T EACHING AND L EARNING WITH IPADS Michael Faris, Patricia Gael, Stuart SelberDepartment of English, UP Image by Flickr user John Federico <http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/johnfederico/4519786150/sizes/o/in/photostream/>
P ROJECT T EAMEnglish, UP: Michael Faris, Patricia Gael, StuartSelberITS: Cole Camplese, Erin Long, Jason Heffner, BrianYoungBedford/St. Martins
R ESEARCH Q UESTIONS FOR THE P ROJECTHow do people write and read technical documentson multipurpose mobile devices like the iPad, whichconverge and enable a wide spectrum of literacyactivities?What are the infrastructural requirements andconstraints for devices that tie to individual systemslike iTunes accounts rather than academicinstitutional systems like Angel?
R ESEARCH Q UESTIONS ( CONT .)What decisions will teachers need to make whendesigning courses to incorporate the numerous anddiverse applications available for multipurposemobile devices like the iPad? What do new types of distributed, networkedsupport systems employed on devices like the iPadchange about the function of technicalcommunication itself?
C OURSES IN THE I P AD P ROJECTEnglish 202C: Technical Writing (requiredundergraduate course for science and engineeringstudents)English 602: Teaching Technical Writing (requiredpracticum for new teachers of technical writing)English 584: Rhetorics and Technologies (graduateseminar for students in English; also taken bystudents in Communication Arts and Sciences andComparative Literature)
M ETHODS FOR D ATA C OLLECTIONSurveys of technology ownership and use.Conducted at the beginning of the semester.Interviews (4, formative and summative). Recordedon video and archived at Media Commons.Reﬂective Statements (formative and summative).Written in Pages (app) and on PSU Blogs.Device Analyses (summative). Conﬁguration,customization, and use data collected at the end ofthe semester.
I NITIAL C ONCERNSChoosing a content management strategy: ANGEL is not fully compatible with mobile browsers, so we needed a new way for students to manage content. PSU Blogs at the time was not fully functional with Safari, so we needed to explore blogging options.Choosing applications: Which apps would be most useful for the tasks we wanted students and teachers to do? For writing? Reading? Sharing work? Submitting and retrieving work? Etc.
I NITIAL C ONCERNS ( CONT .)Making the transition: What would be involved in transitioning from a desktop metaphor to an app setup? Would ﬁle compatibility become an issue? Would digital rights management become an issue? How much time would be necessary for teaching functional use?
I P AD APPS FOR E NGLISH 202CiBooks (Apple e-book app)Pages (word-processingapp)BlogPress (blogging appthat works with PSU blogs)iAnnotate PDF (annotationapp)SugarSync (ﬁle-sharingapp)
I P AD APPS FOR E NGLISH 602 AND 584iBooks (Apple e-book app)Kindle (Kindle e-book app) Pages (word-processing app)Keynote (presentation app)BlogPress (blogging app thatworks with PSU blogs)iAnnotate PDF (annotationapp)Dropbox (ﬁle-sharing app)
I P AD USE IN E NGLISH 202CReading the textbook (iBooks app)Taking reading quizzes (Google forms)Writing papers (Pages app)Blogging (BlogPress app)Sending and reading email (iPad Mail app)Managing ﬁles (handing out assignments andturning in papers) (SugarSync app)Reviewing peer work (iAnnotate PDF app)
I P AD USE IN E NGLISH 602 AND 584Reading the textbook (iBooks app)Reading e-books (Kindle app)Reading and annotating articles (iAnnotate PDF app)Writing reﬂections on reading and iPads (Pages app)Grading papers (iAnnotate PDF app)Sending and reading email (iPad Mail app)Sharing ﬁles (Dropbox app)Reviewing peer work (iAnnotate PDF app)
I NITIAL S URVEY : U NDERGRADUATET ECHNOLOGY U SE (E NGLISH 202C) 41 surveyed Computer Ownership: 39 owned computers Computer Operating System: 27 Windows; 11 Mac; 1 Linux Mobile Device Ownership: 31 iPods; 9 iPod Touches; 1 Kindle; 1 netbook; 3 iPhones Wiﬁ at Home: 16 of 17 (ﬁrst semester data not available) iTunes Account: 28
W HY D ID IT M ATTER ?The 2 students who did not own computers could notactively manage their iPads (iPads cannot bemanaged in PSU labs).The 1 student without wiﬁ could not complete someclass activities from home.The 22 students without iTunes accounts had to setthose up and learn how to use them, whichsigniﬁcantly increased start-up time.
I NITIAL S URVEY : G RADUATE S TUDENT T ECHNOLOGY U SE (E NGLISH 584) 8 surveyed Computer Ownership: 8 owned computers Computer Operating System: 4 Windows; 3 Mac; 1 Linux Mobile Device Ownership: 1 iPad; 4 iPods; 1 iPhone; 1 Kindle; 1 netbook Wiﬁ at Home: 7 iTunes Account: 8
I NITIAL S URVEY : I NSTRUCTORT ECHNOLOGY U SE (E NGLISH 602) 18 surveyed Computer Ownership: 18 owned computers Computer Operating System: 13 Windows; 5 Mac Mobile Device Ownership: 9 iPods; 2 iPod Touches; 2 mobile reading devices; 2 netbooks; 2 iPhones Wiﬁ at Home: 5 of 7 had wiﬁ at home (ﬁrst semester data not available) iTunes Account: 15
W HY D ID IT M ATTER ?Graduate students and instructors came to the projectwith a relatively stable and accessible technologicalinfrastructure.The Linux user need to consult with ETS to installiTunes on his computer.
D EVICE A NALYSESWe collected data from 33 iPads (11 were used byinstructors and 23 by undergraduate students),focusing on 4 areas: iPad Settings. We assessed whether students and instructors installed the Penn State VPN client; customized their wallpapers; uploaded songs, videos, and photos; downloaded apps; installed the iOS 4.2 update; and changed other defaults. iPad Apps Installed by Apple. We checked the number of Safari bookmarks; what types of photos and audio ﬁles; if and how the Notes app was used; and how many outstanding updates the App Store displayed.
D EVICE A NALYSES ( CONT .)iPad Apps for Class Use. We assessed whether usersdownloaded iBooks besides the course textbook; if they usednotes, bookmarks, and highlighting in the course textbook;what sorts of documents they used in iAnnotate PDF andPages; if they set up BlogPress; and if instructors usedKeynote.iPad Apps for Personal Use. We assessed whether users re-organized apps (their order, what was in the dock), and whatsorts of apps users downloaded.
W HAT D ID W E L EARN ?The majority of people did notadjust default settings.The majority of people did notorganize their apps.The majority of people did notstray from uses prescribed by thecourses.How can we encourage studentsand teachers to possess,personalize, and test institutionaltechnologies in ambitious ways?
T HEMES T OWARD C ONCLUSIONSMobility and WiﬁOther LiteraciesSecond ScreenClassroom DesignSense of OwnershipTask SizeAnnotation and CollaborationStatic versus Dynamic SoftwareElectronic versus Print Books Technical Communication
M OBILITY AND W IFIMany of the functions of the iPad depend uponconnectivity. This became an issue: Many students do not have wiﬁ in their homes. Campus wiﬁ is sometimes spotty, and non-existent in the residence halls. Students and teachers made special trips to McDonalds, Starbucks, and Barnes & Noble in order to use their iPads. This situation raises questions about integrating a device into institutional structures, personal access to other, connected technologies (wiﬁ), and the development of mobile workers.
O THER L ITERACIESHow students used, "Having made ancustomized, and investment with myintegrated the iPad laptop into learning howdepended, in large part, to do all of the tasks I’mon their attachment and interested in, I have aaccess to other devices hard time wanting toand activities, and their invest further energy inown comfort with learning a new system toexploration. do the same tasks in a less efﬁcient and less Students say natural (to me) manner."
S ECOND S CREENStudents often used "The iPad becomes a holdingtheir iPads in place or starting point for projects that are reﬁned orconjunction with laptop completed on other devices."and desktop computers,as a "second screen" ofsorts. "I love sitting my iPad in the keyboard dock and have the"I liked having the document Twitter application up whileI was analyzing open on my on my desktop computer incomputer for reference." my apartment." Students say
C LASSROOM D ESIGNStudents in a classroom whereevery seat has a computer: turned away from their iPads often; used computers for classroom activities, like quizzes.Students in a classroom wherecomputers are difﬁcult to access: used their iPads throughout class; used iPads for classroom activities, like quizzes.
S ENSE OF O WNERSHIPExploration was conditioned The app structure was alsoby comfort level and sense of alienating for many students,ownership. Many students as the ﬁle structure was lessdidnt stray far from standard apparent, making ownershipconﬁgurations and practices. of ﬁles feel less secure.Many expressed concerns that "The ﬁle structure seems to bethey did not own the device, difﬁcult too. I mean, in orderso they invested less into it. to upload and download documents, we need to have SugarSync and theres not Students say really a way to organize the ﬁles within the iPad."
T ASK S IZESmaller tasks (emails, "I have found myself using the iPad for pretty muchquick research, note- everything else (sending shorttaking) were often emails, browsing the web,favored over longer etc.). In fact, I vastly prefer ittasks (writing papers, to a regular computer for simply browsing onlinetedious formatting, forums or checking theheavy research). weather. There is no boot time and the touch interface almost feels more involved than the GUI-based mouse metaphor." Students say
A NNOTATION AND C OLLABORATIONStudents generally ". . . I like getting theenjoyed activities that feedback directly on theinvolved easy paper. You are able to write directly on the paper andannotation and/or on the exact place thatcollaboration of some needs editing. This allowssort. for a lot less confusion, since comments are not all at the bottom of the document or even just told to me verbally." Students say
S TATIC VERSUS D YNAMIC S OFTWAREKey shift in software:From institutional software control with remote, unnoticedupdates, and institutional supportto individual software with pushed updates, remote, sometimesunhelpful or non-existent supportconstant shifts, need for ﬂexibility, and ongoing functionallearning.
E LECTRONIC VERSUS P RINT B OOKS 2/3 of students would choose a print book over an e- book if the price were the same. But it can be difﬁcult to separate out problems with e-books and problems with their devices. ". . . three improvements—providing"I ﬁnd myself reading the the ability to take notes, improvedelectronic version of the book image quality, and the utilization ofmuch more than I would have media—would make for a muchanticipated." more useful textbook." ". . . a large part of me still desires the ability to Students say touch and turn a page and write notes in my own handwriting in the margins."
C HANGES TO T ECHNICAL C OMMUNICATIONMobile and distributed work environments and ﬁlestorage and sharingNew, distributed sources of information (e.g., reviewson blogs rather than descriptions of apps)Resources now involve collaborative changes andcomments from readers
Y ES AND N OWithout training, practice time, and support, planning andteaching a class around the iPad will be difﬁcult.Many students will not have the at-home technologyrequired to use all of the iPads capabilities.Many of the iPads features and applications are notreliable enough to be depended upon for essentialclassroom activities.Generally speaking, our instructional approaches andinstitutional spaces have not been developed with mobiledevices in mind.
G ENERAL R ECOMMENDATIONTo the extent possible, plan for technological,pedagogical, and institutional challenges. Our handout includes key planning questions in eachof these areas.
S PECIFIC R ECOMMENDATIONSUse iPads in courses that require less technical design workuntil more robust apps are available.Integrate iPads more fully into students academic lives byusing them in multiple classes at once.Involve students in the development of uses for andtrouble-shooting of the iPad.Re-imagine assignments and classroom activities that candraw on speciﬁc affordances of the iPad and apps.Dont assume there are apps that support the work youwant to do in courses
Q UESTIONS ?Contact Michael Faris (email@example.com), Patricia Gael (firstname.lastname@example.org), or Stuart Selber (email@example.com)