Sirris Materials Day 2010 K.U.Leuven - SLC - Compostie materials, trends and challenges

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Sirris Materials Day 2010 K.U.Leuven - SLC - Compostie materials, trends and challenges

  1. 1. Composite Materials: trends and challenges Ignaas Verpoest Composite Materials Group, Department Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, K.U.Leuven and Sirris-Leuven Composites Application LabIV/20100429 1
  2. 2. Composites: what?IV/20100429 2
  3. 3. Composites: why? • Ashby’s diagrams: Plate bending Modulus - Density Ceramics 1000 Composites 100 Natural Young’s modulus E (GPa) materials Metals 10 Polymers 1 10-1 10-2 foams 10-3 Elastomers 10-4 Tension 0.01 0.1 1 10 Density, ρ (Mg/m3)IV/20100429 3
  4. 4. Composites: why? Conclusion: High specific strength and stiffness lighter structures Less energy consumption during manufacturing ànd useIV/20100429 4
  5. 5. Composites: how important? • Annual production of fibres for composites (estimations): – Glass fibres: 250.000 ton – Carbon fibres: 30.000 ton – Natural fibres: 40.000 ton – …compared to • Steel: 800.000.000 ton • Polymers: 120.000.000 ton • Annual growth rates of (some) composite applications – thermoplastic matrix composites : 8 % (now 37% market share) – closed moulding (RTM, RTM-light, infusion): 13 % yearly (now 10 % market share in EU) – Aerospace structures: +11% p.a. – Wind energy composites: +16 % p.a.IV/20100429 5
  6. 6. Composites: how important?IV/20100429 6
  7. 7. Trends and challenges TRENDS CHALLENGES 1. Proliferation of carbon fibres 2. Intelligent fibre architectures 3. Sustainable composites 4. Automated manufacturing 5. Recycling 6. …and nano?IV/20100429 7
  8. 8. Trend 1: the proliferation of carbon fibres • Carbon fibres: – started in aerospace in ’80s – Developed into sports and industrial applications in ’90’s – Are now penetrating into ‘high volume applications’ because of • Long term perspective for stable costs (possibly decreasing) • Strong emphasis on sustainable, hence low energy consumption products • Example: BMW decided – Their “city car” (electrical or hybrid) will be a carbon fibre composite car – They will build their own carbon fibre manufacturing plant (together with SGL)IV/20100429 8
  9. 9. Trend 2: intelligent fibre architectures • From individual textile layers… to structurally stitched components! 3D Weaves Knitted fabrics 2D Weaves BraidsIV/20100429 9
  10. 10. Trend 3: Sustainable composites • Natural fibres: strong increase in • Developments for composites • Industrial interest • Biopolymers polymer Bio-based Resin processing Polymer or Composite – Preferred route should Material recycling • No compete with chemical or (bio)catalytic composting food modification Controlled- release • Add little Gluten Compost Nitrogen Fertilizer ‘chemistry’ industrial agriculture processing Wheat StarchIV/20100429 10
  11. 11. Trend 4: automated manufacturing • Driven by trend to ‘high volume applications’ – Already happening in • Sports equipment • Aerospace: – at hundreds of composite aeroplanes/year – Thousands for similar components have to be produced – Hence automation is needed! – Soon expected in automotive!IV/20100429 11
  12. 12. Trend 5: recycling • Necessity for ‘high volume applications’ • Two developments: – Glass fibre composites: • Trend towards thermoplastic composites • Potential for alternative fibres which improve recyclability: – Basalt fibres – Natural fibres – Steel fibres – Carbon fibre composites: • Processes for recovery of carbon fibres are ready to operate!IV/20100429 12
  13. 13. Trend 6: and nano?IV/20100429 13
  14. 14. Trend 6: … and nano? Meso Fabric architecture stiffness MicroFibers inside yarns Cracks in transverse ply Debonding at matrix/fiber interface failure resistance Nano Structure of matrix Multiphase epoxy Carbon nanotubesIV/20100429 4 14
  15. 15. Trends and challenges TRENDS CHALLENGES 1. Proliferation of carbon fibres 2. Intelligent fibre architectures 3. Sustainable composites 4. Automated manufacturing 5. Recycling 6. …and nano?IV/20100429 15

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