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Usii.4b notes

Covers the information in VA SOL USII.4b.

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Usii.4b notes

  1. 1. SOL USII.4b: Immigration and the Growth of Cities<br />Lisa Pennington<br />Social Studies Instructional SpecialistPortsmouth Public Schools<br />
  2. 2. Vocabulary<br />Immigrant: a person who comes to another country to live and work.<br />Oppressive: limiting the rights and freedoms of individuals.<br />Specialization: concentration on the manufacture of a particular product.<br />Division of labor: each person does one specific part of the whole process.<br />
  3. 3. Essential Understandings<br />Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced interaction and often conflict between different cultural groups.<br />
  4. 4. Reasons for Increased Immigration<br /><br /><ul><li>Hope for better opportunity
  5. 5. Religious freedom
  6. 6. Escape from oppressive governments
  7. 7. Adventure</li></li></ul><li>Essential Understandings: Why cities developed<br />Population changes, growth of cities, and new inventions produced problems in urban areas. <br />
  8. 8. Reasons why Cities Developed<br />Specialized industries including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago).<br />Immigration from other countries.<br />Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities.<br /><br />Pittsburgh steel mill.<br />
  9. 9. Cities with Specialized Industries<br />Pittsburgh: steel<br />Chicago: meat packing<br />Boston: textiles<br />New York City: clothing<br />Cleveland: steel<br />Gary: steel<br />Philadelphia: ship building<br />Western Pennsylvania: oil<br /><br /><br />
  10. 10. Vocabulary<br />Political machine: a party organization headed by a single boss or group that commands enough votes to maintain political control of a city, county, or state.<br />Urbanization: growth in cities.<br />Tenement: a building made up of many apartments.<br />Ghetto: a specific area in a city where an ethnic group of similar culture, religion, and language lives. <br />
  11. 11. Vocabulary<br />Industrial Revolution: change in production methods from human to machine power.<br />Entrepreneur: a person who takes a risk to establish a business.<br />Factors of production: labor, capital, natural resources, and a transportation system to move the finished product to markets.<br />
  12. 12. Essential Knowledge<br />Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and tenements. <br />Challenges faced by cities include tenements and ghettos and political corruption (political machines).<br /><br />
  13. 13. Essential Knowledge<br />Inventions had both positive and negative effects on society.<br />Inventions contributed to great change and industrial growth. <br />
  14. 14. Inventions<br />The development of the telegraph by Samuel Morse.<br />Lighting and mechanical uses of electricity by Thomas Edison (light bulb and phonograph).<br /><br /><br />
  15. 15. Inventions<br />Telephone service developed by Alexander Graham Bell.<br />Typewriter invented by Christopher Sholes. <br /><br /><br />
  16. 16. Inventions<br />Atlantic cable developed by Cyrus Field.<br />George Eastman creates an affordable camera (Kodak).<br /><br /><br />
  17. 17. Inventions<br />Cable cars invented by Andrew Hallidie.<br />Electric street railroad invented by Frank Sprague.<br />Invention of the gas powered automobile by the Duryea brothers.<br /><br /><br />
  18. 18. Inventions<br />George Pullman invented the sleeping car. <br />George Westinghouse invents the air brake.<br />Elijah McCoy invents a device that oils engines. <br /><br />
  19. 19. Essential Understandings<br />Population changes, growth of cities and new inventions produced reform situations that sought to provide services to crowded immigrant neighborhoods and remedy poverty. <br />
  20. 20. Vocabulary<br />Settlement houses: community centers in urban areas established by social and religious workers to meet the needs of people in poor neighborhoods.<br />Hull House: a settlement house in Chicago established in 1889 by Jane Addams.<br />Tammany Hall: a political machine run by New York Democrats; Boss Tweed was the leader. <br />
  21. 21. Efforts to solve immigration problems<br />Settlement houses, such as Hull House, founded by Jane Addams <br />Political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing)<br /><br />
  22. 22. Discrimination against immigrants<br />Chinese and Irish immigrants, as well as other groups such as American Indians were discriminated against in several ways:<br />Dawes Act of 1887: Native Americans were ordered to become educated, to become citizens, and not to sell their land for 25 years.<br />Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: banned immigration from China for 10 years.<br />Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1908: limited the number of Japanese immigrants to the United States.<br />Irish immigrants: suffered discrimination because of their Catholic religion. <br />
  23. 23. Think About It…<br />Why did immigration increase?<br />Why did cities develop?<br />What inventions created great change and industrial growth in the United States?<br />What challenges faced Americans as a result of social and technological changes?<br />