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2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-graphene-ramaekers

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Sirris Materials Workshop - 5 december 2013 - Graphene - a new material opening new opportunities, or just the next hype?
Dr Peter Ramaekers, Sirris

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2013 12-05-sirris-materials-workshop-graphene-ramaekers

  1. 1. Graphene - a new material opening new opportunities - or just the next hype? Dr. Peter Ramaekers © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 1
  2. 2. Will graphene ever get beyond the ‘sticky tape‘?? Nobel Prize in 2010 (Graphene Mechanical Exfoliation from graphite) …. and now? © sirris 2011 | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5/12/2013 2
  3. 3. Research on graphene beyond the ‘sticky tape‘?? We are out of We are out of tape – no more tape! graphene research! © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 3
  4. 4. Content         Carbon nanostructures – what is graphene? Graphene properties Short-term industrial applications Reality checks Market view – product/market combinations Conclusions What will be the graphene future? Follow-up @ Sirris © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13 4
  5. 5. Graphene: the 2D graphite, vs. diamond Carbon nanostructures: Graphite 3D: ‘chicken wire’ basic units Graphene 2D sheets: hexagonal carbon – sp2 bonding Diamond 3D: sp3 bonding © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 5
  6. 6. Graphene properties: ‘ideal’ Graphene: 2D graphite - but much more performing:         Graphene is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured (up to the theoretical limit); Graphene is bendable, and can elastically stretch up to 20% of its length; Graphene is a very efficient electrical conductor and can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than copper at room temperature; Graphene charge carriers have the highest intrinsic mobility (100 times more than Si); Graphene has the best thermal conductivity of any material (>2000 W/mK), outperforming diamond; Graphene is the most impermeable material ever discovered (even for He atoms); Graphene has a very large surface area (2700 m2 per gram); Transparency. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 6
  7. 7. More carbon nanostructures From 2D graphene sheets with hexagonal carbon to: Fullerene 0D Carbon Nanotubes 1D © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 7
  8. 8. In fact, graphene is not exact 2D, but curved © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 8
  9. 9. What will be the short-term industrial applications? 7500 patents filed, and a ton of potential floating around…, but:  Will the material go beyond (‘jumping on the hype’) fancy applications such as: Less than 1 mg Graphene per racket …. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 9
  10. 10. Real short-term applications?? Graphene Could Be the Key to Strong Condoms (press release Nov. 21, 2013: http://guardianlv.com/2013/11/graphene- could- be- the- key- to- strongcondoms/)  The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have called for the invention of a better condom. The prize is a $100,000 grant. Graphene condom test: blend of latex with graphene (Source: Dr Aravind Vijayaraghavan, National Graphene Institute at Manchester University) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 10
  11. 11. Using the ‘bendability’ of graphene Shortly: LCD screens with graphene, bendable watches and smartphones, sensors in textile (smart clothing), .... © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 11
  12. 12. Replacement of carbon black in high-strength rubbers and tyres Commercially available in 2014 (Source: IDTechEx Conference, Santa Clara USA 2013) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 12
  13. 13. Let’s do some reality checks … The real question is: Will graphene follow Carbon Nano Tube R&D: more than 10 years of development needed before high-volume industrial applications are being introduced? And no real ‘killer’ applications …. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 13
  14. 14. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry Industry interest is fragmented: wide range of interesting properties/combinations of properties Widely differing options for synthesis and manufacturing (ranging from printing over CVD to fillers in polymers and composites) – GRAPHENE is ‘A PRODUCT BY PROCESS’ © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 14
  15. 15. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – options for synthesis (Source: IDTEchEx 2013) Mechanical Exfoliation Epitaxial on SiC CVD Q U A L I T Y C O S T Oxidation/Reduction SCALABILITY 5-12-2013 © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 15
  16. 16. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – options for synthesis Comparison of synthesis methods: Method: Mechanical Exfoliation Reduction of graphene oxide Epitaxial growth on SiC CVD growth on Ni, Cu, Fe, Co Size 10-100 μm > 15 cm > 10 cm > 15 cm Mobility best bad high high Transfer yes yes no yes Scalability no yes not yet yes Applications no yes little most (Source: Sukang Bae et al., Phys. Scr. 2012, 014024) 5-12-2013 © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 16
  17. 17. Reality check no. 1: Graphene and the industry – you have to choose where to invest in R&D The market divides along production and graphene type, invest only after ample consideration!: RFID and Packaging Batteries & supercapacitors Composites Plasma Scotch Tape Oxidation Reduction Liquid Phase Exfoliation CVD ITO replacement Optical & Laser applications High-frequency electronics © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 17
  18. 18. Reality check no. 2: ideal graphene does not exist !  Oxygen content, layer numbers, microstructural defects, sheet/flake size, purity, etc., all impact graphene quality and characteristics  Different material properties depending on where you look and measure  If you buy black ‘graphene’ powder how do you know it is graphene (and which variation)? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 18
  19. 19. Reality check no. 3: Even if you have chosen your technology/market combination it is difficult to achieve reproducibility of properties  Oxygen content, layer numbers, microstructural defects, orientation, sheet/flake size, purity, etc. all impact graphene quality and characteristics © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 19
  20. 20. Market view  Conductive inks o Low hanging fruit, technologically o Low cost, esp. replacing (expensive) nano-Ag inks o Printing using a variety of (proven) techniques o Product replacement:  many other cost competitive techniques  tough ‘business math’: no real market opportunity?  limited conductivity puts it on par with ‘enhanced’ carbon black paste/ink © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 20
  21. 21. Market view - ITO replacement Poor performance up till now (durability), ITO works better, limited area, late entrant, flexible applications not yet defined? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 21
  22. 22. Market view – graphene reinforcement in polymers and polymer composites Graphene-based fillers  property enhancement of thermoplastics, focusing on optimizing mechanical properties (stiffness, strength), and thermal conductivity © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 22
  23. 23. Market view – graphene reinforcement in polymers and (shape memory and selfhealing) polymer composites © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 23
  24. 24. Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | | 6/12/2013 24
  25. 25. Market view – graphene reinforcement in polymers and polymer composites Reinforcement by mixtures of MWCNT and Graphene platelets  synergetic effects for performance/ achieving good dispersion. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 25
  26. 26. Conclusions a new material opening new opportunities - or just the next hype? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 26
  27. 27. The hype cycle (Source:IDTechEx 2013) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 27
  28. 28. Market Entrance Academia is in the driving seat:  Universities and centres are driving commercialisation forward Research money is investment to pay dividend in terms of commercialisation progress Companies move up the value chain into intermediary positions (supplier of inks, graphene raw material, polymers, composites, …) Value will migrate to formulators (focus on ‘low hanging fruit’ to survive), volume demand from OEMs and early adopters remains sluggish THERE ARE NO KILLER APPLICATIONS AS YET! © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 28
  29. 29. R&D leads the way “Europe invests 1 Bn € in FP 7 Graphene Flagship to become Graphene Valley”  “South Korea to spend US$40 Million on Graphene development”  “Cambridge’s new ₤24 Million Graphene centre to bring flexible devices to the market”  “Osborne invests ₤21 Million in Graphene race”  “Graphene NanoChem plc to float on Aim”  …… US$40 Million+ investment in Graphene companies (in 2012); most companies in pre-growth stage © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 29
  30. 30. What will be the graphene future? Looking into the crystal ball © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 30
  31. 31. Expectations by industry about large-scale applications (Source: www.altenergystocks.com ) © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 31
  32. 32. Expectations by industry about large-scale applications  Concerns on toxicology (inflammation risk, cf. carbon black and CNT): research is just starting.  Recyclability? © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 32
  33. 33. Follow-up Two follow-up projects in 2014 @ Sirris: 1) 2) Printing of conductive layers and patterns Nanofillers in polymers and polymer based composites – realising prototyping applications For both projects we are looking for interested companies (willing to take place in ‘user group’). Contact the presenter. © Sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5-12-2013 33
  34. 34. Peter Ramaekers, senior materials co-ordinator Peter.ramaekers@sirris.be +32 498 919468 http://www.linkedin.com/profile/v iew?id=16067242&trk=nav_re sponsive_tab_profile pramaekers11 © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13
  35. 35. http://www.sirris.be http://techniline.sirris.be #sirris http://www.linkedin.com/company/sirris © sirris | www.sirris.be | info@sirris.be | 5.12.13

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