More efficient machinesthrough model baseddesignWim SymensSeminar « Produceer metminder energie »November 8, 2011, Ghent
Flanders’ Mechatronics Technology Centre+   FMTC vzw:        Non-profit organization        Started in 2003        In 2...
Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and ...
Motivation and needs    Scarcity of energy    + Societal awareness         Consider energetic impact of the things you ar...
Motivation and needs     Energy optimization in industry can result in     gigantic savings                               ...
Motivation and needs    Reduce energy consumption during the use phase    + In general         Avoid useless energy consu...
Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and ...
Model based design approach    Model based analysis and design    + Systematic approach necessary to realize optimized des...
Model based design approach    Towards an integrated design environment    + Describe energetic behavior of components, ne...
Model based design approach    Typically iterative process                                             Design for energy e...
Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and ...
Example: badminton robot    Demonstration application    + In 2009 FMTC decided to build machine for demonstration purpose...
Example: badminton robot    Badminton robot: system    + Developed by FMTC in 2009 – see movie                            ...
Example: badminton robot    First attempt to reduce energy consumption    + Engineering reasoning of main losses         ...
Example: badminton robot    Goal of the analysis                                     + Analyze energy                     ...
Example: badminton robot    First step: focus on linear motor    + Analysis for specific situation: robot is on left posit...
Example: badminton robot    Badminton robot: energetic model made                     Trajectory             Position     ...
Example: badminton robot    Badminton robot: parameter tuning    + From catalogues         e.g. motor          parameters...
Example: badminton robot    Badminton robot: energy analysis (I)            Energy flow without additionnal capacitance - ...
Example: badminton robot    Badminton robot: energy analysis (II)    + Energy flow analysis results         Main loss can...
Example: badminton robot    Badminton robot: potential of controller    improvement                                       ...
Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and ...
Do it all on your own?    How to obtain models?    + Available libraries    + Make them yourself         Measurements    ...
Do it all on your own?    Virtual components    + Co- modeling approach      offers formalized framework      for interact...
Do it all on your own?    Example: motor models hitting    mechanism badminton robot    + Initially motor-reductor selecte...
Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and ...
Summary and conclusion    More efficient machines through model based    design    +   Motivation: Energy reduction for en...
Summary and conclusion    Energy Flow Visualization         3~       Electrical En. waste       Mechanical En. waste      ...
Acknowledgement+   The research leading to these results has received funding from the European    Union Seventh Framework...
Questions            © FMTC vzw 2011 • p30
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Produceer met minder energie model based design for ee - wim symens

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Produceer met minder energie model based design for ee - wim symens

  1. 1. More efficient machinesthrough model baseddesignWim SymensSeminar « Produceer metminder energie »November 8, 2011, Ghent
  2. 2. Flanders’ Mechatronics Technology Centre+ FMTC vzw:  Non-profit organization  Started in 2003  In 2010: +3.7 M€ income with +30 people  Membership for Flemish companies  Business outside Flanders as well+ Our market: Machine building and mechatronic component industry+ Our competence: Mechatronics = integration of electronics and software in mechanical systems And this way improve the performance/cost ratio of machines+ Our business: Application oriented research projects © FMTC vzw 2011 • p2
  3. 3. Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and conclusions © FMTC vzw 2011 • p3
  4. 4. Motivation and needs Scarcity of energy + Societal awareness  Consider energetic impact of the things you are doing  Be ‘green’  Increasingly stringent legislation + Economic angle  Increasing prices for energy  Contribution of cost of consumed energy during use phase of machine in Total Cost of Ownership increases + As a results  Need to reduce energetic footprint machines  Energy efficiency (during use phase) becomes a differentiating performance characteristic © FMTC vzw 2011 • p4
  5. 5. Motivation and needs Energy optimization in industry can result in gigantic savings 1% saving Energy Consumption Flanders 2007 Other = 2,4 PJ/a Industry = 677 GWh/a 38,4% = 100,7 million 53% €/a = 35 kton CO2/a Households Industry Agriculture Transport Chemistry Trade & Services 19% 61,6% 3% Totaal = 1197 PJ (1015J) 9% 16% Source: MIRA © FMTC vzw 2011 • p5
  6. 6. Motivation and needs Reduce energy consumption during the use phase + In general  Avoid useless energy consumption!  Reduce stand-by losses  Use energy efficient components, e.g. energy-efficient motors  If the process generates energy, recuperate it or reuse it  Braking energy  Waste heat  (Use efficiently generated energy) + Applied to (complex) production machines  Component level  Use energy efficient components  However: might cause performance changes, e.g. electrical motor for dynamic applications  System level  Allows taking into account interaction between components in machine  Most opportunities, but less straightforward © FMTC vzw 2011 • p6
  7. 7. Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and conclusions © FMTC vzw 2011 • p7
  8. 8. Model based design approach Model based analysis and design + Systematic approach necessary to realize optimized design + Model based approach offers designers the opportunity to quickly evaluate the impact of design changes  Describe energetic behavior components mathematically  Combine components  Simulate machine behavior + Needs to be embedded in design tools for easy use  Various (CAE) softwares are already used during machine design, e.g for  Strength and stiffness calculations (FE)  Collision avoidance  (Extend) tools with capabilities for energetic analysis  Simulate energy flows  Identify the (location of) energy losses  Evaluate alternatives © FMTC vzw 2011 • p8
  9. 9. Model based design approach Towards an integrated design environment + Describe energetic behavior of components, next to functional behavior  Energy and power next to forces, displacements, etc. + Softwares exist that provide this functionality  E.g. LMS.Amesim, Matlab/Simscape software + Efficient and effective visualization of models and results is crucial © FMTC vzw 2011 • p9
  10. 10. Model based design approach Typically iterative process Design for energy efficiency + Unrealistic and unnecessary to Identification of most relevant phenomena model and analyze the whole the machine Modeling and analysis + Understand where energy is of most relevant components used in the machine  Existing machine Identification of losses  Can do measurements  New machine  Previous experience Improved design  Stepped approach: from rough analysis to detailed analysis  Analyze various scenarios / Energy consumption in concepts in simulation operation © FMTC vzw 2011 • p10
  11. 11. Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and conclusions © FMTC vzw 2011 • p11
  12. 12. Example: badminton robot Demonstration application + In 2009 FMTC decided to build machine for demonstration purposes + Machine should include fast dynamics, wireless sensors and interaction between different systems + A badminton playing robot was selected + First version realized following a ‘standard’ engineering design approach using off-the-shelf components  Design based on maximal forces / stresses  Energy considerations not taken into account  Linear motor / rotary motors / cameras  Time optimal controller implementation + First version (2009) has limited work space + Currently a second version with full work space is being designed © FMTC vzw 2011 • p12
  13. 13. Example: badminton robot Badminton robot: system + Developed by FMTC in 2009 – see movie © FMTC vzw 2011 • p13
  14. 14. Example: badminton robot First attempt to reduce energy consumption + Engineering reasoning of main losses  Robot is mainly accelerating and decelerating masses  Deceleration energy is ‘burned’ in braking resistor + Reduce energy consumption?  Recuperate braking energy and reuse this energy + Capacitors added to system + Very little reduction in energy consumption (under 5%)! + Why is this so? + More systematic analysis needed! © FMTC vzw 2011 • p14
  15. 15. Example: badminton robot Goal of the analysis + Analyze energy consumption + Identify losses + Reduce losses Rot. Motor M2 + How? Linear Motor  Modeling of drive components:  Linear Motor  2 Rotary Motors (M1,2)  Controller  Mechanics Rot. Motor M1  Analyze loss during operational conditions  Improve where possible © FMTC vzw 2011 • p15
  16. 16. Example: badminton robot First step: focus on linear motor + Analysis for specific situation: robot is on left position of the linear motor guide and has to move to the right position © FMTC vzw 2011 • p16
  17. 17. Example: badminton robot Badminton robot: energetic model made Trajectory Position Target generator Controller Plant position v/m/s Trajectory generator / PTOS parameters Amax * α • Amax : maximal acceleration, linked to the actuator limitations. Amax Amax • α: acceleration discount, allows the limitation of the deceleration torque © FMTC vzw 2011 • p17
  18. 18. Example: badminton robot Badminton robot: parameter tuning + From catalogues  e.g. motor parameters + Experimentally  e.g. friction parameters (no information available!) © FMTC vzw 2011 • p18
  19. 19. Example: badminton robot Badminton robot: energy analysis (I) Energy flow without additionnal capacitance - Simulation + 1: start + 2: overshoot + 3: constant velocity + 4: stop Region Region Region Region     © FMTC vzw 2011 • p19
  20. 20. Example: badminton robot Badminton robot: energy analysis (II) + Energy flow analysis results  Main loss can be attributed to copper losses and friction losses + Solution?  Reduce friction losses  Other guides? Is being further investigated  Reduce copper loss  ~I2; I~F; F~acceleration => reduce acceleration! + Current implementation  Time optimal  Is it relevant to exploit spare time to improve efficiency? + Ad-hoc analysis  Vary parameters of PTOS algorithm  Amax: maximum acceleration  α: limits the deceleration torque © FMTC vzw 2011 • p20
  21. 21. Example: badminton robot Badminton robot: potential of controller improvement [s] + Simulation  47% more energy needed for only 14% efficiency improvement + Experiment  55 % more energy needed for only 10% efficiency improvement © FMTC vzw 2011 • p21
  22. 22. Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and conclusions © FMTC vzw 2011 • p22
  23. 23. Do it all on your own? How to obtain models? + Available libraries + Make them yourself  Measurements  Analytically + Ask them from third parties  Suppliers!  Virtual Components! © FMTC vzw 2011 • p23
  24. 24. Do it all on your own? Virtual components + Co- modeling approach offers formalized framework for interacting with suppliers + Various formats information possible  Formula’s with parameters  Look-up tables  Encrypted models + Encoding of information might be needed  Functionality to be provided by CAE producer + Opportunity for supplier to show their products are most efficient + Also stimulates interaction with R&D institutions + Similar developments in other sectors, e.g. automotive © FMTC vzw 2011 • p24
  25. 25. Do it all on your own? Example: motor models hitting mechanism badminton robot + Initially motor-reductor selected based on max. torque and speed + Evaluated different alternatives experimentally (Maxwell, Faul- haber, Smartmotor)  Very low overall efficiency  Initial selection was not most efficient (+/- 5% increase of efficiency possible) + Discussion with suppliers on- going to provide information on energy consumption motor- reductor combination using Virtual Component concept  Should allow calculation application specific energy consumption © FMTC vzw 2011 • p25
  26. 26. Outline+ Motivation and needs+ Model based design approach+ Example: badminton robot+ Do it all on your own?+ Summary and conclusions © FMTC vzw 2011 • p26
  27. 27. Summary and conclusion More efficient machines through model based design + Motivation: Energy reduction for environmental and economic reasons + Approach  Take energy consumption into account on system level  Follow mechatronic model based approach  Interact with suppliers + Application on badminton robot  Allowed analyzing the energy ‘sinks’  Copper losses!  Friction losses!  (Ad-hoc) Energy-performance trade-off analysis  Showed potential of tuning PTOS controller + Further actions  Extend analysis capabilities, e.g. energy flow analysis dash-board instead of bars/piecharts © FMTC vzw 2011 • p27
  28. 28. Summary and conclusion Energy Flow Visualization 3~ Electrical En. waste Mechanical En. waste Electrical En. Storage Mechanical En. Storage Electrical useful Energy Mechanical useful Energy © FMTC vzw 2011 • p28
  29. 29. Acknowledgement+ The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n°247982– ESTOMAD+ See www.estomad.org for more info © FMTC vzw 2011 • p29
  30. 30. Questions © FMTC vzw 2011 • p30

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