Graphene - a new material opening new
opportunities - or just the next hype?
Dr. Peter Ramaekers

© sirris | www.sirris.be...
Will graphene ever get beyond the ‘sticky tape‘??
Nobel Prize in 2010

(Graphene Mechanical Exfoliation from
graphite)

…....
Research on graphene beyond the ‘sticky tape‘??
We are out of
We are out of
tape – no more
tape!
graphene
research!

© Sir...
Content









Carbon nanostructures – what is graphene?
Graphene properties
Short-term industrial applications
...
Graphene: the 2D graphite, vs. diamond
Carbon nanostructures:
Graphite 3D: ‘chicken wire’ basic units

Graphene 2D sheets:...
Graphene properties: ‘ideal’
Graphene: 2D graphite - but much more
performing:









Graphene is the thinnest k...
More carbon nanostructures
From 2D graphene sheets with hexagonal
carbon to:
Fullerene
0D

Carbon
Nanotubes 1D

© Sirris |...
In fact, graphene is not exact 2D, but
curved

© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |

5-12-2013

8
What will be the short-term industrial
applications?
7500 patents filed, and a ton of potential floating
around…, but:
 W...
Real short-term applications??
Graphene Could Be the Key to Strong Condoms
(press release Nov. 21, 2013: http://guardianlv...
Using the ‘bendability’ of graphene
Shortly: LCD screens with graphene, bendable watches and smartphones, sensors in texti...
Replacement of carbon black in high-strength
rubbers and tyres

Commercially available in 2014
(Source: IDTechEx Conferenc...
Let’s do some reality checks …

The real question is:
Will graphene follow Carbon Nano Tube R&D:
more than 10 years of dev...
Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry

Industry interest is fragmented:
wide range of interesting properties/com...
Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry –
options for synthesis
(Source: IDTEchEx 2013)

Mechanical
Exfoliation
Epi...
Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry –
options for synthesis

Comparison of synthesis methods:
Method:

Mechanic...
Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – you
have to choose where to invest in R&D
The market divides along produc...
Reality check no. 2: ideal graphene does not exist !
 Oxygen content, layer numbers, microstructural defects, sheet/flake...
Reality check no. 3: Even if you have chosen your
technology/market combination it is difficult to achieve
reproducibility...
Market view
 Conductive inks

o Low hanging fruit, technologically
o Low cost, esp. replacing (expensive) nano-Ag inks
o ...
Market view - ITO replacement

Poor performance up till now (durability), ITO works better, limited area,
late entrant, fl...
Market view – graphene reinforcement in
polymers and polymer composites
Graphene-based fillers  property enhancement of t...
Market view – graphene reinforcement in
polymers and (shape memory and selfhealing) polymer composites

© Sirris | www.sir...
Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |
|

6/12/2013

24
Market view – graphene reinforcement in
polymers and polymer composites

Reinforcement by
mixtures of MWCNT
and Graphene
p...
Conclusions
a new material opening new opportunities - or
just the next hype?

© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |...
The hype cycle

(Source:IDTechEx
2013)

© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |

5-12-2013

27
Market Entrance
Academia is in the driving seat:

 Universities and centres are driving
commercialisation forward
Resear...
R&D leads the way
“Europe invests 1 Bn € in FP 7 Graphene Flagship to become
Graphene Valley”
 “South Korea to spend US$...
What will be the graphene future?
Looking into the crystal ball

© Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be |

5-12-2013

3...
Expectations by industry about large-scale
applications

(Source: www.altenergystocks.com )

© Sirris | www.sirris.be | in...
Expectations by industry about large-scale
applications
 Concerns on toxicology (inflammation risk, cf.
carbon black and ...
Follow-up
Two follow-up projects in 2014 @ Sirris:
1)
2)

Printing of conductive layers and patterns
Nanofillers in polyme...
Peter Ramaekers, senior materials co-ordinator
Peter.ramaekers@sirris.be
+32 498 919468

http://www.linkedin.com/profile/v...
http://www.sirris.be
http://techniline.sirris.be
#sirris
http://www.linkedin.com/company/sirris
© sirris | www.sirris.be |...
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Sirris Materials Workshop - 5 december 2013 - Graphene - a new material opening new opportunities, or just the next hype?
Dr Peter Ramaekers, Sirris

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2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-graphene-ramaekers

  1. 1. Graphene - a new material opening new opportunities - or just the next hype? Dr. Peter Ramaekers © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 1
  2. 2. Will graphene ever get beyond the ‘sticky tape‘?? Nobel Prize in 2010 (Graphene Mechanical Exfoliation from graphite) …. and now? © sirris 2011 | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5/12/2013 2
  3. 3. Research on graphene beyond the ‘sticky tape‘?? We are out of We are out of tape – no more tape! graphene research! © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 3
  4. 4. Content         Carbon nanostructures – what is graphene? Graphene properties Short-term industrial applications Reality checks Market view – product/market combinations Conclusions What will be the graphene future? Follow-up @ Sirris © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 4
  5. 5. Graphene: the 2D graphite, vs. diamond Carbon nanostructures: Graphite 3D: ‘chicken wire’ basic units Graphene 2D sheets: hexagonal carbon – sp2 bonding Diamond 3D: sp3 bonding © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 5
  6. 6. Graphene properties: ‘ideal’ Graphene: 2D graphite - but much more performing:         Graphene is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured (up to the theoretical limit); Graphene is bendable, and can elastically stretch up to 20% of its length; Graphene is a very efficient electrical conductor and can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than copper at room temperature; Graphene charge carriers have the highest intrinsic mobility (100 times more than Si); Graphene has the best thermal conductivity of any material (>2000 W/mK), outperforming diamond; Graphene is the most impermeable material ever discovered (even for He atoms); Graphene has a very large surface area (2700 m2 per gram); Transparency. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 6
  7. 7. More carbon nanostructures From 2D graphene sheets with hexagonal carbon to: Fullerene 0D Carbon Nanotubes 1D © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 7
  8. 8. In fact, graphene is not exact 2D, but curved © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 8
  9. 9. What will be the short-term industrial applications? 7500 patents filed, and a ton of potential floating around…, but:  Will the material go beyond (‘jumping on the hype’) fancy applications such as: Less than 1 mg Graphene per racket …. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 9
  10. 10. Real short-term applications?? Graphene Could Be the Key to Strong Condoms (press release Nov. 21, 2013: http://guardianlv.com/2013/11/graphene- could- be- the- key- to- strongcondoms/)  The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have called for the invention of a better condom. The prize is a $100,000 grant. Graphene condom test: blend of latex with graphene (Source: Dr Aravind Vijayaraghavan, National Graphene Institute at Manchester University) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 10
  11. 11. Using the ‘bendability’ of graphene Shortly: LCD screens with graphene, bendable watches and smartphones, sensors in textile (smart clothing), .... © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 11
  12. 12. Replacement of carbon black in high-strength rubbers and tyres Commercially available in 2014 (Source: IDTechEx Conference, Santa Clara USA 2013) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 12
  13. 13. Let’s do some reality checks … The real question is: Will graphene follow Carbon Nano Tube R&D: more than 10 years of development needed before high-volume industrial applications are being introduced? And no real ‘killer’ applications …. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 13
  14. 14. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry Industry interest is fragmented: wide range of interesting properties/combinations of properties Widely differing options for synthesis and manufacturing (ranging from printing over CVD to fillers in polymers and composites) – GRAPHENE is ‘A PRODUCT BY PROCESS’ © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 14
  15. 15. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – options for synthesis (Source: IDTEchEx 2013) Mechanical Exfoliation Epitaxial on SiC CVD Q U A L I T Y C O S T Oxidation/Reduction SCALABILITY 5-12-2013 © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 15
  16. 16. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – options for synthesis Comparison of synthesis methods: Method: Mechanical Exfoliation Reduction of graphene oxide Epitaxial growth on SiC CVD growth on Ni, Cu, Fe, Co Size 10-100 μm > 15 cm > 10 cm > 15 cm Mobility best bad high high Transfer yes yes no yes Scalability no yes not yet yes Applications no yes little most (Source: Sukang Bae et al., Phys. Scr. 2012, 014024) 5-12-2013 © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 16
  17. 17. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – you have to choose where to invest in R&D The market divides along production and graphene type, invest only after ample consideration!: RFID and Packaging Batteries & supercapacitors Composites Plasma Scotch Tape Oxidation Reduction Liquid Phase Exfoliation CVD ITO replacement Optical & Laser applications High-frequency electronics © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 17
  18. 18. Reality check no. 2: ideal graphene does not exist !  Oxygen content, layer numbers, microstructural defects, sheet/flake size, purity, etc., all impact graphene quality and characteristics  Different material properties depending on where you look and measure  If you buy black ‘graphene’ powder how do you know it is graphene (and which variation)? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 18
  19. 19. Reality check no. 3: Even if you have chosen your technology/market combination it is difficult to achieve reproducibility of properties  Oxygen content, layer numbers, microstructural defects, orientation, sheet/flake size, purity, etc. all impact graphene quality and characteristics © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 19
  20. 20. Market view  Conductive inks o Low hanging fruit, technologically o Low cost, esp. replacing (expensive) nano-Ag inks o Printing using a variety of (proven) techniques o Product replacement:  many other cost competitive techniques  tough ‘business math’: no real market opportunity?  limited conductivity puts it on par with ‘enhanced’ carbon black paste/ink © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 20
  21. 21. Market view - ITO replacement Poor performance up till now (durability), ITO works better, limited area, late entrant, flexible applications not yet defined? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 21
  22. 22. Market view – graphene reinforcement in polymers and polymer composites Graphene-based fillers  property enhancement of thermoplastics, focusing on optimizing mechanical properties (stiffness, strength), and thermal conductivity © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 22
  23. 23. Market view – graphene reinforcement in polymers and (shape memory and selfhealing) polymer composites © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 23
  24. 24. Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | | 6/12/2013 24
  25. 25. Market view – graphene reinforcement in polymers and polymer composites Reinforcement by mixtures of MWCNT and Graphene platelets  synergetic effects for performance/ achieving good dispersion. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 25
  26. 26. Conclusions a new material opening new opportunities - or just the next hype? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 26
  27. 27. The hype cycle (Source:IDTechEx 2013) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 27
  28. 28. Market Entrance Academia is in the driving seat:  Universities and centres are driving commercialisation forward Research money is investment to pay dividend in terms of commercialisation progress Companies move up the value chain into intermediary positions (supplier of inks, graphene raw material, polymers, composites, …) Value will migrate to formulators (focus on ‘low hanging fruit’ to survive), volume demand from OEMs and early adopters remains sluggish THERE ARE NO KILLER APPLICATIONS AS YET! © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 28
  29. 29. R&D leads the way “Europe invests 1 Bn € in FP 7 Graphene Flagship to become Graphene Valley”  “South Korea to spend US$40 Million on Graphene development”  “Cambridge’s new ₤24 Million Graphene centre to bring flexible devices to the market”  “Osborne invests ₤21 Million in Graphene race”  “Graphene NanoChem plc to float on Aim”  …… US$40 Million+ investment in Graphene companies (in 2012); most companies in pre-growth stage © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 29
  30. 30. What will be the graphene future? Looking into the crystal ball © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 30
  31. 31. Expectations by industry about large-scale applications (Source: www.altenergystocks.com ) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 31
  32. 32. Expectations by industry about large-scale applications  Concerns on toxicology (inflammation risk, cf. carbon black and CNT): research is just starting.  Recyclability? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 32
  33. 33. Follow-up Two follow-up projects in 2014 @ Sirris: 1) 2) Printing of conductive layers and patterns Nanofillers in polymers and polymer based composites – realising prototyping applications For both projects we are looking for interested companies (willing to take place in ‘user group’). Contact the presenter. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 33
  34. 34. Peter Ramaekers, senior materials co-ordinator Peter.ramaekers@sirris.be +32 498 919468 http://www.linkedin.com/profile/v iew?id=16067242&trk=nav_re sponsive_tab_profile pramaekers11 © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13
  35. 35. http://www.sirris.be http://techniline.sirris.be #sirris http://www.linkedin.com/company/sirris © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13

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