  9. 9. GIS applicationsGIS applications►GIS applicationsGIS applications - these will be- these will be taskstasks thatthatcan be performed by the GIS when a usercan be performed by the GIS when a userrequires them, such as preparing a map,requires them, such as preparing a map,processing a query, or conducting someprocessing a query, or conducting someparticular GIS analysis.particular GIS analysis.
  10. 10. LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic information systemsby local government falls into five majorby local government falls into five majorcategories:categories: BrowseBrowse Simple display (automated mapping);Simple display (automated mapping); Query and display;Query and display; Map analysis; andMap analysis; and Spatial modeling.Spatial modeling.
  11. 11. LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic information systemsby local government falls into five majorby local government falls into five majorcategories:categories: BrowseBrowse Simple display (automated mapping);Simple display (automated mapping); Query and display;Query and display; Map analysis; andMap analysis; and Spatial modeling.Spatial modeling.
  12. 12. BrowseBrowseThis function is equivalent to the human act ofThis function is equivalent to the human act ofreading a map to find particular features orreading a map to find particular features orpatterns. Browsing usually leads to identificationpatterns. Browsing usually leads to identificationof items of interest and subsequent retrieval andof items of interest and subsequent retrieval andmanipulation by manual means. For single maps,manipulation by manual means. For single maps,or relatively small areas, the human brain is veryor relatively small areas, the human brain is veryefficient at browsing. However, as data volumesefficient at browsing. However, as data volumesincrease, automated methods are required toincrease, automated methods are required toeffectively extract and use information from theeffectively extract and use information from themap.map.
  13. 13. LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic information systemsby local government falls into five majorby local government falls into five majorcategories:categories: BrowseBrowse Simple display (automated mapping)Simple display (automated mapping);; Query and display;Query and display; Map analysis; andMap analysis; and Spatial modeling.Spatial modeling.
  14. 14. Simple DisplaySimple DisplayThis GIS function is the generation of a mapThis GIS function is the generation of a mapor diagram by computer. Such maps andor diagram by computer. Such maps anddiagrams are often simple reproduction ofdiagrams are often simple reproduction ofthe same maps used in a previous manualthe same maps used in a previous manualoriented GIS environment. Examples of thisoriented GIS environment. Examples of thistype of use are preparation of a 1:1000-type of use are preparation of a 1:1000-scale town map, a sketch of an approvedscale town map, a sketch of an approvedsite plan, maps of census data, etc.site plan, maps of census data, etc.
  15. 15. LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic information systemsby local government falls into five majorby local government falls into five majorcategories:categories: BrowseBrowse Simple display (automated mapping);Simple display (automated mapping); Query and displayQuery and display;; Map analysis; andMap analysis; and Spatial modeling.Spatial modeling.
  16. 16. Query And DisplayQuery And DisplayThis function supports the posing of specific questions to aThis function supports the posing of specific questions to ageographic database, with the selection criteria usuallygeographic database, with the selection criteria usuallybeing geographic in nature. A typical simple query wouldbeing geographic in nature. A typical simple query wouldbe: "draw a map of the location of all new residential unitsbe: "draw a map of the location of all new residential unitsbuilt during 1989" A more complex query might be: "drawbuilt during 1989" A more complex query might be: "drawa map of all areas within the town where actual newa map of all areas within the town where actual newresidential units built in 1989 exceeds growth predictions."residential units built in 1989 exceeds growth predictions."Such a query could be part of a growth managementSuch a query could be part of a growth managementactivity within the town. Queries may be in the form ofactivity within the town. Queries may be in the form ofregular, often asked questions or may be ad hoc, specificregular, often asked questions or may be ad hoc, specificpurpose questions. The ability to respond to a variety ofpurpose questions. The ability to respond to a variety ofquestions is one of the most useful features of a GIS in itsquestions is one of the most useful features of a GIS in itsearly stages of operation. In the long run, other moreearly stages of operation. In the long run, other moresophisticated applications of the GIS may have a highersophisticated applications of the GIS may have a highervalue or benefit, but to achieve these types of benefits,value or benefit, but to achieve these types of benefits,users must be familiar with the GIS and its capabilities.users must be familiar with the GIS and its capabilities.Such familiarization is achieved through the use of a GISSuch familiarization is achieved through the use of a GISfor the simpler tasks of query and display.for the simpler tasks of query and display.
  17. 17. LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic information systemsby local government falls into five majorby local government falls into five majorcategories:categories: BrowseBrowse Simple display (automated mapping);Simple display (automated mapping); Query and display;Query and display; Map analysisMap analysis; and; and Spatial modeling.Spatial modeling.
  18. 18. Map Analysis (Map Overlay)Map Analysis (Map Overlay)This involves using the analytical capabilities ofThis involves using the analytical capabilities ofGIS to define relationships between layers ofGIS to define relationships between layers ofspatial data. Map analysis is the super-impositionspatial data. Map analysis is the super-impositionof one map upon another to determine theof one map upon another to determine thecharacteristics of a particular site (e.g., combiningcharacteristics of a particular site (e.g., combininga land use map with a map of flood prone areas toa land use map with a map of flood prone areas toshow potential residential areas at risk forshow potential residential areas at risk forflooding). Map analysis (often termed overlay orflooding). Map analysis (often termed overlay ortopological overlay) was one of the first real usestopological overlay) was one of the first real usesof GIS. Many government organizations,of GIS. Many government organizations,particularly those managing natural resources,particularly those managing natural resources,have a need to combine data from different mapshave a need to combine data from different maps(vegetation, land use, soils, geology, ground(vegetation, land use, soils, geology, groundwater, etc.).water, etc.).
  19. 19. Map Analysis (Map Overlay)Map Analysis (Map Overlay)The overlay function was developed to accomplish theThe overlay function was developed to accomplish thesuper-imposition of maps in a computer. The data aresuper-imposition of maps in a computer. The data arerepresented as polygons, or areas, in the GIS data base,represented as polygons, or areas, in the GIS data base,with each type of data recorded on a separate "layer." Thewith each type of data recorded on a separate "layer." Thecombination of layers is done by calculating the logicalcombination of layers is done by calculating the logicalintersection of polygons on two or more map layers. Inintersection of polygons on two or more map layers. Inaddition to combining multiple "layers" of polygon-typeaddition to combining multiple "layers" of polygon-typedata, the map overlay function also permits thedata, the map overlay function also permits thecombination of point data with area data (point-in-polygon).combination of point data with area data (point-in-polygon).This capability would be very useful in a town for combiningThis capability would be very useful in a town for combiningstreet addresses (from the Assessors files) with other datastreet addresses (from the Assessors files) with other datasuch as parcel outlines, census tract, environmental areas,such as parcel outlines, census tract, environmental areas,etc. Many facility siting problems, location decisions, andetc. Many facility siting problems, location decisions, andland evaluation studies have successfully used thisland evaluation studies have successfully used thisprocedure in the past.procedure in the past.
  20. 20. LOCAL GOVERNMENT USESLOCAL GOVERNMENT USESOF GISOF GISThe use of geographic information systemsThe use of geographic information systemsby local government falls into five majorby local government falls into five majorcategories:categories: BrowseBrowse Simple display (automated mapping);Simple display (automated mapping); Query and display;Query and display; Map analysis; andMap analysis; and Spatial modelingSpatial modeling..
  21. 21. Spatial ModelingSpatial ModelingThis application is the use of spatial models or otherThis application is the use of spatial models or othernumerical analysis methods to calculate a value of interest.numerical analysis methods to calculate a value of interest.The calculation of flow in a sewer system is an example ofThe calculation of flow in a sewer system is an example ofspatial modeling. Spatial modeling is the most demandingspatial modeling. Spatial modeling is the most demandinguse of a GIS and provides the greatest benefit. Most spatialuse of a GIS and provides the greatest benefit. Most spatialmodeling tasks are very difficult to perform by hand and aremodeling tasks are very difficult to perform by hand and arenot usually done unless a computerized system, such as anot usually done unless a computerized system, such as aGIS, is available. These models allow engineers andGIS, is available. These models allow engineers andplanners to evaluate alternate solutions to problems byplanners to evaluate alternate solutions to problems byasking "what if" type questions. A spatial model canasking "what if" type questions. A spatial model canpredict the result expected from a decision or set ofpredict the result expected from a decision or set ofdecisions. The quality of the result is only as good as thedecisions. The quality of the result is only as good as themodel, but the ability to test solutions before decisionsmodel, but the ability to test solutions before decisionshave to be made usually provides very useful informationhave to be made usually provides very useful informationto decision makers. Once again, this type of use of a GISto decision makers. Once again, this type of use of a GISwill evolve over time, as the GIS is implemented and used.will evolve over time, as the GIS is implemented and used.
  22. 22. Documenting applicationDocumenting applicationrequirementsrequirementsName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisGIS Application DescriptionApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Type of Application:Display Display/Map Scale:Query Query Key:Query & Display Response Time:Map Analysis Frequency:Spatial ModelData Required:Features (entities): Attributes:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Purpose and Description:
  23. 23. Map DisplayMap DisplayName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisMap DisplayApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Graphical Output Sample: Screen: Hard Copy:Symbols/Legend
  24. 24. Table DisplayTable DisplayName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisTable DisplayApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Report Layout/Format: Screen: Hard Copy:HEADINGSSUB-HEADINGSSUB-TOTALS/TOTALS:
  25. 25. Data Flow DiagramData Flow DiagramName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisData Flow DiagramApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Process Description: Data Flow Diagram or Flow Chart
  26. 26. Entity-Relationship DiagramEntity-Relationship DiagramName of GovernmentGeographic Information SystemRequirements AnalysisEntity-Relationship DiagramApplication Identification #:Application Name:Department:Defined by:Prepared by: Approved by: Date:Data Description: Entity - Relationship DiagramN11 11NM

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